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Bakery Products Bakery products includes bread, rolls, cookies, pies, pastries and muffins, which are usually prepared from flour or meal derived from some form of grain and cooked by dry heat process, especially in some kind of oven.
Health based bakery products Health based bakery products are the bakery products which results in special health benefits other than normal nutritional supply when consumed in adequate amount.
Types: Food for intolerances. Bakery products that contribute to a healthier life style. Bakery products required for specialized diet requirement.
Food intolerance is negative reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems The main food intolerances/allergies that affect the bakery industry are intolerances to gluten or an allergy to eggs.
Gluten intolerances or celiac disease is a lifelong illness that is caused by sensitivity to gluten. Gluten free baking is presented with the challenge of replicating the functionality of gluten in the absence of wheat fiber use
Gluten free bread is produced by replacing the flour with a mixture of fine rice fiber, potato starch and tapioca fiber. Xanthan gum is added to provide with structure and prevent crumblness.
Lactose is the double sugar found in milk. Milk can be easily replaced by using soy milk. Soy milk suitable for all baked products that require the addition of milk, including its use as a replacement for milk in custard based fillings.
Whipped dairy cream may be replaced by vegetable based “cream” filling. Soft or silken soybean curd can be successfully used to replace cream in cheese cakes. Soymilk
Most breads, pastries and biscuits or cookies can be made egg free by replacing the moisture content that is contributed by eggs with milk or other liquids. Cakes and sponge making are heavily reliant on the functional characteristics of eggs as a aerating medium.
Commercial egg replacers are made up of potato starch, tapioca fiber, chemical leavener and carbohydrate gum. Addition of lecithin into the product improves overall volume, texture and eating quality.
2.BAKERY PRODUCTS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO A HEALTHIER LIFE-STYLE
There is a large range of bakery products that are already low fat, low sugar, and/or high fiber. These include whole-meal or whole-grain breads, sponge cakes (chiffon and devil’s food cakes), and biscuits like biscotti and macaroons. Fat replacers and alternative sweeteners can be used in the development of low-fat, low-sugar products.
Whole wheat flour is a powdery substance derived by grinding or mashing the wheat's whole grain. Whole wheat flour is more nutritious than refined white flour. Whole wheat is a good source of calcium, iron, fiber and other minerals like selenium. But Whole wheat flour has a shorter shelf life than white flour, as the higher oil content leads to rancidity.
Health and whole grain consumption. Consumption of whole grains was found to be associated with lower fasting insulin concentrations when compared to those associated with the consumption of refined grains. Major component in reducing risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes. Reduces the risks of CVDs.
Regular wholegrain consumption lowers LDL and triglyceride levels, which contributes to an overall 26% reduction in coronary heart disease risk factors. Wholegrain consumption is inversely related to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity when compared to refined grains.
2. Multi grain bakery products These are bakery products containing two or more types of grain, especially for providing fiber and health benefits.
Multigrain breads Multigrain bread is bread made with multiple grains such as oats, cracked wheat, buckwheat, barley, millet and flax. Multigrain bread may have three to five different grains or it may have up to twelve different grains.
Fiber refers to a group of substances that include plant polysaccharides and lignin that are resistant to the digestive enzymes. Because of the very effective elimination characteristics of it, it can help prevent such diseases as bowel cancer, piles, stop constipation Fiber tends to be very low in fat but can help prevent cardiovascular disease
4. Sugar free bakery products Sugar-free foods do not contain any sugar and are usually artificially sweetened. These need to look like, taste like, and have the same quality of their sugar counterparts in order to satisfy the consumer.
There are several sugar substitutes available, although some of the artificial sweeteners are actually destroyed by high temperatures which can lead to baked goods with an unpleasant flavor and appearance. Natural sweeteners often produce better results but they generally contain more calories and may require additional adjustments to the original recipe.
Natural Sweeteners Honey: Honey is 25 to 50% sweeter than sugar, and has a distinctive flavor. Baked goods made with honey are moist and dense, and tend to brown faster than those made with granulated sugar.
Maple syrup: It is made from the sap of sugar maple trees. The sap is boiled down into a sweet, delectable syrup. Grade A maple syrup is golden brown and has a delicate flavor. Grade B is thicker, darker, and is better for baking because it has a stronger flavor.
Molasses: It is a byproduct of refined sugar production. It contains small amounts of B vitamins, calcium, and iron. Molasses imparts a dark color and strong flavor to baked foods, but is not as sweet as sugar.
Corn syrup: Is known as "invert sugar”. It is useful in cooking and candy-making because, unlike other sugars, it does not crystallize. Corn syrup is less sweet than sugar, and does not add flavor like molasses or honey.
Other Natural Sweeteners Refined fructose Brown rice malt syrup Fruit juice concentrates Stevia
Artificial Sweeteners These sweeteners have been approved by the FDA and are available for home use. While they provide a sweet taste, artificial sweeteners lack the browning, tenderizing and moisture-retaining properties of granulated sugar.
Saccharine: is 200 to 700 times sweeter than sugar. It can be used in baked goods. Aspartame: is 160 to 220 times sweeter than granulated sugar. This sweetener is heat-sensitive: it loses its sweetening power when heated, and cannot be used for cookies or cakes.
Acesulfame potassium: is 200 times sweeter than sugar. It is heat-stable, so it can be used in baking and cooking. Sucralose: is made from sugar, but is not metabolized by the body like sugar. It is 600 times sweeter than granulated sugar. Granular sucralose is the form used when baking.
Organic Bakery Products Organic foods are products of a farming system that avoid the use of man-made fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and livestock feed additives. Instead, the system relies on crop rotation, animal and plant manures, and hand-weeding and biological pest control.
Conclusion The bakery products could be converted into health products, which is the demand of present consumers. There is scope for bakery products as a means of improving health of the needy population. It helps to address various health disorders and diseases
Reference Bakery Products Science and Technology by Y.H. Hui, Blackwell Publishers, 2006. www.wikepedia.com