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  1. 1. where the sea meets the land
  2. 2. Coastal landforms are produced by deposition or erosiondue to the the action of Waves and Tides
  3. 3. Ranging from gently sloping beaches to high cliffs, different sizes and shapes are foundhere…
  4. 4. BayCapeA large piece of land surrounded on three sides by water.A part of the sea partly enclosed by a curve in the land.
  5. 5. PeninsulaA piece of land almost completely surrounded by water but joined to a large area of land.BeachA geological landform along the shoreline of a body of water.
  6. 6. ThunderstormsSevere thunderstorms occur generally during the afternoon and evening hours.PrecipitationPrecipitation is high, particularly along the coast, and seasonal.TemperatureHot and humid.Average annual high temperature is about 77 degrees.
  7. 7. Sandy soil is ideal for certain crops such as watermelons, peaches, coconuts etcSaline soil contains high level of salts which is ideal for growing date palm,sugar beet, cotton etc.
  8. 8. Mangrove soil: Bacterium from mangrove soil helps in the fermentation ofmangrove trees.Peat soil- Soil that is derived completely from the decomposing remains of plants.They are used for horticulture and for growing crops.
  9. 9. Coral reefsRocky structures are produced by living organisms found in marine waterswith little or no nutrients.Coral reefs are warm, clear, shallow ocean habitats that are rich inplant and animal life.
  10. 10. Mangrove forestsThe forests transfer organic matter and energy from the land to thesea, forming the base for many marine food webs.They play a vital role in trapping sediments,thereby stabilizing coastlines and protecting coral reefs and sea grass.
  11. 11. WILDLIFECoastal environment supports a large number ofmigratory and breeding birds.The coasts of Northern Europe are home for the Puffin.Chough are found around coasts in West Wales.Eider Duck are found in the Northern coasts of Europe, North America in large numbers.
  12. 12. Animals on the CoastsThe Pacific Razor Clam is a shellfish which ranges from California toAlaska.Pacific Razor ClamSea turtles are large, air-breathing reptiles that inhabit tropical andsubtropical seas such as the coasts of Orissa.Turtles
  13. 13. Humpback Whales can be seen off Washingtons coast,in Mexico and Hawaii.Humpback Whales
  14. 14. Grass TreesOyster Plant Big Cone PlantExposed places on the coast are the flourishing grounds forbeautiful and sea-tolerant plants…
  15. 15. 60 per cent of the world’s population lives within 60 km of a coast.Some grew up around fishing communities.Most coastal settlements have developed around docks, ports and harbours.Some grew up around tourist hotspots.
  16. 16. Salt PansShallow man-made ponds are designed to produce salt from sea water.Notable salt ponds include the San Francisco Bay salt ponds in theUnited States, Little Rann of Kutch in Indiaand the Dead Sea salt ponds in Israel.
  17. 17. Inland FarmingCoastline with its many inlets, peninsulas and offshore islands providesplenty of habitat for coastal floras.Palm Trees Black BerrysSea Oats
  18. 18. The tropical monsoon climate and fertile soils of the coastal plains favour spicefarming.In fact, Asia is known as the ‘Land of Spices’ .Thirteen major spices are produced in Asia.Spice FarmingBlack Pepper Clove Cardamom
  19. 19. AquacultureAquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms.Aquaculture includes fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming.
  20. 20. FishingFishing industry is an important economic activity that provides foodand jobs for millions of people.Includes all the activities involved in thecommercial and recreational production of fish and shellfish.
  21. 21. Coastal TourismThe world’s largest industry and the fastest growing economic sector.Golden sands, swinging trees, breeze waving through our hairWhat life this if man can’t find time to stand and stare.
  22. 22. Shipping and TradeCreates commercial relationship between widely separated parts of the World.The major commodities that are moved by coastal shipping arecrude oil, coal, iron ore, steel, cement, medicines, etc.
  23. 23. People in the coastal areas consume fish, shellfish and a variety of plant foodssuch as coconut, date palm etc.
  24. 24. Many of the World’s major cities such as New York, Sydney, Shanghai,Mumbai etc. lie on the coast.Coastal cities are the routes through which vital supplies of food,petroleum and raw materials for industry enter a country.
  25. 25. The life of a coastal resident is vulnerable to natural disasters such as storms,cyclone, hurricanes, land erosion, etc.Shore line erosion
  26. 26. The ultimate recipients of marine pollution due to industrial effluents, human activities etc.People face extreme possible impacts of climate change e.g. floods, tsunamis etc.Tsunami, 26 December Impact of Coastal Flood
  27. 27. Coasts are facing environmental challenges related to human-induced activities.There are various sources of pollution such as garbage and industrial debris,oil spills from petroleum tankers etc.Coastal Pollution
  28. 28. Climate ChangeContributes in rise of sea level, which threatens coastal habitat.Extinction of FishesDue to habitat degradation, over fishing and climate change.
  29. 29. A relaxing breeze sweepsAcross the calm flat surfaceof the seareflected deep azure,the waves start to roll and tumblein the seacrash, crash, crashwaves smash on high rocky cliffsbeside the seathe sky darkenshuge, fluffy grey candyfloss gathersabove the sea
  30. 30. wind roars, thunder crackswater crashes down like waterfalls at the seaschools of small fish panic, fear gripstheyre being tossed aroundthrough the seaand eternity passes, clouds partthe sun shines down, heavens raysonto the seatranquility is restoredgulls sqawk happilynear the seaRhythmic pattern of tidesa vast expance of blue water,Remember the sea.