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Pune is loosing itsgroundwater as it convertsits nalas and rivers togutters
Illnesses Caused by Water-Borne MicrobesAgent Source Incubation Period Clinical Syndrome DurationViruses: 2-3 days; occasionallyAstrovirus human feces 1-4 days Acute gastroenteritis 1-14 days Febrile illness, respiratory illness,Enteroviruses meningitis, herpangina, pleurodynia,(polioviruses, human feces 3-14 days (usually 5–10 days) conjunctivitis, myocardiopathy, Variablecoxsackieviruses, diarrhea, paralytic disease,echoviruses) encephalitis, ataxia Fever, malaise, jaundice, abdominal 1-2 weeks to severalHepatitis A human feces 15-50 days (usually 25-30 days) pain, anorexia, nausea months Fever, malaise, jaundice, abdominal 1-2 weeks to severalHepatitis E human feces 15-65 days (usually 35-40 days) pain, anorexia, nausea months Acute gastroenteritis withNorwalk-like viruses human feces 1-2 days 1-3 days predominant nausea and vomiting Acute gastroenteritis withGroup A rotavirus human feces 1-3 days 5-7 days predominant nausea and vomitingGroup B rotavirus human feces 2-3 days Acute gastroenteritis From: Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply:Assessing the New York City Strategy (2000) The National Academies Press
Agent Source Incubation Period Clinical Syndrome DurationBacteriaAeromonas hydrophila fresh water Watery diarrhea Average 42 days Acute gastroenteritis, 1-4 days occasionally > 10Campylobacter jejuni human and animal feces 3-5 days (1-7 days) possible bloody and mucoid days feces Watery, then grossly bloodyEnterohemorrhagic E. coli 1-12 days Average 7-10 human and cattle feces 3-5 days diarrhea, vomiting, possibleO157:H7 days hemolytic uremic syndrome Possible dysentery withEnteroinvasive E. coli human feces 2-3 days 1-2 weeks fever Watery to profuse wateryEnteropathogenic E. coli 2-6 days 1-3 weeks diarrhea Watery to profuse wateryEnterotoxigenic E. coli human feces? 12-72 hours 3-5 days diarrhea Bloody and mucoid fresh surface water, fish,Plesiomonas shigelloides 1-2 days diarrhea, abdominal pain, 11 days average crustaceans, animals nausea, vomiting Loose, watery, occasionallySalmonellae human and animal feces 8-48 hours 3-5 days bloody diarrhea Fever, malaise, headache,Salmonella typhi human feces and urine 7-28 days (average 14 days) cough, nausea, vomiting, Weeks to months abdominal pain Possible dysentery withShigellae human feces 1-7 days 4-7 days fever Profuse, watery diarrhea,Vibrio cholera O12 human feces 9-72 hours 3-4 days vomiting, rapid dehydrationVibrio cholera non-O12 human feces 1-5 days Watery diarrhea 3-4 days Abdominal pain, mucoid,Yersinia enterocolitica animal feces and urine 2-7 days occasionally bloody 1-21 days average 9 days diarrhea, feverFrom: Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply:Assessing the New York City Strategy (2000) The National Academies Press
Incubation Agent Source Clinical Syndrome Duration Period Protozoa: Abdominal pain, human and animal Balantidium coli Unknown occasional mucoid or Unknown feces bloody diarrhea Cryptosporidium human and animal 1-2 weeks Profuse, watery diarrhea 4-21 days parvum feces Abdominal pain, Entamoeba human feces 2-4 weeks occasional mucoid or Weeks to months histolytica bloody diarrhea Watery diarrhea, profound fatigue, Cyclospora human feces 1 week average anorexia, weight loss, Weeks if untreated cayetenensis bloating, abdominal cramps, nausea Abdominal pain, bloating, human and animal Giardia lamblia 5-25 days flatulence, loose, pale, 1-2 weeks to months and years feces greasy stools Algae: Cyanobacteria (Anabaena spp., Toxin poisoning (blistering Aphanizomenon Algal blooms in water A few hours of mouth, gastroenteritis, Variable spp., Microcystis pneumonia) spp.) Helminths: Dracunculus 8-14 months Blister, localized arthritis medinensis2 (Guinea Larvae (usually 12 of joints adjacent to site Months worm) months) of infectionFrom: Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply:Assessing the New York City Strategy (2000) The National Academies Press
Year Event1829 First well-documented water filter built by James Simpson for the Chelsea Water Company of London.1849 An estimated 110,000 people die from cholera in the UK.1854 John Snow removes the handle from the Broad Street pump in an effort to stop the transmission of cholera in London.1872–1874 First water filtration plants in the U.S. built in Poughkeepsie, NY, and Hudson, NY.1884 Robert Koch identifies Vibrio cholera as the causal agent of cholera and describes the germ theory of disease. Experiments on water filtration conducted in Lawrence, MA. This leads to the first rapid sand filter in 1893 and an1887 observed 79 percent decrease in typhoid fever mortality over the next 5 years. Rienecke observes that increases in the bacterial content of drinking water in Hamburg, Germany, corresponded to1892 increases in infant mortality and report a 50 percent decline in infant mortality from diarrheal disease in the year after Hamburg started to filter the public water supply.1893 Chlorination used to treat sewage effluent in Brewster, NY, to protect New York City drinking water.1897 Chlorination of drinking water in Maidstone, Kent, UK, after an outbreak of typhoid fever.1902 First continuous chlorination of a water supply in Belgium.1904 10 percent of U.S. urban population receives filtered water.1907 46 U.S. cities using filtration to treat drinking water.1908 First continuous, large-scale use of chlorination for an urban water supply in the U.S. in Jersey City, NJ. 36 percent of U.S. urban population receives filtered water. Allan Hazen writes enthusiastically about the benefits of water1914 chlorination.1920 Earliest data on occurrence and causes of waterborne disease outbreaks in the U.S. is collected.1930 27 percent of community water supplies in the U.S. have disinfection facilities.1920–1935 Typhoid fever is the most commonly recognized waterborne disease in the U.S.1936–1961 Shigellosis is the most commonly recognized waterborne disease in the U.S. Outbreak (16,000 cases) of waterborne salmonellosis in Riverside, CA. First documented waterborne outbreak of giardiasis1965 in the U.S. occurs at Aspen, CO.1971–1980 Giardiasis becomes the most commonly recognized waterborne disease.1975 First recognized outbreak of waterborne disease caused by toxigenic E. coli in Crater Lake National Park, OR.1984 First recorded waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurs in Texas.1989 First recorded waterborne outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 occurs in Missouri (243 cases, 4 deaths). Largest recorded waterborne disease outbreak in U.S. history caused by Cryptosporidium in Milwaukee, WI (estimated1993 400,000 cases).Sources: Craun (1986), Hunter (1997), ILSI (1993), Long mate (1966), NRC (1977), Sedgwick and MacNutt (1910).
Pune is putting the healthof its residents to hugerisk
Pune has moved frombecoming water stressedto water scarce
From: State of the Environment Report 1997-98, A Change Reengineering Study for the Pune Municipal Corporation
An aerial view of Bishan Park after restoration of the Kallang River in SingaporeBishan Park before, withthe 2.7 Km Kallang Riverchannelized.
Wooded WetlandThird Generation The Forested Wetland—water quality + tree benefits
Tree Clusters in Stormwater Ponds and Wetlands
tree check dams tree check dam section tree check dam axon
3Link all growthpermissions to Pune’swater carrying capacity
State Of Pune’s Water Resources1. More than 750 sq km catchment area to provide water to 450 sq km city2. Pune cannot support any more growth without many dry weeks and a significant reduction in water per person3. Continued dependence on water imports will result in regular water stress and scarcity4. For any water security Pune has no option other than to ensure its groundwater is recharged5. Pune is destroying its lifeline to water6. Pune is loosing its groundwater as it converts its nalas and rivers to gutters7. Pune is putting the health of its residents to huge risk8. Pune has moved from becoming water stressed to water scarce
Recommendations1. Enhance Pune’s water carrying capacity by restoring nalas, rivers and lakes to natural form and free them from human management and intervention2. Develop waterbodies and their setback regions into perpetual easements for urban forestry and conservation3. Link all growth permissions to Pune’s water carrying capacity