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Evaluating Urban Renewal in India: What questions to ask of the JNNURM
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Evaluating Urban Renewal in India: What questions to ask of the JNNURM

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What should be the basis for evaluating urban renewal in India? The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) has been "renewing" urban India. What should be the questions to evaluate ...

What should be the basis for evaluating urban renewal in India? The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) has been "renewing" urban India. What should be the questions to evaluate its success at renewal?

Summary of a presentation to the School of Habitat Studies,
Tata Institute of Social Sciences and Parisar at Yashada.

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    Evaluating Urban Renewal in India: What questions to ask of the JNNURM Evaluating Urban Renewal in India: What questions to ask of the JNNURM Presentation Transcript

    • Evaluating Urban Renewal in India JNNURM Projects Anupam Saraph
    • Urban Renewal? urban renewal noun : a construction program to replace or restore substandard buildings in an urban area Examples an area undergoing urban renewal an urban renewal plan/project First use: 1954
    • Urban Regeneration? Initiating comprehensive political, financial and technological strategies for an environmentally enhancing, restorative relationship between cities and the ecosystems from which they draw resources for their sustenance. Urban Renewal is conventional city development and one that has resulted in the massive urban mess we are confronted with. Before formulating the JNNURM, did the Ministry of Urban Development compare city development models that are relevant to address the challenges before urbanization?
    • City Development Models Conventional • Little or no consideration to environmental impact of the design • Designs aim to meet minimum compliances for lowest price • Often dubbed "green" if EIA is documented Sustainable • Does not challenge current methods and activities that have negative environmental impact • Attempt to minimize energy use, pollution or waste Regenerative • Sees human habitat and culture as part of ecosystems • Seeks to create or restore capacity of ecosystems and biogeo chemical cycles without human management • Designs appreciate and build on diversity of each city • Sees the design process as ongoing, indefinite and participatory
    • Regenerative City Principles • • • • • • • • • • Small ecological footprint Compact urban development Energy sufficiency Renewable energy supply Zero emission transport Waste water recycling Circular metabolism Biodiversity in landscape design City embeded in farmland City contributing to carbon sequestration and eco-restoration
    • JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Project of the Ministry of Urban Development to • encourage reforms and • fast track planned development of identified cities. Focus is to be on • efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, • community participation, and • accountability of ULBs/ Parastatal agencies towards citizens.
    • Evaluating the JNNURM • • What reform has happened? What proportion of the Development Plan has been fast tracked? • What efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms has been achieved? What community participation has happened? What accountability of ULBs/ Parastatal agencies towards citizens has been established? • •
    • Evaluating the Focus of JNNURM Focus •urban renewal? •efficiency or sustainability? •urban infrastructure: what infrastructure to renew the city? •what service delivery to renew the city? •what mechanisms were created for community participation? •what accountability was exercised by ULBs/ Parastatal agencies towards citizens? Before JNNURM After JNNURM
    • 9 Example of evaluating JNNURM projects: • Otta market in Baner • Storm-water drain project in Pune
    • Overlay JNNURM projects on the DP, highlight the violations and the fast track implementations of DP projects Otta Market in Amenity space when Otta Market other locations were marked on DP for other locations Otta Market Otta Market Entire natural stream made into made into gutter and sewage canal through storm water drain project Entire natural Entire stream made into stream made into gutter and sewage gutter and sewage canal through canal through storm water drain storm water drain project project
    • Highlight on DP projects where community participation did not happen or local body failed to be accountable to the citizens Otta Market in Amenity space built Otta Market without community participation and without community participation and without ULB showing any without ULB showing any accountability to the citizens accountability to the citizens
    • Highlight on DP projects where community participation did not happen or local body failed to be accountable to the citizens Entire natural streams across Entire natural streams across Pune made into gutter and Pune made into gutter and sewage canal through storm sewage canal water drain project without any water drain project without accountability to the citizens; accountability to the citizens; ULB Acts counter to every ULB Acts counter to every request. request.