• Conservation Programs
1. Project tiger
2. Distribution of forest
• Community and Conservation
• Sacred Groves
• Chipko Movement
Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a
major environmental issue
According to the act of 2014, the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations estimates world's
forest cover to be about 68 dollar area, or about 20 % of
the continent's area.
In 2002, forestry industry contributed 7 lake to India's
GDP. In 2010, the contribution to GDP dropped to
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting
endangered plant and animal species and their
Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure
that nature will be around for future generations to
enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and
wilderness’ lands to humans.
Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly
important practice due to the negative effect of human
activities on wildlife
Project Tiger, 1973
Distribution of Forest and Wild Life Resources
Community and Conservation
Project Tiger was launched by Kailash Sankhala in
India in 1973
The project aims at ensuring a viable population of
Bengal tigers in their natural habitats and preserving
areas of biological importance as a natural heritage
forever represented as close as possible the diversity of
ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the
During the tiger census of 2006, a new methodology
was used extrapolating site-specific densities of tigers,
their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap
and sign surveys using GIS
Based on the result of these surveys, the total tiger
population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals
ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of
more than 1.5 years of age
A new version of project tiger has been introduced in
2009, by the central government on the basis of initial
requirements by the help of celebrities like actors,
singers , social workers etc.
Distribution of Forest manage, control and regulate
the Wild life.
These are classified under the following categories:
Reserved Forests are regarded as the most valuable as
far as the conservation of Forest and Wild Life
resources are concerned.
More than half of the total Forest land has been
declared reserved Forest
Almost one – third of the total forest area is protected
forest, as declared by the forest department
This forest land are protected from any further
These are other forests and wastelands belonging to
both government and private individuals and
All North-Eastern states and parts of Gujarat have a
very high percentage of their forest as unclassed
forests managed by local communities
A conservation community is a group of individuals
and families living in a community who are committed
to saving large parcels of land from ecological
This land can be forested land, agricultural land,
ranch land, or any other type of land that needs
protecting from high-impact development.
Conservation communities are models of sustainable
community development, a new approach to
development which provides alternatives to
conventional forms of development.
They are adaptable to the needs of different regions
and they use small-scale residential development to
fund conservation, eliminating the need to depend on
funding from private donors or governments.
This land development model is important to the
environmental movements towards sustainable
development, Green homebuilding, local food
security, and responsible management of natural
Sacred groves of India are forest fragments of varying
sizes, which are communally protected, and which
usually have a significant religious connotation for the
protecting community. Hunting and logging are
usually strictly prohibited within these patches.
Other forms of forest usage like honey collection and
deadwood collection are sometimes allowed on a
sustainable basis. Sacred groves did not enjoy
protection via federal legislation in India. Some NGOs
work with local villagers to protect such groves.
Traditionally, and in some cases even today, members
of the community take turns to protect the grove.
However, the introduction of the protected area
category community reserves under the Wild Life
(Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 has introduced
legislation for providing government protection to
community held lands, which could include sacred
Indian sacred groves are sometimes associated with
temples / monasteries / shrines or with burial
grounds. Sacred groves may be loosely used to refer to
other natural habitat protected on religious grounds,
such as Alpine Meadows.
The Chipko movement or Chipko Andolan is a movement
that practiced the Gandhian methods of satyagraha and
non-violent resistance, through the act of hugging trees to
protect them from being felled.
The modern Chipko movement started in the early 1970s in
the Garhwal Himalayas of Uttarakhand, then in Uttar
Pradesh with growing awareness towards rapid
The landmark event in this struggle took place on March
26, 1974, when a group of peasant women in Reni village,
Hemwalghati, in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India,
acted to prevent the cutting of trees and reclaim their
traditional forest rights that were threatened by the
contractor system of the state Forest Department.
Their actions inspired hundreds of such actions at the
grassroots level throughout the region.
By the 1980s the movement had spread throughout
India and led to formulation of people-sensitive forest
policies, which put a stop to the open felling of trees in
regions as far reaching as Vindhyas and the Western
Today, it is seen as an inspiration and a precursor for
Chipko movement of Garhwal.
Today, beyond the eco-socialism hue, it is being seen
increasingly as an ecofeminism movement.
Although many of its leaders were men, women were
not only its backbone, but also its mainstay, because
they were the ones most affected by the rampant
deforestation,, which led to a lack of
firewood and fodder as well as water for drinking and
Over the years they also became primary stakeholders
in a majority of the afforestation work that happened
under the Chipko movement.