Iontophoresis- By Anuj Malik


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Introduction of Ions Into The Body Using Direct Electrical Current.

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Iontophoresis- By Anuj Malik

  1. 1. IONTOPHORESIS Technical Seminar……….
  2. 2. Meaning: What “Iontophoresis” means..? Pharmacokinetics of Ion-Transfer. Movement of Ions in Solution. Iontophoresis Generators. Current Intensity. Treatment Duration. Selecting the Appropriate Ions.
  3. 3. What actually “Iontophoresis” means…..?? Introduction of Ions Into The Body Using Direct Electrical Current. Transports Ions Across A Membrane Or Into a Tissue. It is a Painless, Sterile, Non-Invasive Technique. Demonstrated To Have A Positive Effect On The Healing Process.
  4. 4. Transdermal Iontophoresis delivers medication at a constant rate so that the effective plasma concentration remains within a therapeutic window for an extended period of time. Therapeutic window: The plasma concentrations of a drug which should fall between a minimum concentration necessary for a therapeutic effect and the maximum effective concentration above which adverse effects may possibly occur.
  5. 5. Iontophoresis appears to overcome the resistive properties of the skin to charged ions. Iontophoresis decreases absorption lag time while increasing delivery rate when compared with passive skin application. Iontophoresis provides both a spiked and sustained release of a drug reducing the possibility of developing a tolerance to drug. Rate at which an ion may be delivered is determined by a number of factors: Concentration of the Ion. pH of the solution. Molecular size of the solute. Current Density. Duration of treatment.
  6. 6. Cathode: Negatively Charged Electrode.  Highest concentration of Electrons.  Accumulation of negatively charged ions in a small area creates an acidic reaction.  Anode: Positively Charged Electrode.  Lower concentration of Electrons.  Accumulation of positively charged ions in a small area creates an alkaline reaction.  Positively charged ions are driven into tissues from positive pole.  Negatively charged ions are driven into tissues from negative pole.  Knowing correct ion polarity is essential.
  7. 7. Force which acts to move ions through the tissues is determined by:  Strength of the Electrical Field.  Electrical Impedance of Tissues to Current flow.  Strength of the electrical field is determined by the current density:  Difference in current density between the active and inactive electrodes establishes a gradient of potential difference which produces ion migration within the electrical field.  Current density may be altered by:  Increasing or Decreasing the current density.  Changing the size of the electrode.  Increasing the size of the electrode will decrease current density under that electrode.
  8. 8. Produce Continuous Direct Current. Assures Uni-Directional Flow of Ions.
  9. 9. Iontophoresis Generator Intensity control 1 to 5 mA Constant voltage output that adjusts to normal variations in tissue impedance thus reducing the likelihood of burns Automatic shutdown if skin impedance reduces to preset limit
  10. 10. Iontophoresis Generator Adjustable Timer Up to 25 min
  11. 11. Iontophoresis Generator Lead wires Active electrode Inactive electrode
  12. 12. Low amperage currents appear to be more effective as a driving force than currents with higher intensities. Higher intensity currents tend to reduce effective penetration into the tissues. Recommended current amplitudes used for iontophoresis range between 3-5 mA. Increase intensity slowly until patient reports tingling or prickly sensation. When terminating treatment intensity should be slowly decreased to zero before electrodes are disconnected. Maximum current intensity should be determined by size of the active electrode.
  13. 13. Treatment duration ranges between 10-20 minutes with 15 minutes being an average. Patient should be comfortable with no reported or visible signs of pain or burning. Check skin every 3-5 minutes looking for signs of skin irritation. Decrease intensity during treatment to accommodate decrease in skin impedance to avoid pain or burning.
  14. 14. Negative ions accumulating at the positive pole or anode:  Produce an acidic reaction through the formation of hydrochloric acid.  Produce softening of the tissues by decreasing protein density-useful in treating scars or adhesions.  Some negative ions can also produce an analgesic effect (salicylates).  Positive ions that accumulate at the negative pole:  Produce an alkaline reaction with the formation of sodium hydroxide.  Produce hardening of the tissues by increasing protein density.
  15. 15. THANK YOU ALL.. Presented By: Anuj Malik. Roll No. MT-2112607 E.E.E. (M.Tech) FOR YOURS PRECIOUS TIME.... Any Query