Meaning: What “Iontophoresis” means..?
Pharmacokinetics of Ion-Transfer.
Movement of Ions in Solution.
Selecting the Appropriate Ions.
What actually “Iontophoresis” means…..??
Introduction of Ions Into The Body Using Direct Electrical
Transports Ions Across A Membrane Or Into a Tissue.
It is a Painless, Sterile, Non-Invasive Technique.
Demonstrated To Have A Positive Effect On The Healing Process.
Transdermal Iontophoresis delivers medication at a
constant rate so that the effective plasma concentration
remains within a therapeutic window for an extended
period of time.
Therapeutic window: The plasma concentrations of a drug
which should fall between a minimum concentration
necessary for a therapeutic effect and the maximum
effective concentration above which adverse effects may
Iontophoresis appears to overcome the resistive properties of the skin to
Iontophoresis decreases absorption lag time while increasing delivery
rate when compared with passive skin application.
Iontophoresis provides both a spiked and sustained release of a drug
reducing the possibility of developing a tolerance to drug.
Rate at which an ion may be delivered is determined by a number of
Concentration of the Ion.
pH of the solution.
Molecular size of the solute.
Duration of treatment.
Cathode: Negatively Charged Electrode.
Highest concentration of Electrons.
Accumulation of negatively charged ions in a small area creates an acidic reaction.
Anode: Positively Charged Electrode.
Lower concentration of Electrons.
Accumulation of positively charged ions in a small area creates an alkaline reaction.
Positively charged ions are driven into tissues from positive pole.
Negatively charged ions are driven into tissues from negative pole.
Knowing correct ion polarity is essential.
Force which acts to move ions through the tissues is determined by:
Strength of the Electrical Field.
Electrical Impedance of Tissues to Current flow.
Strength of the electrical field is determined by the current density:
Difference in current density between the active and inactive electrodes
establishes a gradient of potential difference which produces ion migration
within the electrical field.
Current density may be altered by:
Increasing or Decreasing the current density.
Changing the size of the electrode.
Increasing the size of the electrode will decrease current density under that
Flow of Ions.
1 to 5 mA
output that adjusts to
normal variations in tissue
impedance thus reducing
the likelihood of burns
Automatic shutdown if
skin impedance reduces to
Up to 25 min
Low amperage currents appear to be more effective as a driving force
than currents with higher intensities.
Higher intensity currents tend to reduce effective penetration into the
Recommended current amplitudes used for iontophoresis range
between 3-5 mA.
Increase intensity slowly until patient reports tingling or prickly
When terminating treatment intensity should be slowly decreased to
zero before electrodes are disconnected.
Maximum current intensity should be determined by size of the active
Treatment duration ranges between 10-20 minutes with
15 minutes being an average.
Patient should be comfortable with no reported or
visible signs of pain or burning.
Check skin every 3-5 minutes looking for signs of skin
Decrease intensity during treatment to accommodate
decrease in skin impedance to avoid pain or burning.
Negative ions accumulating at the positive pole or anode:
Produce an acidic reaction through the formation of hydrochloric acid.
Produce softening of the tissues by decreasing protein density-useful in
treating scars or adhesions.
Some negative ions can also produce an analgesic effect (salicylates).
Positive ions that accumulate at the negative pole:
Produce an alkaline reaction with the formation of sodium hydroxide.
Produce hardening of the tissues by increasing protein density.
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