Human Resource Development- framework

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  • 1. TOPICS COVERED HRD Need Assessment Creating A HRD program HRD Program Implementation Evaluation of HRD Program HRD FRAMEWORK
  • 2. A Framework for the HRD Process HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages):  Needs ssessment esign plementation valuation (“A DImE”)
  • 3. The HRD Process: A DImE
  • 4. Definition Of Need: Before delving deep into need assessment, it is of paramount importance to know, what is the meaning of “need.” Need- The concept of need refers to a discrepancy or gap between what an organization expects to happen and what actually occurs.
  • 5. Various Types of Needs Performance Diagnostic Factors that can prevent problems from occurring Analytic Identify new or better ways to do things Compliance Mandated by law or regulation
  • 6. Need Assessment  A process by which an organization’s HRD needs are identified and articulated. It identifies: a) an organizations goals and its effectiveness in reaching these goals. b) Gaps between current skills and the skills needed to perform the job successfully. c) Gaps between employees’ skills and the skills required for effective current job performance. d) The conditions under which the HRD activity will occur.
  • 7. “There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all.” - Peter F. Drucker
  • 8. Benefits  Through needs assessment, we try to answer questions like: 1. Need for the needs assessment, 2. Accomplishment of type of learning, 3. Expected changes in the behavior and performance, 4. Probability of achieving the results, 5. Cost benefit analysis of HRD solutions. 6. Root causes of performance gaps
  • 9. Levels of Need Assessment 1. Organizational analysis Where is training needed and under what conditions? 2. Task analysis What must be done to perform the job effectively? 3. Individual analysis. Who should be trained and how?
  • 10. Organizational Analysis It looks at the effectiveness of the organization and determines where training is needed and under what conditions it will be conducted. Why Ties HRD programs to corporate or organizational goals Strengthens the link between profit and HRD actions Strengthens corporate support for HRD Makes HRD more of a revenue generator  Not a profit waster
  • 11. Source of Organizational Analysis Mission statement HRM inventory Skills inventory Quality of Working Life indicators Efficiency indexes System changes Exit interviews
  • 12. Task Analysis  It provides data about a job or a group of jobs and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities needed to achieve optimum performance.
  • 13. How to Collect Information For a Task Analysis  KSA analysis  Performance standards  Observe the job/sample the work.  Perform the job.  Job inventory questionnaire.  Review literature about the job.  Ask questions about the job.  Analysis of operating problems.
  • 14. INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS It analyzes how well the individual employee is doing the job and determines which employees need training and of what kind. Based on many sources of data Summary Analysis Determine overall success of the individual Diagnostic Analysis Discover reasons for performance
  • 15. SOURCES FOR INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS  Performance evaluation.  Performance problems.  Observation.  Work samples.  Interviews.  Questionnaires.  Attitude surveys.  Checklists or training progress charts.
  • 16. FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT: STEP 1. PERFORM A "GAP" ANALYSIS.  The first step is to check the actual performance of our organizations and our people against existing standards, or to set new standards. There are two parts to this:  Current situation  Desired or necessary situation  The difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives.
  • 17. FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT STEP 2. IDENTIFY PRIORITIES AND IMPORTANCE  It must be seen whether the identified needs are real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance and urgency in view of organizational needs and requirements (1). For example (2):  Cost-effectiveness  Legal mandates If some of our needs are of relatively low importance, we would do better to devote our energies to addressing other human performance problems with greater impact and greater value.
  • 18. FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT  Step 3. IDENTIFY CAUSES OF PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS AND/OR OPPORTUNITIES.  We must know what our performance requirements are, if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should ask two questions for every identified need: (3)  Are our people doing their jobs effectively?  Do they know how to do their jobs?  This will require detailed investigation and analysis of our people, their jobs, and our organizations -- both for the current situation and in preparation for the future.
  • 19. FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT  Step 4. IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES.  "If it ain't broke, don't fix it."  But if our people ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively:  TRAINING may be the solution, if there is a knowledge problem.  Organizational Development activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization restructuring, performance management and/or effective team building.
  • 20. CAVEAT Figuring out what is really needed Not always an easy task Needs lots of input Takes a lot of work “Do it now or do lots more later” First step in both the ISD and HRD process models
  • 21. Phase Two: Designing the Training or HRD Intervention Key activities include:  Setting objectives  Selecting the trainer or vendor  Developing lesson plans  Selecting methods and techniques  Preparing materials  Scheduling training
  • 22. Phase Two: Design
  • 23. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 25 Objectives  Performance  Conditions  Criterias PERFORMANCE:  Increase upper body strength  Assemble a chair  Catch a football pass  Graduate from college
  • 24. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 26 Conditions Conditions under which performance is done – e.g.,  … using standard conditioning equipment  … using a screwdriver and hammer  … at a full run under man-to-man coverage  … without cheating or outside help
  • 25. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 27 Criteria The level of acceptable performance – e.g.,  … by 25 percent within one year  … within one hour without mistakes  … at least 80% of the time without penalties  … within 5 years and with a “B” average
  • 26. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 28 “Make or Buy” Decisions  You cannot be an expert on everything  You can’t afford to maintain a full-time staff for once-a- year training  You can’t afford the time or money to build all of your own training programs  Implication: Much training is purchased, rather than self-produced
  • 27. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 29 Factors to Consider Before Purchasing an HRD Program  Level of expertise available/required  Timeliness  Number of trainees  Subject matter  Cost  Size of HRD organization  “X” Factor (other conditions)
  • 28. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 30 Other Factors to Consider  Vendor credentials  Vendor background  Vendor experience  Philosophical match (between vendor and organization)  Delivery method
  • 29. EIGHT POINT STRATEGY FOR HRD PROGRAMS  Jerry Gillet and Seteven Eggland (2002) identified for managers of HRD an eight-point strategy for designing cost-effective, reputable HRD programs that can survive economic crises and internal/external changes affecting the organization.  Establish a written HRD philosophy.  Establish HRD policy.  Obtain support of top management.  Integrate HRD into the long-range organizational plan.
  • 30.  Conduct extensive needs assessments.  Encourage collaboration.  Establish criteria for participation in HRD programs.  Be introspective but focus on results.
  • 31. The Learning Pyramid By Permission: Yin (2004)
  • 32. Training Delivery Methods Three basic categories:  On-the-Job Training  Off- the- Job Training  Classroom Training  Self-Paced Training Note: Computer-based training can be in a classroom, or individual/self-paced.
  • 33. On-the-Job Training (OJT)  Job instruction training (JIT) Prepare the worker , Present the task, Practice the task, Follow up.  Job rotation Train on different task/ positions, often used to train entry level managers, To provide back up in production position.  Coaching Between worker and supervisor. Can provide specific performance improvement and correction.  Mentoring senior employee paired with a junior employee (“protégé”), Helps to learn the ropes, Prepares protégé for future advancement
  • 34. OFF-the-Job Training This occurs when employees are taken away from their place of work to be trained. Common methods of off-the-job training include: Day release Distance learning / evening classes Block release courses Sandwich courses Sponsored courses in higher education
  • 35. Classroom Training Approaches Five basic types:  Lecture - Oral presentation of material ,Some visual aids can be added, Remains a very popular training method, Interesting lectures can work well, Good to supplement with other materials.  Discussion - Two-way communication,Use questions to control lesson, Direct: produce narrow responses, Reflective: mirror what was said, Open-Ended: challenge learners – to increase understanding
  • 36. Classroom Training Approaches  Experimental Methods - Case studies, Business game simulations, Role Playing, Behavior Modeling, Outdoor training  Self-Paced or Computer-Based Training
  • 37. Audiovisual Media  Brings visual senses (seeing) into play, along with audio senses (hearing)  Types: STATIC MEDIA- Printed materials, Lecture notes, Work aids, Handouts DYNAMIC MEDIA- Audio cassettes, CDs, Film, Videotape, Video disc TELECOMMUNICATIONS- Instructional TV, Teleconferencing, Videoconferencing
  • 38. Computer-Based Training (CBT)  Interactive with user  Training when and where user wants it  Trainee has greater control over progress  CBT can provide progress reports and be tailored to specific instructional objectives  Trainee works on own with minimal facilitation by instructor who is elsewhere
  • 39. E-learning  Intranet  Internal to site/organization  Internet  General communications  Online reference  Needs assessment, administration, testing  Distribution of CBT  Delivery of multimedia
  • 40. EVALUATION OF Training  Evaluation of HRD Program helps in gauging the degree to which a training (or other HRD program) achieves its intended purpose.  In other words it measures the effectiveness of the HRD program.
  • 41. EVALUATION OF Training Textbook definition: “The systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and modification of various instructional activities.” “Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effect of training program and to assess the value of training in the light of that information for improving further training.”
  • 42. Effectiveness of HRD Program: a) The degree to which a training (or other HRD program) achieves its intended purpose b) Measures are relative to some starting point c) Measures how well the desired goal is achieved In other words: Are we training: a) the right people b) the right “stuff” c) the right way d) with the right materials e) at the right time
  • 43.  Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.  During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals  After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.
  • 44. Purposes of Evaluation:  Determine whether the program is meeting the intended objectives  Identify strengths and weaknesses  Determine cost-benefit ratio  Identify who benefited most or least  Determine future participants  Provide information for improving HRD programs  Reinforce major points to be made  Gather marketing information  Determine if training program is appropriate  Establish management database
  • 45. The Training Evaluation should involve: a) senior management b) the trainer c) line management d) the training manager e) the trainee
  • 46. Models and Frameworks of Evaluation There are six frameworks for evaluation 1. Kirkpatrick 2. CIPP 3. Brinkerhoff 4. Kraiger, Ford & Salas 5. Holton 6. Philips The most popular is that of D. Kirkpatrick: Reaction Learning Job Behavior Results
  • 47. KIRKPATRIK’S Four Levels
  • 48. A Suggested Framework Reaction Did trainees like the training? Did the training seem useful? Learning How much did they learn? Behavior What behavior change occurred? Results  What were the tangible outcomes?  What was the return on investment (ROI)?  What was the contribution to the organization?
  • 49. Advantages and Disadvantages of Techniques Methods Advantages Disadvantages 1. Interview •Flexible •Opportunity for clarification •Depth Possible •Personal Contact •High Reactive effects •High cost •Face-to-Face Threat Potential •Trained Observers Needed 2. Questionnaire •Low cost •Anonymity Possible •Respondent Sets Pace •Variety Of Options •Possibly Inaccurate Data •Return Rate Beyond Control 3. Observation •Non- Threatening •Excellent way to Measure Behavior Change •Possibly Disruptive •Reactive Effect Probable •Trained Observers Needed 4. Written Test •Low Purchase Cost •Readily Scored and Quickly Processed •Easily Administered •Wide Sampling Possible •Possible low Relation to Job Performance •Reliance on Norms May Distort Individual Performance •Cultural Bias 5. Simulation/ Performance Test •Reliable •Objective •Close Relation to Job Performance •Time consuming •Simulation often Difficult and Costly
  • 50. Ethical Issues Concerning Evaluation Research a) Confidentiality b) Informed consent c) Withholding training from control groups d) Use of deception e) Pressure to produce positive results
  • 51. Evaluation of Training Costs • Cost-benefit analysis • Compares cost of training to benefits gained such as attitudes, reduction in accidents, reduction in employee sick- days, etc. • Cost-effectiveness analysis • Focuses on increases in quality, reduction in scrap/rework, productivity, etc.
  • 52. Types of Training Costs a) Direct costs b) Indirect costs c) Development costs d) Overhead costs e) Compensation for participants
  • 53. Problems with the Traditional View  Misuse of the terms “evaluation” and “evaluating effectiveness”  Failure to explicitly address the different purposes for evaluating HRD activities  Narrow view of stakeholders and their agendas  Outdated range of subjects for HRD evaluation  Insufficient research methods (definition of units of analysis and tools for understanding them)
  • 54. HRD Evaluation Steps  Analyze needs.  Determine explicit evaluation strategy.  Insist on specific and measurable training objectives.  Obtain participant reactions.  Develop criterion measures/instruments to measure results.  Plan and execute evaluation strategy.
  • 55. Benefits of Evaluation Improved quality of training activities Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped Better integration of training offered and on-the job development Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff Evidence of the contribution that training and development are making to the organization Reduction in preventable accidents measured  Reduction in scrap/rework measured in cost of labor and materials
  • 56. Bibliography  Gent, Michael J. and Gregory G. Dell'Omo. "The Needs Assessment Solution." Personnel Administrator, July 1989: 82-84.  McGehee, W. and P-W. Thayer. Training in Business and Industry. New York: Wiley, 1961.  Werner and DeSimone ,Human Resource Development: Foundation. Framework and Application , 2006 edition[Reprint 2008]
  • 57.  Brinkerhoff, R.O., Achieving Results from Training, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco, 1987, p. 39.  Zemke, R., & Gunkler, J., "Using Small Group Techniques for Needs Assessment, Data Gathering, and other Heinous Acts", seminar notes, American Society for Training and Development Southern Minnesota Chapter, Minneapolis, July 9, 1985.  Margolis, F.H., and Bell, C.R., Understanding Training: Perspectives & Practices, University Associates, San Diego, 1989, pp 13-15.
  • 58.  nt.html [Accessed on 10th July,2011]  analysis-training [Accessed on 10th July, 2011]  02/E1-10-02-TXT-02.aspx [Accessed on 11th July, 2011]