Nces introduction


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Introduction to Non-Conventional Energy Sources

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Nces introduction

  1. 1. Introduction to Non Conventional Energy Sources By Anu Singla Associate Professor Department of EE Chitkara University, Punjab
  2. 2. Energy is the ability to do work and work is the transfer of energy from one form to another. Energy is what we use to manipulate the world around us, whether by exciting our muscles, by using electricity, or by using mechanical devices. Energy comes in different forms - heat (thermal), light (radiant), mechanical, electrical, chemical, and nuclear energy. What is Energy?
  3. 3. Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any country. In the case of the developing countries, the energy sector assumes a critical importance in view of the ever increasing energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them. Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria:  Primary and Secondary energy  Commercial and Non commercial energy  Renewable and Non-Renewable energy Introduction
  4. 4. Primary and Secondary Energy Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature. Common primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass (such as wood). Other primary energy sources available include nuclear energy from radioactive substances, thermal energy stored in earth's interior, and potential energy due to earth's gravity.  Primary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial utilities into secondary energy sources; for example coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity.  Primary energy can also be used directly. Some energy sources have non-energy uses, for example coal or natural gas can be used as a feedstock (main raw material used in the manufacture of a product / raw material required for an industrial process) in fertiliser plants.
  5. 5. Commercial Energy & Non Commercial Energy Commercial Energy The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known as commercial energy. The most important forms of commercial energy are electricity, coal and refined petroleum products. Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial, agricultural, transport and commercial development in the modern world. In the industrialized countries, commercialized fuels are predominant source not only for economic production, but also for many household tasks of general population. Examples: Electricity, lignite, coal, oil, natural gas etc.
  6. 6. The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are classified as non-commercial energy. Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as firewood, cattle dung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally gathered, and not bought at a price used especially in rural households. These are also called traditional fuels. Example: Firewood, agro waste in rural areas; solar energy for water heating, electricity generation, for drying grain, fish and fruits; animal power for transport, threshing, lifting water for irrigation, crushing sugarcane; wind energy for lifting water and electricity generation. Non-commercial energy is often ignored in energy accounting*. * Energy accounting is a system to record, analyze and report energy consumption and cost on a regular basis. Non-Commercial Energy
  7. 7. Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible. Examples of renewable resources include wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power. The most important feature of renewable energy is that it can be harnessed without the release of harmful pollutants. Non-renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, which are likely to deplete with time.
  8. 8. Indian Energy Scenario-Overview India is the ninth largest economy in the world, driven by a real GDP growth of 8.7% in the last 5 years (7.5% over the last 10 years). In 2010 itself, the real GDP growth of India was the 5th highest in the world. This high order of sustained economic growth is placing enormous demand on its energy resources. The demand and supply imbalance in energy is pervasive across all sources requiring serious efforts by Government of India to augment energy supplies as India faces possible severe energy supply constraints.
  9. 9. The share of Coal and Petroleum is expected to be about 66.8 percent in total commercial energy produced and about 56.9 percent in total commercial energy supply by 2021-22. The demand for coal is projected to reach 980 MT during the Twelfth Plan period (2012-2017), whereas domestic production is expected to touch 795 MT in the terminal year (2016-17). Even though the demand gap will need to be met through imports, domestic coal production will also need to grow at an average rate of 8 percent compared to about 4.6 percent in the Eleventh Five Year Plan. The share of crude oil in production and consumption is expected to be 6.7 percent and 23 percent respectively by 2021-22. Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
  10. 10. In 2011-12, India was the fourth largest consumer in the world of Crude Oil and Natural Gas, after the United States, China, and Russia. India’s energy demand continued to rise inspite of slowing global economy. Combustible renewables and waste (Combustible renewables and waste comprise solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste) constitute about one fourth of Indian energy use. This share includes traditional biomass sources such as firewood and dung, which are used by more than 800 million Indian households for cooking. Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
  11. 11. The power sector in India had an installed capacity of 236.38 Gigawatt (GW) as of March 2012 recording an increase of 14% over that of March 2011. Captive power plants generate an additional 36.5 GW. Thermal power plants constitute 66% of the installed capacity, hydroelectric about 19% and rest being a combination of wind, small hydro-plants, biomass, waste-to-electricity plants, and nuclear energy. India generated about 855 BU electricity during 2011-12 fiscal. Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
  12. 12. As of March 2012, the per capita total consumption in India was estimated to be 879 kWh. India's electricity sector is amongst the world's most active players in renewable energy utilization, especially wind energy. As of March 2012, India had an installed capacity of about 24.9 GW of new and renewable technologies-based electricity. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan, nearly 55,000 MW of new generation capacity was created, yet there continued to be an overall energy deficit of 8.7 per cent and peak shortage of 9.0 per cent. Resources currently allocated to energy supply are not sufficient for narrowing the gap between energy needs and energy availability. Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
  13. 13. Sectorwise Consumption of Electricity (Utilities), Natural Gas, Petroleum products during 2011-12 Reference: Energy Statistics 2013
  14. 14. Indian Energy Scenario- Coal and Lignite
  15. 15. Reserves And Potential For Generation Coal and Lignite  Coal deposits are mainly confined to eastern and south central parts of the country. The states of Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh account for more than 99% of the total coal reserves in the country. As on 31.03.12 the estimated reserves of coal was around 293.5 billion tones, an addition of 7.64 billion over the last year ( Table 1.1). The total estimated reserve of coal in India as on 31.03.11 was around 285.86 billion tonnes. There has been an increase of 2.67% in the estimated coal reserves during the year 2011-12 with Madhya Pradesh accounting for the maximum increase of 5.41 %.
  16. 16. The increase in the estimated reserve of lignite during the year 2011- 12 was 1.22%, Tamil Nadu accounting for the maximum increase of 2.99% .
  17. 17. The estimated reserves of crude oil in India as on 31.03.2012 stood at 759.59 million tonnes (MT). Geographical distribution of Crude oil indicates that the maximum reserves are in the Western Offshore (44.46%) followed by Assam (22.71%), whereas the maximum reserves of Natural Gas are in the Eastern Offshore (34.73%) followed by Western offshore (31.62%).  There was an increase of 0.29% in the estimated reserve of crude oil for the country as a whole during 2011-12. There was an increase of estimated Crude Oil reserves by 7.09% in Andhra Pradesh followed by Tamil Nadu (4.48%).  The estimated reserves of natural gas in India as on 31.03.2012 stood at 1330.26 billion cubic meters (BCM). In case of Natural Gas, the increase in the estimated reserves over the last year was 4.08%. The maximum contribution to this increase has been from Cold Bed Methane(CBM) (11.32%), followed by Tripura (8.95%). Petroleum and Natural Gas
  18. 18. Renewable Energy Sources There is high potential for generation of renewable energy from various sources- wind, solar, biomass, small hydro and cogeneration bagasse *(next slide). The total potential for renewable power generation in the country as on 31.03.12 is estimated at 89774 MW (Table 1.3). This includes wind power potential of 49130 MW (54.73%), SHP (small-hydro power) potential of 15399 MW (17.15%), Biomass power potential of 17,538 MW(19.54%) and 5000 MW (5.57%) from bagasse-based cogeneration in sugar mills.
  19. 19. *Bagasse is the fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract their juice. It is currently used as a biofuel and in the manufacture of pulp and building materials. Bagasse is often used as a primary fuel source for sugar mills; when burned in quantity, it produces sufficient heat energy to supply all the needs of a typical sugar mill, with energy to spare. To this end, a secondary use for this waste product is in cogeneration, the use of a fuel source to provide both heat energy, used in the mill, and electricity, which is typically sold on to the consumer electricity grid. For each 10 tonnes of sugarcane crushed, a sugar factory produces nearly 3 tonnes of wet bagasse. Since bagasse is a by-product of the cane sugar industry, the quantity of production in each country is in line with the quantity of sugarcane produced.
  20. 20. Government created the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982. In 1992 a full fledged Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources was established under the overall charge of the Prime Minister. The range of its activities cover  promotion of renewable energy technologies, create an environment conducive to promote renewable energy technologies,  create an environment conducive for their commercialization,  renewable energy resource assessment,  research and development,  demonstration,  extension,  production of biogas units, solar thermal devices, solar photovoltaics, cookstoves, wind energy and small hydropower units. Renewable Energy Scenario in India
  21. 21. Calorific Value Of Fuels Sr No. Fuel Approx heating value Kcal/Kg Natural State Dry state A BIOMASS 1 Wood 1500 3500 2 Cattle dung 1000 3700 3 Bagasse 2200 4400 4 Wheat and rice straw 2400 2500 5 Cane trash, rice husk, leaves and vegetable wastes 3000 3000 6 Coconut husks, dry grass and crop residues 3500 3500 7 Groundnut shells 4000 4000 8 Coffee and oil palm husks 4200 4200 9 Cotton husks 4400 4400 10 Peat 6500 6500 B FOSSIL FUELS 1 Coal 4000-7000 2 Coke 6500 3 Charcoal 7000 4 Carbon 8000 5 Fuel oil 9800 6 Kerosene and diesel 10000 7 Petrol 10800 8 Paraffin 10500 9 Natural gas 8600 10 Coal gas 4000 11 Electrical (Kcal(KW) 860 12 Bio gas(Kcal/cu mtr) (12 kg of dung produces 1 cu. Mtr 4700-6000
  22. 22.  Natural resources that can be replaced and reused by nature are termed renewable. Natural resources that cannot be replaced are termed nonrenewable.  Renewable resources are replaced through natural processes at a rate that is equal to or greater than the rate at which they are used, and depletion is usually not a worry.  Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible and are extracted faster than the rate at which they formed. E.g. Fossil Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas). Nonrenewable vs. Renewable Resources
  23. 23. Because they are fossil fuels they do have a life expectancy. Burning fossil fuels has increased atmospheric pollution. The carbon stored in fossil fuels is released as carbon dioxide when they are burnt – this leads to the green house effect and global warming. How much longer can we depend on fossil fuels?
  24. 24. What is an alternative source of energy? An energy source that can be used instead of fossil fuels. It is usually a renewable source of energy that could be used should fossil fuels run out.
  25. 25. Alternative Energy Sources  Solar energy  Wind energy  Tidal Power  Geothermal power  Hydropower  Biomass  Ocean thermal energy conversion  Fuel Cells
  26. 26. Advantages of using natural sources of energy  They are inexhaustible – they will always be available – they are renewable. They are clean and will not damage the Earth. There are several types – so one or more of them is present in each country. Most natural sources can be used on a small scale and serve local needs therefore cutting costs of transmitting the energy. Rapid scientific and technological advantages are expected to expand the economic range of renewable energy applications over the next 8-10 years, making it imperative for international decision makers and planners to keep abreast of these developments.  The diversity of systems available also increases flexibility and security of supply.
  27. 27. Solar Energy  Solar energy is clean energy.  It produces no hazardous solid, liquid or gas wastes.  It does not create water or air pollution. The two areas in which solar energy can make the greatest contribution are in space heating and in the generation of electricity. • Solar water heaters have proved the most popular so far and solar photovoltaics for decentralized power supply are fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas. • More than 700000 PV systems generating 44 MW have been installed all over India. • Under the water pumping programme more than 3000 systems have been installed so far and the market for solar lighting and solar pumping is far from saturated. • Solar drying is one area which offers very good prospects in food, agricultural and chemical products drying applications.
  28. 28. Wind Power  Wind has been used from thousands of years as a source of energy on sailing ships and windmills to pump water. Today, windmills can be used to generate electricity, usually located on a wind farm.  India now ranks as a "wind superpower" with an installed wind power capacity of 1167 MW and about 5 billion units of electricity have been fed to the national grid so far.  In progress are wind resource assessment programme, wind monitoring, wind mapping, covering 800 stations in 24 states with 193 wind monitoring stations in operations. Altogether 13 states of India have a net potential of about 45000 MW.
  29. 29. Tidal Energy Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. In this process kinetic motion of the ocean tides is converted into electrical energy. Tidal power generators derive their energy from movements of tides. It has the potential for generation of very large amount of electricity. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power.
  30. 30. Geothermal Energy Large reservoirs within the ground contain heated water from internal heat in the earth. This heated water can create steam, thereby producing geothermal energy.
  31. 31. Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion (OTEC) Ocean energy thermal conversion (OTEC) is a new, clean technology. It exploits the temperature difference between warm surface water and the cold water at depth to run a “heat engine”. A heat engine is a device placed between a high temperature reservoir and a low temperature reservoir that produces energy.
  32. 32. Hydropower  Water wheels have been used for over 100 years to help create energy to ground grain or cut lumber, creating micro hydropower.  Hydroelectric energy is created releasing large amounts of water through a man-made dam, which turn turbines, or generators, to create electricity.
  33. 33. Biomass energy, which is energy derived from burning organic material like wood, alcohol, or garbage, is a common renewable energy resource. A drawback of burning these items, however, is that particles are released into the atmosphere, potentially increasing air pollution. Biomass Energy
  34. 34. Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is produced from atomic reactions. Energy is formed when a nucleus from a heavy element is split creating lighter elements and releasing energy. The splitting of heavy elements is called nuclear fission and often uses Uranium- 235 as the fuel to carry out the process. Unfortunately, uranium is a nonrenewable resource. In addition, nuclear energy produces radioactive waste products that stay radioactive for thousands of years. Currently, research is ongoing in hopes of harnessing nuclear fusion, the same process that fuels the sun, which can create electricity without any waste.
  35. 35. Barriers to the effective development and widespread diffusion of renewable energy systems:  Inadequate documentation and evaluation of past experience, paucity of validated field performance data and lack of clear priorities for future work.  Weak or non-existent institutions and policies to finance and commercialize renewable energy systems.  Technical and economic uncertainties in many renewable energy systems, high economic and financial costs for some systems in comparison with conventional supply options and energy efficiency measures.  Skeptical attitudes towards renewable energy systems on the part of the energy planners and lack of qualified personnel to design, manufacture, market, operate and maintain such systems. Bottlenecks for development of Renewable Energy Systems
  36. 36. Energy exploration and exploitation, capacity additions, clean energy alternatives, conservation, and energy sector reforms will, therefore, be critical for energy security. Energy conservation has also emerged as one of the major issues in recent years. Conservation and efficient utilization of energy resources play a vital role in narrowing the gap between demand and supply of energy. Improving energy efficiency is one of the most desirable options for bridging the gap in the short term. Energy Conservation
  37. 37. The strategy developed to make power available to all by 2020 includes promotion of energy efficiency and its conservation in the country, which is found to be the least cost option to augment the gap between demand and supply. Nearly 25,000 MW of capacity creation through energy efficiency in the electricity sector alone has been estimated in India. Energy conservation potential for the economy as a whole has been assessed as 23% with maximum potential in industrial and agricultural sectors. Energy Conservation contd..
  38. 38. Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an energy service. Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service. For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation. Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an example of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques. Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, and personal financial security.It is at the top of the sustainable energy hierarchy. Energy Conservation contd..
  39. 39. THANKS