Non Conventional Energy Sources
Department of EE
Chitkara University, Punjab
Energy is the ability to do work and work is the transfer
of energy from one form to another.
Energy is what we use to manipulate the world around
us, whether by exciting our muscles, by using
electricity, or by using mechanical devices.
Energy comes in different forms - heat (thermal), light
(radiant), mechanical, electrical, chemical, and nuclear
What is Energy?
Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development
of any country. In the case of the developing countries, the energy
sector assumes a critical importance in view of the ever increasing
energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them.
Energy can be classified into several types based on the following
Primary and Secondary energy
Commercial and Non commercial energy
Renewable and Non-Renewable energy
Primary and Secondary Energy
Primary energy sources are those that are either found or
stored in nature.
Common primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas,
and biomass (such as wood).
Other primary energy sources available include nuclear
energy from radioactive substances, thermal energy stored in
earth's interior, and potential energy due to earth's gravity.
Primary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial
utilities into secondary energy sources; for example coal, oil
or gas converted into steam and electricity.
Primary energy can also be used directly. Some energy
sources have non-energy uses, for example coal or natural
gas can be used as a feedstock (main raw material used in
the manufacture of a product / raw material required for an
industrial process) in fertiliser plants.
Commercial Energy & Non Commercial
The energy sources that are available in the market for a
definite price are known as commercial energy.
The most important forms of commercial energy are electricity,
coal and refined petroleum products.
Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial, agricultural,
transport and commercial development in the modern world.
In the industrialized countries, commercialized fuels are
predominant source not only for economic production, but also
for many household tasks of general population.
Examples: Electricity, lignite, coal, oil, natural gas etc.
The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for
a price are classified as non-commercial energy.
Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as firewood, cattle
dung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally gathered, and not
bought at a price used especially in rural households. These are also
called traditional fuels.
Firewood, agro waste in rural areas;
solar energy for water heating, electricity generation, for drying
grain, fish and fruits;
animal power for transport, threshing, lifting water for irrigation,
wind energy for lifting water and electricity generation.
Non-commercial energy is often ignored in energy accounting*.
* Energy accounting is a system to record, analyze and report energy consumption and
cost on a regular basis.
Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially
inexhaustible. Examples of renewable resources include wind power, solar
power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power. The most
important feature of renewable energy is that it can be harnessed without the
release of harmful pollutants.
Non-renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas,
which are likely to deplete with time.
Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
India is the ninth largest economy in the world, driven by a real
GDP growth of 8.7% in the last 5 years (7.5% over the last 10
In 2010 itself, the real GDP growth of India was the 5th highest in
the world. This high order of sustained economic growth is
placing enormous demand on its energy resources.
The demand and supply imbalance in energy is pervasive across
all sources requiring serious efforts by Government of India to
augment energy supplies as India faces possible severe energy
The share of Coal and Petroleum is expected to be about 66.8
percent in total commercial energy produced and about 56.9
percent in total commercial energy supply by 2021-22.
The demand for coal is projected to reach 980 MT during the
Twelfth Plan period (2012-2017), whereas domestic production is
expected to touch 795 MT in the terminal year (2016-17).
Even though the demand gap will need to be met through
imports, domestic coal production will also need to grow at an
average rate of 8 percent compared to about 4.6 percent in the
Eleventh Five Year Plan.
The share of crude oil in production and consumption is expected
to be 6.7 percent and 23 percent respectively by 2021-22.
Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
In 2011-12, India was the fourth largest consumer in the world of
Crude Oil and Natural Gas, after the United States, China, and
Russia. India’s energy demand continued to rise inspite of slowing
Combustible renewables and waste (Combustible renewables and
waste comprise solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial
waste, and municipal waste) constitute about one fourth of Indian
This share includes traditional biomass sources such as firewood
and dung, which are used by more than 800 million Indian
households for cooking.
Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
The power sector in India had an installed capacity of 236.38
Gigawatt (GW) as of March 2012 recording an increase of 14% over
that of March 2011.
Captive power plants generate an additional 36.5 GW. Thermal
power plants constitute 66% of the installed capacity, hydroelectric
about 19% and rest being a combination of wind, small hydro-plants,
biomass, waste-to-electricity plants, and nuclear energy.
India generated about 855 BU electricity during 2011-12 fiscal.
Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
As of March 2012, the per capita total consumption in India was
estimated to be 879 kWh.
India's electricity sector is amongst the world's most active
players in renewable energy utilization, especially wind energy.
As of March 2012, India had an installed capacity of about 24.9
GW of new and renewable technologies-based electricity.
During the Eleventh Five Year Plan, nearly 55,000 MW of new
generation capacity was created, yet there continued to be an
overall energy deficit of 8.7 per cent and peak shortage of 9.0 per
Resources currently allocated to energy supply are not sufficient
for narrowing the gap between energy needs and energy
Indian Energy Scenario-Overview
Sectorwise Consumption of Electricity (Utilities),
Natural Gas, Petroleum products during 2011-12
Reference: Energy Statistics 2013
Reserves And Potential For Generation
Coal and Lignite
Coal deposits are mainly confined to eastern and south central parts of the country. The
states of Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
and Madhya Pradesh account for more than 99% of the total coal reserves in the country.
As on 31.03.12 the estimated reserves of coal was around 293.5 billion tones, an addition
of 7.64 billion over the last year ( Table 1.1). The total estimated reserve of coal in India
as on 31.03.11 was around 285.86 billion tonnes.
There has been an increase of 2.67% in the estimated coal reserves during the year
2011-12 with Madhya Pradesh accounting for the maximum increase of 5.41 %.
The increase in the estimated reserve of lignite during the year 2011-
12 was 1.22%, Tamil Nadu accounting for the maximum increase of
The estimated reserves of crude oil in India as on
31.03.2012 stood at 759.59 million tonnes (MT).
Geographical distribution of Crude oil indicates that
the maximum reserves are in the Western Offshore
(44.46%) followed by Assam (22.71%), whereas the
maximum reserves of Natural Gas are in the Eastern
Offshore (34.73%) followed by Western offshore
There was an increase of 0.29% in the estimated
reserve of crude oil for the country as a whole during
2011-12. There was an increase of estimated Crude Oil
reserves by 7.09% in Andhra Pradesh followed by Tamil
The estimated reserves of natural gas in India as on
31.03.2012 stood at 1330.26 billion cubic meters (BCM).
In case of Natural Gas, the increase in the estimated
reserves over the last year was 4.08%. The maximum
contribution to this increase has been from Cold Bed
Methane(CBM) (11.32%), followed by Tripura (8.95%).
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Renewable Energy Sources
There is high potential for generation of renewable energy from various sources- wind,
solar, biomass, small hydro and cogeneration bagasse *(next slide).
The total potential for renewable power generation in the country as on 31.03.12 is
estimated at 89774 MW (Table 1.3). This includes wind power potential of 49130 MW
(54.73%), SHP (small-hydro power) potential of 15399 MW (17.15%), Biomass power
potential of 17,538 MW(19.54%) and 5000 MW (5.57%) from bagasse-based cogeneration
in sugar mills.
*Bagasse is the fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane stalks are crushed
to extract their juice. It is currently used as a biofuel and in the manufacture of
pulp and building materials.
Bagasse is often used as a primary fuel source for sugar mills; when burned in
quantity, it produces sufficient heat energy to supply all the needs of a typical
sugar mill, with energy to spare. To this end, a secondary use for this waste
product is in cogeneration, the use of a fuel source to provide both heat energy,
used in the mill, and electricity, which is typically sold on to the consumer
For each 10 tonnes of sugarcane crushed, a sugar factory produces nearly 3
tonnes of wet bagasse. Since bagasse is a by-product of the cane sugar industry,
the quantity of production in each country is in line with the quantity of
Government created the Department of Non-conventional
Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982. In 1992 a full fledged Ministry of
Non-conventional Energy Sources was established under the
overall charge of the Prime Minister.
The range of its activities cover
promotion of renewable energy technologies,
create an environment conducive to promote renewable
create an environment conducive for their commercialization,
renewable energy resource assessment,
research and development,
production of biogas units, solar thermal devices, solar
photovoltaics, cookstoves, wind energy and small hydropower
Renewable Energy Scenario in India
Calorific Value Of Fuels
Sr No. Fuel Approx heating value
1 Wood 1500 3500
2 Cattle dung 1000 3700
3 Bagasse 2200 4400
4 Wheat and rice straw 2400 2500
5 Cane trash, rice husk, leaves and vegetable wastes 3000 3000
6 Coconut husks, dry grass and crop residues 3500 3500
7 Groundnut shells 4000 4000
8 Coffee and oil palm husks 4200 4200
9 Cotton husks 4400 4400
10 Peat 6500 6500
B FOSSIL FUELS
1 Coal 4000-7000
2 Coke 6500
3 Charcoal 7000
4 Carbon 8000
5 Fuel oil 9800
6 Kerosene and diesel 10000
7 Petrol 10800
8 Paraffin 10500
9 Natural gas 8600
10 Coal gas 4000
11 Electrical (Kcal(KW) 860
12 Bio gas(Kcal/cu mtr) (12 kg of dung produces 1 cu. Mtr 4700-6000
Natural resources that can be replaced and reused by nature
are termed renewable. Natural resources that cannot be
replaced are termed nonrenewable.
Renewable resources are replaced through natural processes at
a rate that is equal to or greater than the rate at which they are
used, and depletion is usually not a worry.
Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible and are extracted
faster than the rate at which they formed. E.g. Fossil Fuels
(coal, oil, natural gas).
Nonrenewable vs. Renewable Resources
Because they are fossil fuels they do have a life
Burning fossil fuels has increased
The carbon stored in fossil fuels is
released as carbon dioxide when they are
burnt – this leads to the green house effect and
How much longer can we depend on fossil fuels?
What is an alternative source of energy?
An energy source that can be used instead of
It is usually a renewable source of energy that
could be used should fossil fuels run out.
Alternative Energy Sources
Ocean thermal energy conversion
Advantages of using natural sources of
They are inexhaustible – they will always be available – they
They are clean and will not damage the Earth.
There are several types – so one or more of them is present
in each country.
Most natural sources can be used on a small scale and serve
local needs therefore cutting costs of transmitting the
Rapid scientific and technological advantages are expected to
expand the economic range of renewable energy applications
over the next 8-10 years, making it imperative for
international decision makers and planners to keep abreast
of these developments.
The diversity of systems available also increases flexibility
and security of supply.
Solar energy is clean energy.
It produces no hazardous solid, liquid or gas wastes.
It does not create water or air pollution.
The two areas in which solar energy can make the greatest
contribution are in space heating and in the generation of electricity.
• Solar water heaters have proved the most popular so far and solar
photovoltaics for decentralized power supply are fast becoming
popular in rural and remote areas.
• More than 700000 PV systems generating 44 MW have been
installed all over India.
• Under the water pumping programme more than 3000 systems
have been installed so far and the market for solar lighting and solar
pumping is far from saturated.
• Solar drying is one area which offers very good prospects in food,
agricultural and chemical products drying applications.
Wind has been used from thousands of years
as a source of energy on sailing ships and
windmills to pump water. Today, windmills
can be used to generate electricity, usually
located on a wind farm.
India now ranks as a "wind superpower" with
an installed wind power capacity of 1167 MW
and about 5 billion units of electricity have
been fed to the national grid so far.
In progress are wind resource assessment
programme, wind monitoring, wind mapping,
covering 800 stations in 24 states with 193
wind monitoring stations in operations.
Altogether 13 states of India have a net
potential of about 45000 MW.
Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of
hydropower that converts the energy of tides into
useful forms of power - mainly electricity.
In this process kinetic motion of the ocean tides
is converted into electrical energy.
Tidal power generators derive their energy from
movements of tides.
It has the potential for generation of very large
amount of electricity.
Tides are more predictable than wind energy and
Large reservoirs within the ground contain
heated water from internal heat in the earth.
This heated water can create steam, thereby
producing geothermal energy.
Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion
Ocean energy thermal conversion (OTEC) is a
new, clean technology.
It exploits the temperature difference between
warm surface water and the cold water at depth
to run a “heat engine”.
A heat engine is a device placed between a high
temperature reservoir and a low temperature
reservoir that produces energy.
Water wheels have been used for over 100 years to help
create energy to ground grain or cut lumber, creating micro
Hydroelectric energy is created releasing large amounts of
water through a man-made dam, which turn turbines, or
generators, to create electricity.
Biomass energy, which is energy derived from burning organic
material like wood, alcohol, or garbage, is a common renewable
A drawback of burning these items, however, is that particles are
released into the atmosphere, potentially increasing air pollution.
Nuclear energy is produced from atomic reactions. Energy is
formed when a nucleus from a heavy element is split creating
lighter elements and releasing energy. The splitting of heavy
elements is called nuclear fission and often uses Uranium-
235 as the fuel to carry out the process.
Unfortunately, uranium is a nonrenewable resource.
In addition, nuclear energy produces radioactive waste
products that stay radioactive for thousands of years.
Currently, research is ongoing in hopes of harnessing nuclear
fusion, the same process that fuels the sun, which can create
electricity without any waste.
Barriers to the effective development and widespread diffusion of
renewable energy systems:
Inadequate documentation and evaluation of past experience,
paucity of validated field performance data and lack of clear
priorities for future work.
Weak or non-existent institutions and policies to finance and
commercialize renewable energy systems.
Technical and economic uncertainties in many renewable
energy systems, high economic and financial costs for some
systems in comparison with conventional supply options and
energy efficiency measures.
Skeptical attitudes towards renewable energy systems on the
part of the energy planners and lack of qualified personnel to
design, manufacture, market, operate and maintain such
Bottlenecks for development of Renewable Energy
Energy exploration and exploitation, capacity additions, clean
energy alternatives, conservation, and energy sector reforms will,
therefore, be critical for energy security.
Energy conservation has also emerged as one of the major issues
in recent years.
Conservation and efficient utilization of energy resources play a
vital role in narrowing the gap between demand and supply of
Improving energy efficiency is one of the most desirable options
for bridging the gap in the short term.
The strategy developed to make power available to all by 2020
includes promotion of energy efficiency and its conservation in
the country, which is found to be the least cost option to
augment the gap between demand and supply.
Nearly 25,000 MW of capacity creation through energy
efficiency in the electricity sector alone has been estimated in
Energy conservation potential for the economy as a whole has
been assessed as 23% with maximum potential in industrial
and agricultural sectors.
Energy Conservation contd..
Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using
less of an energy service.
Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use, which
refers to using less energy for a constant service.
For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation.
Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an
example of energy efficiency.
Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction
Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can
result in increased financial capital, environmental quality,
national security, and personal financial security.It is at the top
of the sustainable energy hierarchy.
Energy Conservation contd..