Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar BookBy: Antonio Capozzi
  2. 2. Table of Contents3. Presente -ar –er –ir4. Stem Changers5. Irregulars –go –zco –yo6. Saber vs conocer7. Reflexives8. ‘se’ impersonal9. Dipthongs10. Verbs like…Uir/guir11. Verbs like…Cer/cir12. Verbs like…Ger/gir13. Hace +__+ que + present/presentente14. Imperfecto15. Preterite16. Car, gar, zar17. Spock18. cucaracha19. Snake/snakeys20. Comparatives/Superlatives21. Futuro
  3. 3. Ar, Er, Ir • Los verbos regulares en el presente Ir- Ar- o amos o imos as an Er- es en a o emos eCaminar- Es enCamino Caminamos e Comer- Vivir-Caminas Caminan Como Comemos Vivo VivimosCamina Comes Comen Vives Viven Come Vive
  4. 4. Stem Changers aka Boot verbs• The verbs change in the root• They do not change in the nosotros form or the vosotros Pensar- Penso• E  ie Pienso• O ue• U ue Yo nosotros Tú vosotros El/ella/utd Ellos/Ellas/Utds
  5. 5. Irregulars -go -zco -yo• The “go” “zco” verbs are only in the irregulars in the yo form Yo – Tengo• “go” verbs- caer, decir, oir, puner, hacer, tener, traer, Yo – Hago venir Yo - Vengo• “zco” verbs (cer/cir)- conocer, producir, conducir• y los demás – ser, ir, estar, ver, Yo - Conozco Yo - Produzco saber, dar Yo - Conduzco Ser- Ir- Soy Somos Voy Vamos Eres Son Vas Van Es Va
  6. 6. Saber Vs Conocer• Both saber y conocer translate to the English verb to know• Both “yo” forms are irregular Saber – Conocer- Sé sabemos Conozco conocemos Sabes saben Conoces Conocen Sabe Conoce
  7. 7. Reflexives• Brenda se lava- se is reflexive• Reflexives also can be added on the end of an infinitive. Such as…- Puedo verme en el espejo
  8. 8. ‘se impersonal• pronoun ”se” is in front of verbs to make general statements.• ¿cómo se dice man en español?• In English it translates to either “you say” or “one says.”
  9. 9. Dipthongs w/accents• Dipthongs are the strong or weak vowels in a word next to each other. *two strong• Strong vowel sounds are a,e,o. vowels cannot be• Weak vowel sounds are i,u,y. in the same syllable• puerto, ciudad, siete, hay.
  10. 10. Verbs like…Uir/GuirGuir Uir -Nosotros form is the only that doesn’t-Yo form only changes from Gu to G change.-Conseguir -Verbs that end in -uir (not guir) add yconsigo before o, e, and a endingsconsigues -atribuirconsigueconseguimos atribuyoconsiguen atribuyes atribuye atribuimos atribuyen
  11. 11. Verbs like…Cer/cir• Verbs that end in a vowel + cer or cir add z before the c in the yo form only.• Verbs that end in a consonant + cer or cir change the c to z in the yo form only.• conducir = conduzco• ejercer = ejerzo
  12. 12. Verbs like…Ger/gir• Verbs that end in ger and gir change the g to j in the yo form only.• coger = cojo• fingir = finjo
  13. 13. Hace +__+ que + Present/Presentente• The yo form is the only irregular• Hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacen
  14. 14. Imperfecto• The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly.• Yo caminaba todo los días.Ser- Ver- Er/Ir-era veía íaeras veías ías Ir- Ar-era veía íaéramos veíamos aba iba íamoseran veían abas ibas ían aba iba ábamos íbamos aban iban
  15. 15. Preterite• “Snapshot” of time.• Known beginning and or ending• Trigger words: ayer, anoche, aneayer, la semana pasada ect… É Í Aste iste ó ió Amos imos Aron ieron
  16. 16. Car, gar, zar• Car qué• Gar  qué• Zar  cé• * 1st person only “yo”
  17. 17. SpockHacer Dar/ver Ir/serhice d/v - ihiciste Fui d/v - istehizo Fuiste d/v - iohicimos Fue d/v - imoshicieron Fuimos d/v - ieron Fueron
  18. 18. CucarachaAndar  anduvEstar  estuv ÉPoder  pud istePoner  pus OQuerer quis imosSaber  sup ieronTener  tuv “j” verbs  iVenir  vinConducir  condujProducir  produjTraducir  traduj EronTraer  traj EronDecir  dij
  19. 19. Snake/Snakey• Stem changers and Y changersDormir- Leer-Dormi dormimos Leí leimosDormiste LeisteDurmio Durmieron Leyó leyeron
  20. 20. Comparatives/SuperlativesAdjective Comparative Translation Superlative Translationbueno good mejor que better el / la mejor the bestmalo bad peor que worse el / la peor the worstviejo old mayor que older el / la mayor the oldestjoven young menor que younger el / la menor the youngest
  21. 21. “Will factor” El Futuro • Infinitives & - É Ás Á Emos Ir + a + infinitive vivir = viviré Án (immediate future) Decir- to say Haber- there to be/to have Hacer- to make do Poder-to be able Poner- to put,place,rest Querer-to want, love Saber- to know Salir- to leave, go out Tener-to have Valer- to be worth Venir- to come

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