Qualifying Online Information Resources for Chemists

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This is a presentation I gave at the Library of Congress as part of a NFAIS/FLICC/CENDI meeting as outlined here: http://www.chemspider.com/blog/making-the-web-work-for-science-presentation-at-the-library-of-congress.html

The presentation provides an overview of some of the challenges the publishers face moving forward, how they are responding to it, how InChI is an enabling technology, how quality is important.

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Qualifying Online Information Resources for Chemists

  1. 1. Qualifying Online Information Resources for Chemists NFAIS-CENDI-FLICC 12/8/2008 Antony Williams
  2. 2. The Changing Scope of My Roles and Information Access <ul><li>Postdoctoral position, NRC, Canada (1988-1990) </li></ul><ul><li>NMR Facility Director, University of Ottawa (1990-1991) </li></ul><ul><li>NMR Technology Leader, Eastman-Kodak (1991-1997). </li></ul><ul><li>VP and Chief Science officer for ACD/Labs, a commercial scientific software company (1997-2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant to cheminformatics/scientific software companies, publishers, academia </li></ul><ul><li>“ ChemSpiderman” – host of a rich resource of Free Access web-based information for chemists. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Access to Information <ul><li>For me… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PhD : Libraries primary source of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PostDoc/Academia: Libraries and librarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastman Kodak: Software tools and databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kodak and ACD/Labs: Replaced by the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today: The Internet enhanced by a network of collaborators… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarians have become gurus in using software systems to resource information </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Content is King <ul><li>Chemistry “content” is big money – Chemistry publishing and content is worth $100s of millions/year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures and properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), a division of the ACS is “Gold Standard” in Chemistry related information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>101 years of content, $260 million revenue (2006), >40 million substances and 60 million sequences </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Language of Chemistry <ul><li>My language…. </li></ul>
  6. 6. And its dialects….
  7. 7. As a chemist… <ul><li>I look for information about chemicals/chemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a particular structure ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What alternative names/identifiers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction synthesis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical properties? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me more? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar stuff – what other compounds are “like” mine? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Why Journals? <ul><li>Journals contain lots of information but are limited – text, charts, graphs and pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Text-based searches of the internet gets me to articles VERY quickly then articles can disappoint me. I use what I can afford . So do others… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Scholar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PubMed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Updating my CV recently was a breeze…the Internet versus other sources </li></ul>
  9. 9. Searching and Reading Articles… <ul><li>Searching articles based on chemical structure and substructure is very expensive.. but is changing </li></ul><ul><li>The web IS “tool-ready” so when will publishers deliver? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures can be shown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectra can be interactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics don’t need to be static </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers can enhance their articles (Project Prospect from the RSC is an example) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Publications
  11. 11. Enable Electronic Articles… <ul><li>Structures are the language of chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Show structures to chemists and search/link from there… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Allow Integration…
  13. 13. And Extend to Patents…
  14. 14. Structure-based Patent Searching SureChem and IBM services
  15. 15. What can be done?
  16. 16. Publishers should adopt/add InChIs RSC and Nature Publishing Group have!
  17. 17. Blogs, Wikis, Forums and Collaborative Science <ul><li>I have two blogs, one forum and a full blog reader… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.chemspider.com/blog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.chemspider.com/chemunicating (ChemConnector) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://forum.chemspider.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are catalytic for collaborations, getting questions answered, garnering comments and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>There are upsides and downsides: http://www.chemspider.com/blog/the-joys-and-frustrations-of-6-months-blogging-in-the-chemistry-community.html </li></ul>
  18. 18. Blogging Experience and Judgments <ul><li>The blogging community for chemistry small and tight </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to me </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast feedback – on and offline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended network, diverse skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast way to spread news – a local PressWire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most blogs are for information sharing, opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Low in scientific content – the content is “off-blog” – blogs help find it </li></ul><ul><li>Small number of blogs doing real science </li></ul>
  19. 19. TotallySynthetic.com
  20. 20. Social Networking for Chemists Blogs are the start
  21. 21. Collaborative Knowledge Management for Chemists – Wikipedia, Built by a Network
  22. 22. Collaborative Authoring for Drug Discovery <ul><li>Pfizerpedia </li></ul>
  23. 23. Collaborative Authoring in Academia <ul><li>Group level collaboration via Wikis </li></ul>
  24. 24. Wikis for Science <ul><li>Who in the room hasn’t used Wikipedia? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it trustworthy? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Wiki environment? </li></ul><ul><li>How suitable is it for Chemistry? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Wikipedia Chemistry Curation project <ul><li>Only ca. 5000 organic structures </li></ul><ul><li>A year of work for a team of 6 people </li></ul><ul><li>Many errors removed in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow and torturous process </li></ul><ul><li>CAS collaborating in the process </li></ul>
  26. 26. Wikipedia via ChemSpider …
  27. 27. Collaborative Drug Discovery, Inc. $1.9M from the Gates Foundation
  28. 28. The Quality of Data Online… <ul><li>Content is king – quality costs. Curation is expensive! </li></ul><ul><li>Data online are “filthy”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering data is the “easy part” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures are COMMONLY incorrect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informatics tools exist already </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold millions of structures and associated data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure/substructure/text searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data downloads, data uploads, editing, annotation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Rich Online Data Resources for Chemists and the Life Sciences <ul><li>PubChem </li></ul><ul><li>Pubmed </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>ChemSpider </li></ul><ul><li>Drugbank </li></ul><ul><li>ChEBI </li></ul><ul><li>ChemIDPlus </li></ul><ul><li>DailyMed </li></ul><ul><li>And many more… </li></ul>
  30. 30. PubChem
  31. 31. DailyMed
  32. 32. Caution! Question Everything!
  33. 33. Question Everything www.dhmo.org
  34. 34. Quality of Structures!!!
  35. 35. Quality of Structures
  36. 36. Crowdsourcing <ul><li>Chemistry databases enhanced by crowdsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry databases can be connected to articles, vendors, properties, spectra, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A platform for deposition, curation and distribution ? </li></ul><ul><li>This is the future… existing business models are at risk </li></ul>
  37. 37. Wendy Warr <ul><li>“…some publishers are responding vigorously to market forces, but the steady growth of free information resources is a real threat to them .” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.iwr.co.uk/information-world-review/features/2232039/stm-advance </li></ul>
  38. 38. Trademark Infringement But Real Competition…
  39. 39. http:// publicaccess.nih.gov / <ul><li>Address Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Before you sign a publication agreement or similar copyright transfer agreement, make sure that the agreement allows the paper to be submitted to NIH in accordance with the Public Access Policy.  </li></ul>
  40. 40. Publishers and Open Access <ul><li>“It's clear that the academic publishing world is in a state of flux. Nobody's quite figured out how to make an open access business model work , but even most publishers recognize that the public and scientific community benefit from having access to the research they've paid for. “ </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry Publishing and “Structures”??? </li></ul>
  41. 41. PubChem
  42. 42. InChIs Structure but NOT substructure
  43. 43. The InChI Resolver
  44. 44. Peer Review and Wikis Peter Frishauf, founder of Medscape <ul><li>“Andrew Grove, … Intel Corporation, likens traditional peer-review systems to Middle Ages guilds . He calls for &quot;cultural revolution&quot; in publishing to reinvent peer review.” </li></ul><ul><li>“That revolution will emerge as a variant of Wikipedia . Medical publishing, peer review, research, patient care, and commerce will be transformed. And for the better.” </li></ul>
  45. 45. Protein Databank <ul><li>Visit to Rutgers University on Tuesday December 3 rd </li></ul><ul><li>Questions regarding multiple chemical structures. </li></ul><ul><li>One example… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepstatin </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Pepstatin
  47. 47. Conclusions <ul><li>The internet enables chemistry – and at a reduced cost </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 is here and improving quality – to benefit 3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Question Quality! </li></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing for expansion, curation and integration </li></ul><ul><li>Classical models may die quite quickly – business models must change soon or fail </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers – heed the profileration of InChIs for Chemistry </li></ul>
  48. 48. The End of Traditional Publishing <ul><li>Peter Frishauf, The Medscape Journal of Medicine makes two predictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 5 years, most medical journals will be open-access . […] provide access to trusted articles and data at no cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer review as we know it will disappear. Rather than the secretive prepublication review process followed by most publishers today, including Medscape , most peer review will occur transparently, and after publication . </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. The ChemSpider Journal – 12/2008 www.chemspider.com
  50. 50. The Story of NAPE
  51. 51. NAPE <ul><li>Google Search of : “chemical structure of </li></ul><ul><li>N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine” </li></ul>
  52. 52. NAPE Google Search of : “chemical structure of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine”
  53. 53. The “Lipid Library”
  54. 54. Wikipedia…
  55. 55. Original Source – Full loop
  56. 56. And now a structure…

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