Sound

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Sound

  1. 1. SOUND A . Antony Alex MCA Dr G R D College of Science – CBE Tamil Nadu - India
  2. 2. Contents O SoundO Sound O Power of Sound O Multimedia Sound Systems O Midi Sound O Digital Sound Midi vs DigitalO Midi vs Digital O Audio File Formats - Codec O Live Session
  3. 3. Sound O Sound is made when something vibrates.O Sound is made when something vibrates. O The vibration disturbs the air around it. O This makes changes in air pressure. O These changes in air pressure move through the air as sound waves. O The sound waves cause pressure changes against our ear drum sending nerveagainst our ear drum sending nerve impulses to our brain.
  4. 4. Sound Waves O Sound is transmitted as wave motion through aO Sound is transmitted as wave motion through a medium such as air, water or metal. O Waves are divided into types according to the direction of displacement of the medium in relation to the direction of the motion of the wave itself. Two basic classifications of Sound Waves areO Two basic classifications of Sound Waves are O Transverse Waves O Longitudinal waves.
  5. 5. Transverse Waves O An example of a transverse wave is the ripples on the surface of water. The vibration of the water surface is at right angles (up ripples on the surface of water. The vibration of the water surface is at right angles (up and down) to the direction of motion (out from the disturbance).
  6. 6. Longitudinal Waves O If the vibration is parallel to the direction ofO If the vibration is parallel to the direction of motion, as it is with sound, the wave is known as a longitudinal wave.
  7. 7. The three components of sound are: O Pitch (how high or low)O Pitch (how high or low) O Loudness (volume) O Timbre (tone color)
  8. 8. Pitch O The vibration patterns of some sounds areO The vibration patterns of some sounds are repetitive. O Vibration patterns are also called waveforms. O Each repetition of a waveform is called a cycle. O We can hear frequencies between 20 hertz or cycles (vibrations) per second (low pitches)to 20 kilohertz, i.e. 20,000 Hz (high pitches).kilohertz, i.e. 20,000 Hz (high pitches). O Many animals can make sounds and hear frequencies that are beyond what we can hear.
  9. 9. O To create vibrations energy is used. Loudness O To create vibrations energy is used. O The greater amount of energy used the louder the sound. O The strength of the changes in air pressure made by the vibrating object determines loudness. O As the distance from the source increases the amount of power is spread over a greater area.amount of power is spread over a greater area. O The amount of power per square meter is called the intensityintensityintensityintensity of the sound.
  10. 10. Timbre (Tone color) O It is the specific property of sound thatO It is the specific property of sound that enables us to determine the difference between the sound. O An extremely broad variety of tone colors exist because most sounds that we perceive as pitch actually contain many frequencies. The predominant pitch is called theThe predominant pitch is called theOO The predominant pitch is called theThe predominant pitch is called the fundamentalfundamentalfundamentalfundamentalfundamentalfundamentalfundamentalfundamental frequency.frequency.
  11. 11. Sound Power O Sound power is a measure of sonic energy EO Sound power is a measure of sonic energy E per time t unit. O The sound power level of a source is expressed in decibels (dB)
  12. 12. Situation and sound source sound power sound power Rocket engine 1,000,000 W 180 dB Turbojet engine 10,000 W 160 dB Siren 1,000 W 150 dB Heavy truck engine or loudspeaker rock concert 100 W 140 dB Machine gun 10 W 130 dB Jackhammer 1 W 120 dB Excavator, trumpet 0.3 W 115 dB Chain saw 0.1 W 110 dB Helicopter 0.01 W 100 dB Loud speech, vivid children 0.001 W 90 dB Usual talking, Typewriter 10−5 W 70 dB Refrigerator 10−7 W 50 dB
  13. 13. Multimedia Sound System O MicrophoneO Microphone O Speakers O Amplifier O Equalizer O AUDIO Drivers O Sound CardsO Sound Cards
  14. 14. Musical Instrument Digital Interface O MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), is anO MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), is an industry-standard protocol that enables electronic musical instruments , computers and other electronic equipment (MIDI controllers, sound cards, samplers) to communicate and synchronize with each other. Unlike analog devices, MIDI does not transmit an audio signal — it sends event messages about pitch and intensity, control signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato and panning, cues, and clock signals to set the tempo. As an signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato and panning, cues, and clock signals to set the tempo. As an electronic protocol, it is notable for its widespread adoption throughout the music industry.
  15. 15. File Formats MIDI O Standard MIDI (.mid or .smf)O Standard MIDI (.mid or .smf) O MIDI Karaoke (.kar) O XMF O RIFF-RMID O Extended RMID O Extended MIDI (.xmi)O Extended MIDI (.xmi)
  16. 16. DIGITAL SOUND O Digital audio files are like tape recordings.O Digital audio files are like tape recordings. They store every yelp, screech and caterwaul exactly as you make it, then reproduce them on playback, no matter what kind of machine they are played on.
  17. 17. MIDI vs DIGITAL Advantages of MIDI filesAdvantages of MIDI files O MIDI files are tiny, often 10K or less. They download from a web page in no time and fit easily on a floppy disk. MIDI files are ideal any time you want music to start playing immediately. Disadvantages of MIDI files O Because they sound a little different when played onO Because they sound a little different when played on different sound cards, there is no guarantee that those lush horns won't sound like blaring trumpets on the next guy's machine. Making universal MIDI files is a combination of art, skill, and experience.
  18. 18. Advantages of audio files O They can reproduce exact sounds with better-than- CD quality, including all yelps, screeches and caterwauls. O On the web, audio files are best used as "streaming"O On the web, audio files are best used as "streaming" media, where the user clicks to hear a selection as it comes down, saving the trouble of waiting for a long download. Disadvantages of audio files O They are HUGE! They can take up 10MB or more perO They are HUGE! They can take up 10MB or more per minute of sound. Even a simple one can take several minutes to download and play. This is why most audio files on the web are quick snippets of 1 second or less.
  19. 19. File Format O An audio file format is a file format for storing audioO An audio file format is a file format for storing audio data on a computer system. It can be a raw bitstream, but it is usually a container format or an audio data format with defined storage layer. O The general approach towards storing digital audio is to sample the audio voltage which, on playback, would correspond to a certain level of signal in an individual channel with a certain resolution—the number of bits per sample—in regular intervalsnumber of bits per sample—in regular intervals (forming the sample rate). This data can then be stored uncompressed, or compressed to reduce the file size.
  20. 20. O AIFF – standard audio file format used by Apple. O aac – the Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG2 and MPEG4 standards. aac files are usually ADTS or ADIF containers. O ALAC - Apple Lossless compression, a lossless compressionO ALAC - Apple Lossless compression, a lossless compression format from Apple. O amr - AMR-NB audio, used primarily for speech. O atrac (.wav) – the older style Sony ATRAC format. O m4p – A proprietary version of AAC in MP4 with Digital Rights Management developed by Apple for use in music downloaded from their iTunes Music Store. O ogg – a free, open source container format supporting aO ogg – a free, open source container format supporting a variety of codecs, the most popular of which is the audio codec Vorbis. Vorbis offers compression similar to MP3 but is less popular.
  21. 21. O ra & rm – a Real Audio format designed for streaming audio over the Internet. The .ra format allows files to be stored in a self- contained fashion on a computer, with all of the audio data contained inside the file itself. O raw – a raw file can contain audio in any codec but is usually usedO raw – a raw file can contain audio in any codec but is usually used with PCM audio data. It is rarely used except for technical tests. O TTA - The True Audio, real-time lossless audio codec. O wav – standard audio file container format used mainly in Windows PCs. O wma – the popular Windows Media Audio format owned by Microsoft. Designed with Digital Rights Management (DRM) abilities for copy protection. Au – the standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java.O Au – the standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java. O MP3-MP3 is one of the most popular sound formats for music recording. The MP3 encoding system combines good compression (small files) with high quality. Expect all your future software systems to support it.
  22. 22. Live Session O Creating MIDI AudioO Creating MIDI Audio O Creating Digital Audio O Mono Stereo O Digital Audio(DTS) O Codec O File ConversionO File Conversion
  23. 23. History of Audio Sound in Multimedia O No SoundO No Sound O Mono O Music O Digital O Stereo O Digital O DTS O Arena O Dolby Digital Cube O Dolby Digital O Cube O 3D Surround System O Virtual 3D Surround System

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