Jasa bisnis & distribusi( 2)

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  • 1.  Dalam Hubungan Perdagangan Internasional Sektor Jasa, adalah merupakan sektor yg paling dinamis. Berdasarkan Kesepakatan Umum, Sektor Jasa adalah merupakan hasil negosiasi Putaran Uruguay th.1986 s/d 1993.
  • 2.  Dalam Pelaksanaannya Perundingan Perdagangan Jasa dilakukan secara multilateral, plurilateral dan bilateral melalui pendekatan Request dan Offer Request, adalah permintaan dari salah satu negara anggota kepada negara anggota lain untuk lebih membuka akses pasarnya. Offer, adalah sebuah penawaran dari salah satu negara anggota kepada negara anggota lainnya, untuk tingkat liberalisasi pada sektor jasa tertentu.
  • 3. Secara Instrumental, Request dapat dilakukan melalui kerjasama BILATERAL atau PLURILATERAL ( Masing-masing memiliki kekuatan dan kelemahan ) Request diarahkan untuk mengurangi hambatan pasar di negara target, khususnya yang terkait dengan mode of supply di sektor jasaDalam rangka pemanfaatan potensi pasar jasa di luar negeri, Syaratnya;a. Dibutuhkan pengenalan potensi unggulan jasa domestik, untuk menentukan negara yang akan menjadi target/sasaran.b. Pemahaman potensi pasar jasa yang dimiliki suatu negara yang akan dijadikan target Request.c. Pemahamam mengenai berbagai kebijakan negara lain dengan melihat dokumen SOC-serta conditional offer atau revised offer, yang akan dijadikan target sasaran. (sebagai asumsi bahwa request akan dapat memberi peluang atau justru akan menghambat akses pasar jasa nasional)
  • 4. Sebagai konsekuensi di dalam perundingan, setiap negara anggota dapat menawarkan tingkat liberalisasi sektor jasa tertentu kepada negara anggota lainnya. Tujuannya agar dalam proses perundingan, diharapkan akan tercapai keseimbangan antara Request - OfferSyarat dalam pemberian Offer :a. Setiap Offer yang akan disampaikan, harus sesuai dengan tingkat kesiapan dari pemasok Jasa domestik agar dapat berkompetisi dengan pemasok jasa Asing.b. Offer juga dapat didasarkan pada satu kebijakan tertentu – contohnya; adalah untuk mencapai tingkat pembangunan ekonomi nasional yang lebih cepat. Maka sebagai dasar dalam menyampaikan REQUEST – OFFER Indonesia, diperlukan sebuah “PETA AKSES PASAR” (PAP)
  • 5.  Mode-1 => Perdagangan Lintas Batas (Cross-Border) yaitu seorang pengguna dari negara A, menerima jasa dari Luar Negeri melalui infrastruktur POS dan Telekomunikasi; Mode-2 => Konsumsi di Luar Negeri (Consumption Abroad) yaitu Seorang warga negara A, pergi keluar negeri sebagai Turis, Pelajar atau Pasien; Mode-3 => Keberadaan Komersial (Commercial Presence) yaitu Fasilitas Jasa yg disediakan di negara A, berupa fasilitas kantor sebagai anak perusahaan Asing;  Mode-4 => Perpindahan Sementara (Presensence of Natural Persons) yaitu seorang WNA yg memberikan Jasanya di negara A, sebagai Konsultan, Dokter atau Perawat Kesehatan.
  • 6.  Most Favoured Nation (MFN), yaitu menjamin tidak adanya perlakuan diskriminasi antar negara anggota. Legally Binding, yaitu Komitmen yang mengikat (apabila terjadi penarikan komitmen, negara yg bersangkutan harus memberi kompensasi ). National Treatment (Pasal XVII), yaitu Tidak boleh adanya tindakan diskriminatif yg dpt mempengaruhi kondsisi persaingan, sehingga merugikan jasa atau pemasok jasa asing dan aturan tsb berlaku untuk negara yang telah membuat “specific commitment” Transparency, yaitu Setiap negara anggota diwajibkan bersikap terbuka terhadap kebijakan perdagangan yg dibua, sehingga memudahkan para pelaku usaha untuk memahami berbagai ketentuan yang terkait dengan aktivitasnya. Progressive Liberalization, yaitu Perluasan akses pasar secara bertahap, disesuaikan dengan tujuan kebijakan dan tingkat perkembangan pembangunan di negara tersebut. Flexibility, yaitu Fleksibilitas penerapan bagi negara-negara berkembang 7
  • 7. Perlakuan MFN tertuang di dalam Pasal II, General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) dan prinsip tersebut berlaku untuk seluruh sektor dan seluruh Anggota;Perlakuan MFN (dalam pasal II) Yaitu, . . . .1). Perlakuan Non-Diskriminasi, dimana setiap negara anggota harus memberikan perlakuan yg sama dan tanpa syarat kepada negara anggota lainnya, dalam pemberian produk Jasa dan pemasok Jasa; 2).……
  • 8. ( Lanjutan ) :2). Setiap negara anggota diperbolehkan mempertahankan kebijakan yg tidak sejalan dgn ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat 1 di atas;3). Ketentuan untuk tidak menghalangi negara anggota yg memberikan kemudahan kepada negara-negara yg berbatasan dgn memfasilitasi perdagangan Jasa yg diproduksi dan dikonsumsi di daerah perbatasan. Dari ke 3 hal tsb di atas, terdapat pengecualian di dalam annex, yaitu kemungkinan dari salah satu negara anggota meminta pengecualian pada saat berlakunya persetujuan (yaitu dalam jangka waktu yg secara prinsip tdk melebihi 10 tahun).
  • 9. 1). Market Access (Pasal XVI) : Berkenaan dengan akses pasar melalui moda-moda pemasokan, negara anggota harus memberikan perlakuan yg tidak boleh kurang dari yg telah ditetapkan berdasarkan ketentuan, pembatasan dan persyaratan yg tercantum dalam schedule commitment kepada produk jasa dan negara anggita lainnya. Kecuali memang diatur berbeda di dalam schedule commitment, maka tindakan atau kebijakan tsb tidak boleh dipertahankan atau diberlakukan oleh negara anggota.
  • 10. 2). National Treatment ( Pasal XVII ) : Dimaksudkan agar tidak boleh adanya tindakan diskriminatif yg mempengaruhi kondisi persaingan, sehingga merugikan jasa atau pemasok jasa asing. Prinsip tsb dimaksudkan untuk menghapus friksi dan distorsi dari kebijakan yg didasarkan pada kekuasaan dgn kerangka kerja serta aturan yg tercermin, dimana hak berdagang tidak tergantung pada pengaruh pelaku ekonomi atau politik individual.
  • 11. 3). Additional Commitments (Pasal XVIII) : Dalam hal-hal diluar Market Access dan National treatment, Komitmen tambahan disampaikan oleh para anggota di dalam hal penggunaan standar, kualifikasi, ataupun lisensi Komitmen tersebut, disampaikan dalam bentuk Reference paper, yg dibuat pada saat pelaksanaan perundingan
  • 12. Perihal yg dimasukan ke dalam Schedule hanyalah tindakan-tindakan yg tidak sesuai dgn ketentuan Akses Pasar maupun National Treatment dari GATS.Schedule Commitment GATS, mencantumkan sedikitnya 8 item untuk setiap sektor.
  • 13.  Strukturisasi Komitmen Anggota WTO Umumnya menggunakan klasifikasi yg terdiri dari 12 sektor Utama Jasa (Document MTN.GNS/W/120)1. Jasa Bisnis 7. Jasa Keuangan (Asuransi & Perbankan)2. Jasa Komunikasi 8. Jasa Kesehatan & Sosial3. Jasa Konstruksi 9. Jasa Wisata & Travel4. Jasa Distribusi 10. Rekreasi, Budaya & Olah Raga5. Jasa Pendidikan 11. Transportasi6. Jasa Lingkungan 12. Jasa-jasa Lain
  • 14. Perundingan Perdagangan Jasa dilakukan melalui proses strategi multi-trak, antara lain :  Forum Kerjasama Multilateral ( WTO - GATS )  Forum Kerjasama Regional (AFAS, APEC, ASEAN-Mitra Dialog)  Forum Kerjasama Bilateral (IJ-EPA)
  • 15. Komitmen Indonesia di berbagai Forum Untuk Sektor Jasa Bisnis
  • 16. ForumKerjasama Multilateral ( WTO - GATS ) Schedule of Specific Commitments INDONESIA
  • 17. Central Product ClassificationsNo Classification (CPC) - Architectural Services (CPC 8671); - Engineering Service (CPC 8672 - except CPC 86721-86725-86726); - Advisory and Consultative (CPC 86721);1 Professional Services; - Engineering design services for industrial processes and production (CPC 86725); - Integrated Engineering Services (CPC 8673); - Urban Planning Services (CPC 86742); - Consultancy Services related to the installation2 Computer and Related Services; of computer hardware (CPC 841); - Software implementation Services (CPC 842); Research and Development - Interdisciplinary R & D (CPC 853), limited to3 Services; industrial activities)4 Real Estate Services; - Rental/Leasing Services (Without5 - Operators);
  • 18. Lanjutan … Central Product ClassificationsNo Classification (CPC) - Project management Services other than for construction (CPC 86601); - Technical Testing and Analysis Services (CPC 8676); - Technical Testing and Analysis Services (CPC 8676); - Services incidental of manufacturing6 Other Business Services; (CPC 884 & 885); - Services incidental of manufacturing (CPC 884 & 885); - Maintenance and repair of equipment (not including maritime vessels, aircraft or other transport equipment) - (CPC 633+8861+8866)
  • 19. INDONESIA SCHEDULE OF SPECIFIC COMMITMENTSModes of supply: (1) Cross-border supply (2) Consumption abroad (3) Commercial presence (4) Presence of natural persons Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitmentsSector Specific Commitments :1.BUSINESS SERVICESA. Professional Services - Architectural Services 1) Unbound 1) Unbound (CPC 8671) 2) None 2) Unbound 3) (a) Joint operation 3) (a) Joint operation : To form a joint operation 1. Registration fee by establishing a requirement representative office 2. Licence for representative (b) Joint venture office shall be valid for 3 To establish a joint venture years and can be extended company by fulfilling the 3. Registered foreign company requirements as specified shall form a joint operation in the Horizontal Measures with local partner(s) which is and the Foreign Capital (are) member(s) of the Investment Law Indonesian Consultant 4) As specified in the Association having Horizontal Measures qualification A (b) Joint venture : Local partner(s) in joint venture shall be member(s) of the Indonesian Consultant Association and having qualification A. 4) As specified in the Horizontal Measures
  • 20. Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitments- Engineering Service 1) Unbound 1) Unbound (CPC 8672 - except CPC 2) None 2) Unbound 86721-86725-86726) 3) (a) Joint operation 3) (a) Joint operation : To form a joint operation 1. Registration fee requirement by establishing a 2. Licence for representative representative office office shall be valid for 3 (b) Joint venture years and can be extended To establish a joint venture 3. Registered foreign company company by fulfilling the shall form a joint operation requirements as specified in with local partner(s) which is the Horizontal Measures (are) member(s) of the and the Foreign Capital Indonesian Consultant Investment Law Association having 4) As specified in the qualification A Horizontal Measures (b) Joint venture : Local partner(s) in joint venture shall be member(s) of the Indonesian Consultant Association and having qualification A. 4) As specified in the Horizontal Measures- Advisory and Consultative 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound (CPC 86721) funded project 2) Unbound 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert Measures
  • 21. Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitments- Engineering design services 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound for industrial processes and funded project 2) Unbound production (CPC 86725) 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert Measures- Integrated Engineering 1) Unbound 1) Unbound Services (CPC 8673) 2) None 2) Unbound 3) (a) Joint operation 3) (a) Joint operation : To form a joint operation 1. Registration fee by establishing a requirement representative office 2. Licence for representative (b) Joint venture office shall be valid for 3 To establish a joint years and can be extended venture company by 3. Registered foreign company fulfilling the requirements shall form a joint operation as specified in the with local partner(s) which is Horizontal Measures and (are) member(s) of the the Foreign Capital Indonesian Consultant Investment Law Association having 4) As specified in the qualification A Horizontal Measures (b) Joint venture : Local partner(s) in joint venture shall be member(s) of the Indonesian Consultant Association and having qualification A. 4) As specified in the Horizontal Measures
  • 22. Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitments- Urban Planning Services (CPC 1) Unbound 1) Unbound 86742) 2) None 2) Unbound 3) (a) Joint operation 3) (a) Joint operation : To form a joint operation 1. Registration fee by establishing requirement a representative office 2. Licence for representative (b) Joint venture office shall be valid for 3 To establish a joint years and can be extended venture company by 3. Registered foreign company fulfilling the requirements shall form a joint operation as specified in the with local partner(s) which Horizontal Measures and is (are) member(s) of the the Foreign Capital Indonesian Consultant Investment Law Association having 4) As specified in the qualification A Horizontal Measures (b) Joint venture : Local partner(s) in joint venture shall be member(s) of the Indonesian Consultant Association and having qualification A. 4) As specified in the Horizontal Measures
  • 23. Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitmentsB. Computer and Related Services- Consultancy Services 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound related to the installation of funded project 2) Unbound computer hardware 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in (CPC 841) funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert Measures- Software 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound implementation funded project 2) Unbound Services (CPC 842) 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert MeasuresC. Research and Development Services- Interdisciplinary R & D 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound (CPC 853, limited to funded project 2) Unbound industrial activities) 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert Measures
  • 24. Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitmentsD. Other Business Services- Project management 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound Services other than for funded project 2) Unbound construction 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in (CPC 86601) funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the and technical expert Horizontal Measures- Technical Testing and 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound Analysis Services funded project 2) Unbound (CPC 8676) 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert Measures- Services incidental of 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound manufacturing funded project 2) Unbound (CPC 884 & 885) 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in funded project joint operation must be 3) Joint operation through a member of Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert Measures- Maintenance and repair of 1) Unbound for government 1) Unbound equipment (not including funded project 2) Unbound maritime vessels, aircraft or 2) Unbound for government 3) The Indonesian participant in other transport equipment) funded project a joint operation must be (CPC 633+8861+8866) 3) Joint operation through a member of the Indonesian representative office in Consultant Association. 4) Unbound except for director 4) As specified in the Horizontal and technical expert Measures
  • 25. Forum Kerjasama RegionalFor the 8th Package of Commitments underASEAN Framework Agreement on Services ( AFAS - 8 ) Schedule of Specific Commitments INDONESIA ( Daftar terlampir )
  • 26. Central Product ClassificationsNo Classification (CPC) - Legal Services (Advisory services in home1 Professional Services; country law, and international law) – (CPC 861)2 Computer and Related Services; Research and Development3 Services;4 Real Estate Services; - Rental/Leasing Services (Without5 - Operators);6 Other
  • 27. INDONESIA SCHEDULE OF SPECIFIC COMMITMENTS For the 8th Package of Commitments under ASEAN Framework Agreement on ServicesModes of supply: (1) Cross-border supply (2) Consumption abroad (3) Commercial presence (4) Presence of natural persons Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitmentsBUSINESS SERVICESA. Professional ServicesLegal Services (1). None (1). None(Advisory services in home (2) None (2). Nonecountry law, and international (3) Unbound (3). Unboundlaw) - (CPC 861) (4) Unbound (4). Unbound The number of foreign The foreign lawyers lawyers in Indonesia law (advocate) are only firm must not exceed 20 allowed to work as percent of the total employees or experts in employee and shall be Indonesia law firm limited to five foreign lawyers (advocate) per firm The foreign lawyers are prohibited to provide services in both capacities as employees and partners of Indonesia Law Firm, or representative of foreign law firm, foreign company or Indonesian company)
  • 28. Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitments
  • 29. Sector or subsector Limitations on Limitations on Additional market access national treatment commitments
  • 30.  Pada Forum APEC, kegiatan dan pembahasan di bidang jasa mengacu pada kesepakatan (AELM) - APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting ke-17, tahun 2009 di Singapura, yaitu : 1. APEC Principles for Cross-border Trade in Services 2. APEC Services Action Plan Pembahasan isu jasa di APEC dilakukan oleh salah satu Sub fora Committee on Trade in Investment (CTI), yaitu: Group on Services (GOS) Terakhir, GOS diadakan pada bulan Mei 2010 di Sapporo, Jepang
  • 31. Forum Kerjasama Bilateral (IJ-EPA)Indonesia – Jepang Economic Partnership Agreement
  • 32. Central Product ClassificationsNo Classification (CPC) - Legal Services (Advisory services in home1 Professional Services; country law, and international law) – (CPC 861)2 Computer and Related Services; Research and Development3 Services;4 Real Estate Services; - Rental/Leasing Services (Without5 - Operators);6 Other
  • 33. Komitmen Indonesia di berbagai Forum Untuk Sektor Distribusi
  • 34. 1. Commission agents’ Services;2. Wholesale trade Services;3. Retailing Services;4. Franchising Services;5. Other Services;
  • 35. CPCNo Classification ( Central Product Classifications ) Commission agents’1 Services;2 Wholesale trade Services;3 Retailing Services;4 Franchising Services;5 Other Services;
  • 36.  (CPC) => Central Product Classification (SSCL) => Services Sectoral Classification List (CTFS) => Committee on Trade in Financial Services (MSC) => Ministerial Signalling Conference (MRA) => Mutual Recognition Agreement (ENT) => Economic Needs Test (WPDR) => Working Party on Domestic Regulation (DDR) => Discipline on Domestic Regulation (FEP) => Foreign Equity Participation (LTSSWG) => Logistic and Transport Services Sectoral Working Group (ACPECC) => ASEAN Chartered Professional Engineers Coordinating Committee (AAC) => ASEAN Architects Council (AJCCM) => ASEAN Joint Coordinating CCoordinating Committee on Nursing (AJCCD) => ASEAN Joint Coordinating Committee ommittee on Medical Practitioners (AJCCN) => ASEAN Joint on Dental Practitioners (CCS) => Coordinating Committee on Services (CSC), …. (ENT) => Economic Needs Test (CTS), ….