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Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts
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Human migrations and the socio environmental and strategic impacts

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The article deals with the problems existing in administration of human migrations, motivated by the implementation of new ventures, with offer of employment, high wages and benefits.

The article deals with the problems existing in administration of human migrations, motivated by the implementation of new ventures, with offer of employment, high wages and benefits.

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  • 1. Human migrations and the socio-environmental and strategic impacts: Decision-making Matrix for assessing the implementation of Projects Engo. Antonio Fernando Navarro[1] Introduction Human migratory movements occur from the beginning of our existence, by human nature. In past times and today still migrations occur depending on opportunities that will arise. How can we understand the opportunities offered facilities such as: land occupation (this situation occurred in Brazil, at the time of the Empire, when Dom Pedro II (Brazil Emperor) encouraged the coming of migrants to occupy lands in the South of Brazil), water (occurring in areas with little water, including for agriculture, such as in Africa, northeastern Brazil and in a number of countries that do not rely on this natural resource in abundance), petroleum (mainly by the need of skilled labor for the exploration, refining and utilization of its by-products in chemical industries), labor (manpower available for any activity), and the opening of new businesses or companies. In many of the causes migrations were wars, religious or political context and financial conditions. Some historians report that the Pharaohs of Egypt used this strategy employing almost 100,000 people for the construction of a large pyramid, particularly in drier times. Countries, to attract companies offer fiscal incentives (when so businesses only spend to pay State and local taxes after a given time interval), economic and fiscal deregulation (the States or countries offer a number of perks or benefits ending for attracting companies), among several other advantages. So, are the migrations to the opportunities that will be created eventually. When regions are demarcated by boundaries migrations end becoming at points of discord and even of wars. The example of the Gypsy people is perhaps one of the best, with the populations being rejected in the countries where they were being seated, as well as the Kurdish people, divided between Nations, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Armenia and Georgia, the Basque people, divided between Spain and France, the Guaraní People scattered among the southern countries of South America, and numerous African tribes. Are examples of stateless Peoples. This situation of nomadic people generates an endless number of conflicts between countries, given that new migrants will rely on existing resources, mainly water and food in the poorest countries, causing friction that culminate in wars. Border divisions that have occurred in the last five hundred years of existence of civilization did not obey the ethnic criteria, but rather the economic criteria. Ethnic groups were divided by the path of rivers or mountain ranges, or even valleys. So having ethnic minorities. Migrations are perhaps one of the problems existing today who are fleeing to the control of the directors. A clear example is the eternal dispute of Mexican migrants, without job
  • 2. opportunities to enter the United States. There are also Brazilian migrants who were settling on the border of Paraguay, to work the land and produce grain. The generations that followed went on to receive the nickname of brasilguáios. Discussion of the matter There are countless cases of population migrations motivated by wars, by natural phenomena such as earthquakes and tsunamis, implementation of large industrial enterprises, plus a host of other reasons. The migrant, i.e. one that migrates from one location to another, and may be of a neighborhood to another, from one town to another, from a State to another or from one country to another, ends up causing a lot of disorders, socio-economic-cultural in the places where they're going. With the deployment of new technologies and globalization, which often seeks to establish companies where the cost of labor or of inputs is lower, as we see in Europe these days, local administrators must have an entire strategic planning which precedes the granting of authorizations for the implementation of these projects, since the arrival of new companies instead of being an excellent business in the medium and long term is a headache, leaving behind big social problems, others involving public health, rising crime and prostitution, increased general costs produced by growing demand, that when this ceases to cost reduction does not occur with the same speed and proportionality. Companies are in continuous search of labor increasingly specialized and cheap. Customers demand ever greater cost reductions and local administrators, mayors, Governors or Presidents, seek to obtain financial or currency benefits arising from the implementation of new companies. Many times there is not the necessary manpower and training required in the defined location for the settlement of the company. These, in turn, cannot spend time training staff and preparing environments, depending on Budgets and timelines fixed that determine a date for the start of production. Lagging production is the same as withdraw economic and financial results. In economic language has been the cost of opportunity. As a result, one realizes that most of the time will be allocated to local people the exercise of less noble functions, being the other passed on to migrant workers, particularly managerial and operational functions, that is, those with higher remuneration. In addition, the enterprises end bringing serious social problems, with the rising local costs, lack of housing, changes in urban characteristics of cities around, anyway, are there problems that are just out of control of local legislators. Regularly occurring migratory movements where there will be the need for specialized personnel or with low population density, as in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, among other countries. What worries local leaders is what is called infrastructure. When a site does not have the necessary structure capable of absorbing this amount of migrants come into being an imbalance between available offers and searches.
  • 3. Another issue that must be taken into consideration is the respect of the country's wealth. There are migrants who settle in rich countries with the sole purpose of getting any job to be able to send money to their families who reside in the poorest countries. This transfer of currency is good for the most indebted countries, and bad for the country that employs the migrant, which shall not retain foreign exchange. Modern migrations[2] It was the capitalist development which put into circulation and rummaged populations – with the exception of the connections and of the limited trades which characterised the pre-capitalist economy anyway-lived essentially separate and independent of each other. Ian Goldin, in his recent work on global migration, dates back to this time the beginning of large farms (Columbus, Cortes, Vasco da Gama) and speaks of an era of farms which links among them human communities around the world. From here came the commercialism, capitalism and modern migrations. Hania Zlotnik summarised and commented the theories about international migration starting with Adam Smith, who was against the limitations of displacements of men into force in England in the 18th century. Schematically: Zlotnik makes a distinction between "macro" theories (which are based on economic factors of push, IE, pushing the population and the workforce from one country to another, and pull, that attract from one country to another) and "micro" theories that seek to explain the phenomena from the individual economic choices the migrant and his family. The purpose of these theories, which have emerged in large numbers over the last thirty years, would be to predict quantities and flows of migration in order to manage them more easily. We can summarize the main factors attractors or repellers: • Quality of life; • Family Safety; • Job opportunities; • Housing facilities; • Leisure; • Sanitation, schools, etc.. The case of COMPERJ The PETROBRAS petrochemical complex, in deployment in the State of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil is a large and modern example of internal and external migrations, by magnitude of billion-dollar venture. For being a "mega project", with the construction of two refineries and interest from several companies in the construction of second generation units, a polo involving eleven municipalities. Immediately after the news of the launch of the endeavor and the amount of people who would be involved, to the tune of 200,000 people, the cost of real estate to rent or sell
  • 4. in the surroundings of the site went up exponentially. Existing free areas were no longer being traded, in anticipation of higher future profits. Were created numerous training courses, mainly in the areas of industrial assembly and welds. This huge population flow will not be the same that will be in the future, to operate units, around 20,000 people, in all units. So there will be a very big population surplus. Aside from that, these municipalities will have very little time to structure in urban terms and basic sanitation, aside from the issues of health, safety and environment. Another interesting point is that in these enterprises workers ' salaries are often higher those of the professionals who perform the same activities in the municipalities around the enterprise. So occur an exodus of professionals, moving from their current jobs for the new venture. As a result, has been the delay of the activities that occurred before the release of the new venture. In the city of Niterói/Rio de Janeiro, next to the Municipality where the project will be implemented, with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, near the city of Rio de Janeiro, only in the years 2010/2011, there were more than 80 new residential buildings, to absorb the demands for residences. During this same period the most seasoned professionals were seeking employment in the new venture, causing the lack of skilled labor in Niteroi, and also supplies for the construction industry. When these cities were planned if not provided for in some duplication of the inhabitants could occur in months only. The urban planning does not take into account growth of this magnitude, capable of causing the deadlock of public services by excess demand, such as water supply, treatment and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous effluent, road planning, public security structure, among many factors. The end result is a city with serious problems in the flow of vehicles, problems in water supply and electric power, in the treatment of domestic wastewater. Once again it is noticed that the speed of liberation and construction of new buildings is always greater than the preparation of urban infrastructure. For administrators this is a crucial issue, since on the one hand there is the needs of the city grow in terms of financial strength, but on the other hand there is the need of the restoration of the city. The speeds between the population growth and the urban planning of cities are different and so don't have the expected result, with the emergence of numerous problems, including the slum (formation of slums or subnormal dwellings).
  • 5. It is recognized that investments are the result of opportunities that appear in a competitive market. However, the good steward should be tuned for various issues. There are momentary transient or investments, leaving behind themselves the misery or poverty; of highly polluting enterprises; of operators of mineral resources, anyway, there are investments that add value to the city and others that do not. This added value has been the growth in levels of education, quality of life, leisure, among many others. Even so, cities with these characteristics become migrant attractors only by the fact of being good to live. Returning to the "Communist Lotta": A complex phenomenon like migration, which consists of billions of acts apparently only individual has enormous social and political reflexes in virtually every country in the world, is here reduced to their essential economic origins. Quantification of migration, both internal and external national and international borders is particularly difficult. We must, above all, make a distinction between the stock of immigrants, i.e. the photograph of the accumulated amount in a given year, in a given country or region, and the streams that constitute the movie real movements, which are bidirectional, circular, with a cross-border return rate may reach 50%, if it is assessed in the medium and long term and taking into account the duration of life of individual migrants. Looking at the case COMPERJ already mentioned, there will be a "balance sheet" of migrants. A portion of these will continue in the venture working in activities other than those that motivated the travel. The remainder, or "stock", manages to jobs in the region, and may earn more or less than before. If the Professional does not find employment in the Undertaking itself will seek elsewhere. If you come to gain less their standard of living fall, forcing him to suit, moving to neighborhoods less "expensive". As for the rest, the majority prefers to continue and try something to return. For these, the return is a defeat. Thus, they have a life off the grid of the process, and can go live in slums that are getting bigger and bigger. Highlights that, in projects of long duration of implementation, over three to four years, families are constituted or enlarged, causing the number of those who migrated to the area increase. One of the best examples is the growth that the city of Sao Paulo-capital of the State of São Paulo/Brazil-had from the 20. The city became the "eldorado" of all those who wanted to have a better life. In this way, there was a huge migratory flow from the North and Northeast Brazilian
  • 6. city. The result was not only the city's territorial expansion but also its de-urbanization, becoming a metropolis where there are plenty of daily congestion, since the population generally ends by reside on opposite site of work. This is just one of the problems raised. The city planners of today confirm the uncontrolled growth, "son of chance", of modern cities. Marc Revision reiterates that urbanization is closely related to the industrialization and economic growth. Clemens Zimmermann notes that in the new urban agglomerations, as Lancashire [...] began to emerge as early as 1850 a phenomenon comparable to that of today's megacities of the third World. Bernardo Secchi admits: growth, development and transformation of the city would be [...] largely independent of reflection, and above all the action of architects, urbanists and administrations. According to Leonardo Benevolo, disastrous conflict between human life and built environment has not yet been identified nor corrected. [3] Decision Matrix An array becomes operative when, feeding it with the information required to obtain the desired results, which become the choices and decision-making approval of implementation of projects. So the array can be applied becomes necessary that in your filling there is total clarity of objectives and that these are not interpreted by their managers, i.e. be of responses where there is no "If". In this way, the answers become closed stating only a Yes or a no. A Decision-making Matrix for assessing the implementation of an industrial enterprise must be transparent, enabling clear governance. During times of political regimes harder, huge areas of many countries were flooded for the construction of dams, were cleared for the deployment of enterprises, were excavated for the extraction of mineral resources, have been polluted by factories whose raw materials or end products were toxic pollutants. Still questions the settlement of nuclear plants as clean and non-polluting plants, notably in regions where there are earthquakes and tsunamis. The maturation of populations already allows making public analyses of these projects deployment. In the area of environment, many countries require the preparation of impact assessments of these projects. However, there are disasters that do not respect borders and reach the neighboring countries in the same way as they reach the location where they are installed. When the explosion occurred at the Nuclear power station at Chernobyl on 26 opening of 1986, almost all countries of Europe were hit, some more some less. The effect of explosions and the displacement of the winds spread radiation in 1976 a blast shook a pesticide factory in Séveso, in Italy, becoming one of the biggest environmental accidents that, until then, having motivated the first European Policy on the subject. That means that even with all the guarantees that may be provided and the scope of human knowledge, there will always be issues that pass unnoticed by scientists or experts and that are capable of causing multiple problems in other States or countries. In December 3, 1984, the migration of an outdated technology, with the benefits of local administrators and the lack of investment in safety equipment led to one of the largest industrial
  • 7. accidents which takes into account with the leak of methyl isocyanate, extremely dangerous product used in the production of fertilizers. On occasion, the Bhopal State, with millions of people unemployed and only a local industry, employing just under 2,000 people, allowed the installation of a new industry that would generate an increase of over 700 people employed. Union Carbide industry already had established a plan of deactivation of your unit in the U.S.A. to transfer it to India. The existing facility has been completely disassembled and reassembled. The day of the accident, which occurred at dawn, a large cloud of gas spread through the region producing victims, even after almost 40 years still don't have as you need exactly. The latest figures gave account of about 2 thousand dead, about 320 000 people poisoned, according to the authorities. The city of 700 thousand inhabitants, capital of the State of Madhya Pradesh, is still traumatized. It is interesting to get introduced to issue under this optics because in addition to the political and economic issues there are also technical issues of the project that must be observed. In the examples cited, available from any search site, there were failures of equipment, human and material, in addition to process failures. This demonstrates how important it is for a country to correct evaluation and acceptance of installation of an enterprise. The deployment and implementation of a Decision Matrix to assess the degree of compliance to the concerns of the municipality is one of the easiest tasks, especially when there are heated disputes between the municipalities, each offering greater amount of economic benefits, including tax donation of land, reducing the cost of water, light and power and sanitation. Often these actions are already positive that entrepreneurs have to settle in the region. However, there are unscrupulous businessmen who take advantage of all the benefits offered to enrich even more, taking advantage of poorly formulated contracts and without more stringent contractual requirements clauses. So too can realize projects that received high amounts of benefits and even produced. At first the inhabitants benefit, because they have jobs and resources resulting move the local economy. When this does not occur, in the second case, the inhabitants of the region are the most affected, as was with the capabilities of their taxes that unscrupulous businessmen have benefitted. This question, which has no financial economic due publicity for neighbor’s, ends up harming the process of transparency of legislators. It's easy to identify that the continued transit of heavy vehicles could damage the paving of the streets. In the same way that it is also easy to verify that the continuous transport of dangerous products may someday generate a crash. One of the most appropriate cases this lack of transparency that would result in losses of any sort for the local population was the episode that culminated in the Bhopal accident, in India, with thousands of deaths. For the composition of the matrix employed four factors, as an example of a methodology. For both aspects were chosen: the enterprise, the entrepreneur, to the production activity and socioeconomic aspects. When filling out this will give several notes that will represent the degrees of risks. For the town the best choice is the one that considers the lowest risk. You can
  • 8. increment the analysis process by considering the most relevant aspects. Each municipality has already established their vocation and their urban planning. Thus, the best results of these partnerships, business deployment that migratory processes cause or fatally are factors attractors for the migratory processes, will depend on a lot of this relationship versus Venture Municipality, here termed as a whole. If both, Venture and not preparing adequately Municipality, the results may not be the best, with major impacts to the residents of the municipalities. The use of means of early assessment of risks is those arising from production processes or from the misuse of their inputs may cause serious consequences to the inhabitants of the cities. Thus, through mechanisms or simple means of risk analysis can be extended security levels regarding the deployment of enterprises in a municipality. The good steward should seek, first of all, the total transparency of their actions. In the Decision-making Matrix is not the debate proposal question of technology or of the risks involving the operation of the unit, since these must be the result of preliminary technical analysis, that is, one cannot assume that a company submits a proposal for deployment of an enterprise that has not been the subject of exhaustive analysis technique. However, in conclusion, is a case of an industry that transferred their obsolete facilities for an undeveloped town and, as a result, there was an explosion at operation failures, with thousands of deaths. The indemnification process creeps up today after almost 40 years. The points covered in the proposal are: a) Aspects relating to Enterprise • Need for investments for deployment; • Need for physical spaces for deployment; • Term of commencement of production; • Auto sustainability of the enterprise. b) Aspects relating to Entrepreneur • Qualification of the entrepreneur; • Concern with issues of social and environmental responsibility; • Levels of certification; • Strategic Partnerships. c) Aspects of production activity • Characteristics of the products; • Waste generation; • Inputs; • Transport of inputs and products. d) Socioeconomic Aspects
  • 9. • Generation of taxes and fees; • Generation of workmanship; • Training of manpower; • Levels of outsourcing. In the proposal, were targeted items and sub items, and awarded points ranging from one to three. As the filling is done by the municipality, the analysis is under your vision. So, taking as an example the item array itself (I) aspects relating to enterprise, especially as regards the need for investments to implement the same, it turns out that the greatest risk is assigned to the question where is informed that the resources needed for this deployment are local, i.e. the municipality will have to engage in negotiations with the local partners, while the lower risk is when the company 100% their banking undertaking. The final outcome will be decided by a lesser degree of risk for the Municipality. 1 means low risk and high risk 3. The total Decision Matrix I) aspects relating to enterprise I. 1 Necessity of investments for deployment Resources with local ownership Resources with national ownership 100% of entrepreneur resources I. 2 Need physical spaces for deployment Area provided by the municipal government Area provided by the Federal Government The area acquired by the entrepreneur I. 3 period of beginning of production High period for start of production Medium term for the start of production Start of production almost immediately (within six months) I. 4 Auto sustainability of the enterprise Project under development of sustainable systems Enterprise with sustainability processes Enterprise that takes full advantage of the surplus resources Total evaluation of the item II) aspects relating to Entrepreneur II. 1 Qualification of the entrepreneur Entrepreneur in early activities in this segment Entrepreneur with reasonable experience in this segment Entrepreneur with extensive experience in this segment II. 2 Concern with social and environmental responsibility issues Entrepreneur in the implementation phase of sustainability programs Entrepreneur with experience in sustainability Entrepreneur practicing sustainability actions II. 3 certification Levels Entrepreneur in the certification process Entrepreneur with specific certification Entrepreneur with extensive certification II. 4 strategic partnerships Development without strategic partners Enterprise with unique strategic partners Venture with local strategic partners Total evaluation of the item III) aspects of production activity Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk
  • 10. III. Product Features 1 Operating components manufacturing Manufacture of the relevant part of the final product Manufacturing of the final product III. waste generation 2 Generated residue for disposal site, toxic Generated waste for disposal site, not innocuous Waste generated, treated and transported to another location III. 3 Inputs Purchase of off-site inputs Purchase of inputs part on site Purchase of inputs only on site III. 4 transport of inputs and products Standard practice for use of various means of transport Enterprise concerned with modes of transport Enterprise that selects and controls the means of transport Total evaluation of the item IV) Socio-Economic Aspects IV. 1 generation of taxes and fees Investment with tax exemption Investment with partial tax exemption Without tax-free investment IV. labor generation 2 Migrant labor Migrant labor and location Local labor and qualified locally IV. 3 Training of manpower Skilled labor off-site Qualified labour part on site Qualified workforce locally IV. 4 levels of Outsourcing High level of extra management outsourcing Operational manpower outsourcing Low level of outsourcing Total evaluation of the item Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk Risk The total points of the array is the sum of the numbers assigned to each item evaluated [1] Civil Engineer, Safety Engineer, Specialized in Risk Management, Master in Public Health and Environment, Professor of Actuarial Science at the Universidade Federal Fluminense. [2] translated "Lotta Comunista", no. 492, jul/Aug 2011. [3] translated "Lotta Comunista", nº 493, September 2011.

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