Four steps to sustainability as a strategic asset


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Four steps to see sustainability as a strategic asset is an abstract of the thesis “A study how Hultafors Group can incorporate sustainability in their organizations”. What can a company do to see and use sustainability as a strategic asset to the organization? We have developed a four-step program that will create a foundation for the sustainability question within your organization.

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Four steps to sustainability as a strategic asset

  1. 1. Four steps to see sustainability as a strategic asset.
  2. 2. This presentation This presentation is an abstract of the thesis “A study how Hultafors Group can incorporate sustainability in their organizations”. The report is a resolute of a master thesis written at the Business and Design program at HDK in association with the School of Business, Economics and Law at University of Gothenburg commissioned by Hultafors Group. The work covers 15 credits and was conducted during spring 2010. The purpose of the thesis was to investigate how Hultafors Group and Snickers Workwear could incorporate sustainability within their organizations. A combination of literature studies and interviews where used to fulfill the purpose. From the findings in this study we have concluded that several of the fundamental concepts regarding sustainability and business support each other. While working in the four areas of: cost and risk reduction, reputation, innovation and growth path we found that all four areas are important components to connect the organizations goal with their
  3. 3. The rapid change The global economy, our environment and the sustainability commitment. political institutions are undergoing a rapid structural change. The social, political and environmental risks and opportunities that companies face today are growing in number. Many organizations are aware that the market is changing fundamentally and have in the last decade led to that sustainability has become a more central part in businesses around the world. The companies that are prepared for this change and who see sustainability as a strategic asset will be more capable of dealing with complex challenges in a changing world.
  4. 4. The “enlightened” organizations Stock Performance of WaveRiders 450 WaveRider Average 400 SP 500 FTSE 100 Companies that has taken the sustainability 350 Index (Jan 1996 = 100) 300 issue seriously uses the approach for continuing 250 profitability, drive innovation and development. 200 These “enlightened” organizations have the knowhow to better and 150 faster recover themselves after downturns than its rivals. Survival and sustainability are two concepts that more and more companies see the link 100 between, where sustainability is the essence of survival. 50 “No company or society will survive if it doesn’t care about all their 0 resources, human, economic and environmental factors” (Winston 2009) 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year In the book Green to Gold the authors are referring to these enlighten Top 20 Wave Riders companies as Wave Riders. United States International 1 Johnson & Johnson BP 2 Baxter Shell 3 DuPont Toyota 4 3M Lafarge 5 Hewlett-Packard Sony 6 Interface Unilever 7 Nike BASF 8 Dow ABB 9 Procter & Gamble Novo Nordisk 10 SC Johnson Stora Enso 11 Kodak Philips 12 Ford Bayer 13 IBM Holcim 14 Starbucks STMicroelectronics 15 Intel Alcan 16 Xerox Electrolux 17 McDonald’s Suncor 18 GM Norsk Hydro 19 Ben & Jerry’s Henkel 20 Patagonia Siemens
  5. 5. Nike A company that has gone through a sustainability transformation in the last ten years is Nike. The company was long the focus of negative criticism from human rights activists, but has come to be transformed into a company known for its thoughtful product design and transparent business. For Nike, sustainable development is a tool and an approach to developing new and better shoes. They use the transparency throughout the organization to get their designers to understand how it can make use of materials and manufacturing process in a more efficient manner. Nike turns out to be a company that has benefited from the transformation from a company that was focused on protecting themselves from public mudslinging to a company that has taken the lead in sustainable development and have led to great efficiencies, cost savings, strengthening of their brand identity and better products.
  6. 6. Implementing sustainability? Many companies understand that they have to work with sustainability but the tuff challenge often emerge when they start to implement it and become unsure of how to deal with the concept of it and its meaning. Many would like to begin by gaining a clearer picture of what to make of it and how to use it as a strategic asset for their business, not just an extra label to their packages. Several authors have pointed out when sustainable perspectives are included in corporate strategy there is a higher chance it will lead to improvements such as cost savings, improvement of reputation and an overall strengthening of brand identity. This indicates that Sustainability can contribute The business reasoning for implementing sustainability within an to a company’s business by its proactive organization can and should include more factors than just earning more money or eliminate costs. It can also be considered as a strategy approach, analytical way of working and long- for survival and development through greater receptivity to new trends term way of thinking as a strategic asset to in society, technological development and use of alternative supplies of natural resources. increase business opportunities and boost Sustainability can be a strategic asset for reaching new consumers and a innovation. strategy to gain and retain, employees, customers and society. (Werbach, 2009)
  7. 7. What to do? For the companies that have planned to work with sustainability there can be a great challenge to know where to start and what tools to use. An organizations sustainability work is individual and have to be tailored to the organizations structure and purpose. All the different tools and methods have specific aim where some is adapted to certain situations in the sustainability work. For the organization to successfully implement sustainability organically in their business strategy, it must first secure a contextual understanding of what it means to them. Environmental Management and Auditing Scheme (EMAS) Environmental Analysis Natural Systems Behavior Backcasting Green marketing Eco Strategy Wheel The Hannover Principles The CERES Principles The Natural Step Sustainable wheel TEN-Cycle LEED Failure Mode of Effect Analysis Ecoefficiency GRI The natural step cradle to cradle Factor 10 ISO 14001 Industrial Ecology Biomimicry Biomimicry North Star goal Environmental Management System Factor 4 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Costing (LCC) MET matrix ABCD Ecological Rucksack Natural Capitalism Social responsibility STaR-Mapping Ecological Footprint Ecolabeling Scenario planning Design for environment CSR
  8. 8. The 4 steps Instead of taking on of starting with what to do Step 1. Identify and link your business objectives we are suggesting that you first should develop to sustainability. an understanding of WHY your organization should work with it. Step 2. Create a clearer and common understanding where the company stands WHAT sustainability means to your business and HOW it is connected to your organizations goals. Company’s needs in the end tools that take them regarding their sustainability efforts. beyond good intentions and turn the sustainability focus into a competitive advantage. We have extract four exercises with specific tools that will help you getting Step 3. Identify what next to do to embed a solid foundation Output company journey to implement sustainability. in your Input sustainability within the organization. Output Input Output Input Step 4. Create over arching sustainable goals for the organization. 1. Workshop 2. Positioning 3. Discussion 4. Goal
  9. 9. Step 1. Sustainable Value Workshop Aim: identify and link the business objectives to sustainability. Participant: Key decision makers. Time: Half a day Task: map out internal and external initiatives, projects and goals. Tools: Sustainable Value Matrix.
  10. 10. Sustainable Value Matrix Hart believes that a successful company delivers high shareholder value The work within each of the fields will provide risk reduction, reputation, by working simultaneously with the four different fields. Companies can innovation and growth. work internally and externally, in the present and future. The Sustainable There are also external forces that affect this particular area. The purpose Value Framework is designed to show how companies can actively work to of mapping these drivers is to identify the forces and incentive the identify new opportunities, models and technologies to secure the future of company has to face. The drivers are individual to each business but Adam their organization. has taken up a couple of examples of general driving forces that can have an impact on today’s businesses. 3 Tomorrow 4 Strategy: Strategy: Clean Technology Sustainability Vision Drivers Drivers - Disruption Develop the sustainable Create a shared roadmap - Population - Clean Tech competencies of the future for meeting unmet needs - Poverty - Footprint - Inequity Corporate Payoff: Corporate Payoff: Innovation & Repositioning Growth Trajectory Sustainabe Internal External Value Strategy: Strategy: Pollution Prevention Product Stewardship Drivers Minimize waste and Integrate stakeholder views Drivers - Pollution - Civil Society emission from operations into business process - Consumption - Transparency - Waste - Connectivity Corporate Payoff: Corporate Payoff: Cost & Risk Reduction Reputation & Legitimacy 1 Today 2
  11. 11. 1; Plot initiatives that are important for the departments. Start to brainstorm around the Sustainable Value Matrix, begin by placing the initiatives that are important to the members of the group and there departments in the quadrangle where it seems to fit best. Some will fit naturally in some cells, while other issues will bridge over the various boxes. Tomorrow Works to incorpo- rate a sustainabil- ity policy Drivers Drivers - Disruption - Population - Clean Tech - Poverty - Footprint Determine the - Inequity impact of current and alternative production sys- increase stake- Sustainabe Internal tems holder interaction External Value Alternative materials Trend Report Drivers Drivers - Pollution Reducing petro- Increase Sales - Civil Society Effectiveness - Consumption leum consump- - Transparency tion - Waste - Connectivity Today Current goals, initiatives and projects
  12. 12. 2; Identify department and key person Reflect on the post-its and the boxes they are in, use this as a tool to identify which department and key person that could be involved to take these issues further. If not internally perhaps externally. Is there external expertise in this area? How can these breakthroughs in the way do business open up opportunities with new customers and new markets. Engineering, R&D Tomorrow Works to Sales incorporate a sustainability policy Determine the impact of current and alternative production increase Sustainabe Internal systems stakeholder External Market research Value interaction Alternative materials Trend Report Marketing Reducing Increase Sales petroleum Effectiveness consumption Today New product development
  13. 13. 3; Plot internal and external initiatives. Use green post-it and write down the already implemented initiatives undertaken by the company. Use red post-it to write down as many initiatives as possible that have been launched by other companies in and around your market, even in new industries that could be relevant to your business in the future. This information will help you open your thinking about the future even further. Tomorrow Wallenius Line Patagonia & - Ballast water Dem collectiv transportation -Business opportu- Drivers nity Drivers Recruitment - Disruption - Population - Clean Tech - Poverty - Footprint Timberland - Inequity - Green Index Internal External SAS & SJ Implementing - Dialog with their REACE customers through social media Drivers Drivers Outsourcing - Pollution manufacturing - Civil Society - Consumption Code of Conduct Scandic hotell - Transparency - Waste -a towel/sheet - Connectivity reuse program Today Already implemented initiatives Other companies initiatives
  14. 14. 4; Reflect on the balance among the four quadrants. Review the balance between the different post-its and where they sit in the matrix. Compare the work undertaken by the company, competitors and the outside world. Pay particular attention to the balance between the initiatives over and under the vertical line, current initiative and future investments. Tomorrow Works to incorpo- Wallenius Line Patagonia & rate a sustainabil- - Ballast water Dem collectiv ity policy transportation -Business opportu- nity Recruitment Timberland - Green Index Determine the impact of current and alternative increase stake- Internal production sys- holder interaction External tems Implementing Trend Report SAS & SJ REACE - Dialog with their Alternative materials customers through social media Outsourcing Reducing petro- manufacturing Increase Sales leum consump- Scandic hotell Effectiveness tion -a towel/sheet Code of Conduct reuse program Today Current goals, initiatives and projects Already implemented initiatives Other companies initiatives
  15. 15. 5: Question the content. With all these Post-its displayed, take a step back with the team and ask the following questions: • What is the common pattern you can see in the individual boxes, links between your goals and the market leaders? • What can we learn from the patterns, how can we use them to take more informed decisions? • How do we believe that the market-leading business assumptions differ from ours? • How do they differ from us? • What are the specific drivers that can get us to move across the line to start with future investments? • Is there links between these drivers to the management’s private interest or ambition?
  16. 16. 6: Further exploration of initiatives and drivers. Your team can go further in this exploration by looking at other examples of companies thinking differently to identify further drivers in each of the quadrants. Wallenius Line Nestlé Hilton Interface Alcoa Holcim Pantagonia SAAB IKEA Nike Bristol-Myers Squibb STMicroelectronics Dem Colective Kodak Johnson & Johnson Dow Dell Alcan Timerland Caterpiller Lenovo Procter & Gamble United Technologies Electrolux Scandic Hotell Appel L’Oréal SC Johnson BP Suncor P&G Ben & Jerry´s McDonalds Kodak Shell Norsk Hydro Nike Body Shop Motorola Ford Toyota Henkel Costco Citybank Nokia IBM Lafarge Siemens DuPont Clorox Stonfield Farm´s Starbucks Sony Swiss Re General Electric Dell Unilever Intel Unilever AstraZeneca Xerox Dow Chemical Walmart Xerox BASF Novozymes Coca-Cola Duke Energy Johnson & Johnson McDonald’s ABB IKEA Ford Toyota Baxter GM Novo Nordisk Ricoh Harly-Davidson GE DuPont Ben & Jerry’s Stora Enso IBM Herman Miller 3M Patagonia Philips BP Honda Hewlett-Packard InternationalPaper Bayer
  17. 17. Focus on the small steps that inspires people & organisations toward changing radically over time.
  18. 18. Step 2. Positioning on the ladder Aim: Create a clearer and common understanding where the company stands regarding their sustainability efforts. What will be required to take the next step. Time: 2 hours. Task: Generate a common understanding of where the company is position on the ladder and what this could mean for the company. Tools: - Content from Step 1. - The sustainability ladder. - Questions.
  19. 19. The ladder Sustainable development can be seen as a step towards a higher value creation in the five levels. Reductions in waste and improved energy efficiency are natural starting points but not a final destination. The ladder demonstrates the different steps the organization can take to integrate sustainability into the organization. 5. Purpose/Mission The sustainability ladder is a tool in which the company put their - Align with Core Values own work to get a clear picture of their current position, external E opportunities, incentives and threats. The framework helps TIV to create a balanced portfolio of investments in all four AC 4. Integrated Strategy PRO quadrants, an investment that is necessary to - Business Opportunities maximize value creation. (Senge, 2009) - Risk Managment 3. Beyond Compliance - Eco-Efficiencies - Regulatory Threat - PR Crisis 2. Compliance - Regulatory Demands/Enforcement E TIV - Public Pressure AC RE 1. Non-Compliance
  20. 20. The five levels Level 1. Non-Compliance duced costs and brand authenticity. In level one the organization only implements what the law requires re- The company that position themselves in step three have begun working garding sustainability. on future ventures, development and internal recruitment of tomorrow’s The first square in the matrix focused on internal issues, activities and ac- competences. tions in the organizations daily work that can provide direct result of costs The most significant change is to take the step past step three. This means and risks reductions. Work will therefore in this quadrant be guided to that the company voluntarily taking on an active role on influencing not reduce pollution, waste, harmful emissions and the companies’ consump- only their own future but also other companies in the wider context in tion of materials. which they operate. They also see the links between their own survival and to prosper, for the health of the environment and the context they operate Level 2. Compliance in. In level two companies respond to stakeholder pressure and is doing every- thing to meet regulatory requirements in areas such as air pollution, toxic Level 4. Integrated Strategy. waste and sewage. In level four sustainability factors is integrated proactively in all dimension You will see the direct links in the form of cost reduction both long and of the company’s business strategies, decision-making regarding invest- short-term by meeting all the demands placed on industry. ments and work processes throughout the organization. In level two the company starts to be active within the second square of The approach to sustainability has a direct effect, for example, budget the matrix, externally today. In this level the companies business interests allocation, supply chain, investments in new markets, and core business and stakeholder pressure start to integrate. The company cares about its development. reputation and customer experiences. The company will thereby integrate The fourth quadrant in the matrix is the company’s growth path around stakeholder views and interests it to their business processes. Initially sustainability, a strategy for the company’s future that they share with its this work will mostly be driven by network, a commitment that requires stakeholders. Future stakeholders could become partners in their efforts to the company to be open and transparent. The network is constructed to meet the unmet needs and desires of their customers. increase the contact with the company’s stakeholders, civil society and NGOs. Level 5. Purpose/Mission. The company that position themselves at level five has seen the business Level 3. Beyond Compliance. opportunities with sustainability and has based its entire business around In level three the organization start to note that the initial investment in the concept. sustainability is starting to pays off. Ordinary these companies position themselves directly in step five with- This may often be the starting point for a spiraling effect on the sustain- out going through the previous steps. Example for this kind of company is ability efforts and start to create legitimacy within the organization. Patagonia. The company’s that are actively working on step three have accepted that their attitude must change, whether it is to survive or because they see the benefits of the sustainable approach and what it has to offer, such as re-
  21. 21. Positioning Now when you have grasped the concept of Tomorrow the sustainability ladder with its five levels, its Works to incorpo- rate a sustainabil- Wallenius Line - Ballast water Patagonia & Dem collectiv -Business opportu- time for you and your team to look back on the ity policy transportation nity Recruitment material you have created from step 1 on the Timberland - Green Index Determine the impact of current and alternative Sustainable Value Matrix. Ask the following increase stake- Internal production sys- holder interaction External tems Implementing Trend Report SAS & SJ REACE - Dialog with their Alternative questions and discuss the in the team. materials customers through social media Outsourcing Reducing petro- manufacturing Increase Sales leum consump- Scandic hotell Effectiveness tion -a towel/sheet Code of Conduct reuse program • Where are we positioning today in the Today Sustainable Value Matrix sustainability ladder based on the workshop (Step 1)? • Which areas are we actively working in today? 5. Purpose/Mission • In which areas are the growth opportunities? 4. Integrated Strategy 3. Beyond Compliance ! • In which areas are future and current threats? Works to incorporate a sustainability policy Recruitment 2. Compliance Determine the impact of current and alternative increase production stakeholder systems Implementing interaction REACE Trend Report Alternative materials • What steps are we striving to achieve, what Outsourcing Reducing manufacturing Increase Sales petroleum Effectiveness consumption Code of Conduct 1. Non-Compliance will it require? Sustainability ladder
  22. 22. ”Sustainability Should Mean Long Term Profits Not Saving The Planet” Adam Werbach
  23. 23. Step 3. Discuss the three areas Aim: Create a roadmap of what to do. Task: Identify what next to do to embed sustainability within the organization. Tools: - Content and insights from previous steps. - The three areas - Questions
  24. 24. Tool Divide the Sustainable Value Matrix in to three areas, tracking, culture and development. Discuss in the group the following questions based on the previous steps, some of them may be more or less relevant to your specific business area. By making use of sustainability as a strategic tool for organizing the company creates the possibility to make more informed and favorable long-term decisions and investments. Tomorrow Tomorrow Patagonia & Development Works to incorpo- Wallenius Line rate a sustainabil- - Ballast water Dem collectiv ity policy transportation -Business opportu- nity Recruitment Timberland - Green Index Internal External Determine the impact of current and alternative increase stake- Internal External Culture production sys- holder interaction tems Implementing Trend Report SAS & SJ REACE - Dialog with their Alternative materials customers through social media Outsourcing Reducing petro- manufacturing Tracking Increase Sales leum consump- Scandic hotell Effectiveness tion -a towel/sheet Code of Conduct reuse program Today Today
  25. 25. Tracking With the right information, companies can begin to understand how much the environmental issues affecting there value chains and market competitive conditions. Tracking focuses on the internal daily operations and help to identify opportunities to minimize costs and risks that can provide a basis for lean manufacturing. • Do we know what our product’s or company’s environmental footprint is? (Ok, step back: do we know what an environmental footprint is?) • Do we know how much energy and water we use, the type and quantity of toxic chemicals we produce, our contribution to air and water Tomorrow pollution, and our total waste production? • Do we create environmental metrics that fit our business best? • Do we track the environmental impact of our product after it leaves our hands (e.g., energy use by customers)? • How about the environmental practices of our suppliers? • Do we demand and track environmental metrics on their operations? • Do we know what chemicals or elements are in every component from Internal External In every supplier? • Do we have an environmental management system? Tracking • Do we have emergency procedures in place (and is everyone trained)? • Do we know who our key stakeholders are and what they think of us? • Have we created partnerships with outside organizations to understand our environmental issues better? Today
  26. 26. Culture We have seen how the power has shifted from brand to the consumer. The information age has created tools for consumers so that no brands can no longer hide behind their packaging or their position. Sustainability is a strategy for a brand to be able to reconnect to the consumer by openly share their problems and solutions. To create a business environment where the entire company will feel engaged and inspired by the sustainability efforts transparency, dialog and ownership needs to be put in motion. Incentives, which have the ability to create and spread the environmental awareness in all levels of the organization that can, help to transform the company’s environmental challenges into opportunities and, ultimately, profits. • Do we have goals for environmental performance? How aggressive are the targets? Do any seem impossible? Tomorrow Tomorrow • How do we decide whether or not to invest in environmental improvements (operation changes or on new product development, for example)? Is it the same process as for other capital investments? • How do we engage and include all levels of employees in the vision or goals? • Is compensation or bonus affected by environmental performance? Internal External • Do we reward environmental success or innovation in non-monetary Internal External In ways? Culture • Do we ensure that staff with line experience and environmental knowledge interact? Tracking • Do we produce an environmental or sustainability report? How comprehensive is it? • Do we use our report to influence and teach employees? • Do we train employees to look for opportunities for environmental innovation? Today Today
  27. 27. Culture One way to find solutions for enterprises is the use of the context they op- erate in. An organization can be seen as a cell in a larger system of similar cells. Applying the idea of different businesses share the same environ- ment and networking opportunity to find solutions in accordance with this system thinking. Hatch says that you can usefully take advantage of the networking and clustering company shares with organizations in their environment. The networks argue that describe a context that extends over the industry it operates in as well as national borders. (Hatch, 2006). “Branding is more complex at the corporate level. The organization not only has to manage its relationship with costumers – it has to take into account all the other stakeholders such as investors, media, government, suppliers’ buyers and em- ployees. Each of these will have a different expectation and understanding of the Environm brand. “ Hatch al etwor er en Gen N k t Network for information transmission is also concepts that are discussed Environm Org in the book Design Driven Innovation. Innovation arises by putting knowl- al etwor er edge in new contexts, so that clusters of actors with similar interests to en Environm Gen N k al t benefit should create associations for information collection. (Verganti, 2009). Org etwor er en Environm Gen N k al t etwor Org er en Gen N k t Org Environm al Environm etwor al er en etwor Gen er N k t en Gen Org N k t Org
  28. 28. Development To develop in this context means the company’s efforts on future launches and organizational improvements. The work done in the “tracking” and “culture” phase produces knowledge and insights that can here be used to develop new products, services and systems. Seizing the opportunities to reduce costs and risks and to increase revenues and intangible assets has a tendency to develop both new products and processes. It can also mean helping suppliers and customers to change course in order to reduce their impact. • Do we have a design for the environment program in place? Tomorrow • Are environmental issues considered at the design phase? Tomorrow • Do our designers have the tools they need to reduce the environmental impact of our products throughout the lifecycle (such as lists of materials that are forbidden)? • Are our offices LEED certified, or optimized for energy use and worker Development productivity? • Do we audit our suppliers environmental (and social) criteria? al Internalever ‘fired’ a supplier for being out of compliance?External Have we Internal External Culture Today Today
  29. 29. Change requires time, patience and dedication
  30. 30. Step 4. Create a North Star Goal Aim: Create over arching sustainable goals for the organization. Participant: . Time: The work to develop a suitable NS Goal shouldn’t be rushed. The process of developing the goals is as important as implementing them. Task: Begin working on creating a North Star Goal based on the previous steps. Tools: - Content and insights from previous steps. - Checklist - TEN-Cycle
  31. 31. North Star Goal NS Goal is an overarching business goal that helps guide the entire organization to execute a strategy for sustainability. NS Goal is an important tool to generate new thinking, innovation and to build sustainable advantage. According to Michael Porter of Harvard Business School, dealing with difficult environmental issues could be the first step for a company to step outside their comfort zone to find new ways to change and innovation. Nike North Star Goal For more information about NS-Goal;
  32. 32. Create your North Star Goal When you start working on your North Star Goal reflect on the insights and conclusions the previous steps have enriched the team with. Start by thinkering what your NS Goal could be in the three areas of tracking, culture and development. The North Star Goal should have the following characteristics: • They should be optimistic and engaging. • They should connect to the business core activities. • The organization should be able to achieve theme in five to fifteen years. • They should drive excitement and passion to the organization. • They should apply through the entire organization. • They should serve a higher purpose than the company’s profitability. • Every employee should be able to personally take action on it. • They should solve a major human challenge. • They use of organization’s strengths.
  33. 33. TEN-Cycle The creation of a vision is followed by extensive efforts to implement this within the organization. Tools such as the TEN-Cycle (transparency, en- gagement and network) may be useful to begin the collaboration and gather the information needed to implement the goal to the core of the business. Transparency, engagement and network are three areas that create a continuous flow of infor- Engagement mation on sustainability vision through and out- side the organization. Development 1. Increase information transparency 2. Engage employs North 3. Engage the network Star Culture Transparency Goal Network Tracking
  34. 34. “We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them” Einstein
  35. 35. Thanks and good luck After going through all the steppes we hope that you have now generated a deeper and broader understanding of how sustainability can and will become a strategic asset for your organization. If you have any questions ore thoughts about the Output Input Output Input Output Input content, don’t hesitate to take contact. Output Input 1. Workshop 2. Positioning 3. Discussion 4. Goal Output Input Output Input 1. Workshop 2. Positioning 3. Discussion 4. Goal
  36. 36. Reference list