Health project: 10 Communicable Diseases


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Health Project: 10 communicable Diseases, their description, Sympthoms and Treatments.
*the space is for pictures
this was my project when i was in the 2nd year of Highschool.
**Source(s): Wikipedia

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Health project: 10 Communicable Diseases

  1. 1. COMMON COLDS Description: The common cold, also known as a viral upper respiratory tract infection, is a self-limited contagious illness that can be caused by a number of different types of viruses. More than 200 different types of viruses are known to cause the common cold. Because so many different viruses can cause a cold and because new cold viruses constantly develop, the body never builds up resistance against all of them. For this reason, colds are a frequent and recurring problem. In fact, children in preschool and elementary school can have three to 12 colds per year while adolescents and adults typically have two to four colds per year. The common cold is the most frequently occurring illness in the world, and it is a leading cause of doctor visits and missed days from school and work. Symptoms: Symptoms of the common cold include nasal stuffiness or drainage, sore or scratchy throat, sneezing, hoarseness, cough, and perhaps a fever and headache. Many people with
  2. 2. a cold feel tired and achy. These symptoms will typically last anywhere from three to 10 days Treatment: There is no cure for the common cold. Home treatment is directed at alleviating the symptoms associated with the common cold and allowing this self-limiting illness to run its course. RABIES Description: Rabies is a disease (caused by the rabies virus) primarily of animals, including both wild and domestic animals and human beings. Cats, dogs and cattle account for nearly 90 percent of rabies cases in domestic animals, with horses, mules, sheep, goats and ferrets making up the remaining cases. Among wild animals, the disease is most often reported in skunks and raccoons. Symptoms: Symptoms usually develop between 20 and 60 days after exposure. Rabid animals may become aggressive, combative, and highly sensitive to touch and other kinds of stimulation. And they can be vicious. This is the "furious" form of rabies, the kind traditionally associated with mad dogs. There is also a "dumb" form of the disease in which the animal is lethargic, weak in one or more limbs, and unable to raise its head or make sounds because its throat and neck
  3. 3. muscles are paralyzed. In both kinds of animal rabies, death occurs a few days after symptoms appear, usually from respiratory failure. In humans, the course is similar. After a symptom-free incubation period that ranges from 10 days to a year or longer (the average is 30 to 50 days), the patient complains of malaise, loss of appetite, fatigue, headache, and fever. Over half of all patients have pain (sometimes itching) or numbness at the site of exposure. They may complain of insomnia or depression. Two to 10 days later, signs of nervous system damage appear, hyperactivity and hypersensitivity, disorientation, hallucinations, seizures, and paralysis. Death may be sudden, due to cardiac or respiratory arrest, or follow a period of coma that can last for months with the aid of life-support measures. Treatment: Because there is no cure and death is almost certain, treatment for rabies involves supportive care. However, if a person is bitten by a rabid animal and has not yet experienced symptoms, there is an extremely effective post-exposure treatment, which includes an injection of rabies immune globulin and several containing rabies vaccine given over a 28-day period. INFLUENZA (FLU) Description: Influenza (flu) is a viral infection. People often use the term "flu" to describe any kind of mild illness, such as a cold or a stomach virus, that has symptoms like the flu. But the
  4. 4. real flu is different. Flu symptoms are usually worse than a cold and last longer. The flu usually does not cause vomiting or diarrhea. Most flu outbreaks happen in late fall and winter. Symptoms: The flu causes a fever, body aches, a headache, a dry cough, and a sore or dry throat. You will probably feel tired and less hungry than usual. The symptoms usually are the worst for the first 3 or 4 days. But it can take 1 to 2 weeks to get completely better. It usually takes 1 to 4 days to get symptoms of the flu after you have been around someone who has the virus. Treatment: Most people can treat flu symptoms at home. Home treatment includes resting, drinking plenty of fluids, and taking medicine to lower your fever. If you think you have the flu, your doctor may be able to give you medicine that can make the symptoms milder. But you need to start taking it within 2 days of your first symptoms. Pneumonia Description: Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. You may cough, run a fever, and have a hard time breathing. For most people, pneumonia can be treated at home. It often clears up in 2 to 3 weeks. But older adults, babies, and people with other diseases can become very ill. Symptoms:
  5. 5. Symptoms of pneumonia caused by bacteria usually come on quickly. They may include:  Cough. You will likely cough up mucus (sputum) from your lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood.  Fever.  Fast breathing and feeling short of breath.  Shaking and "teeth-chattering" chills. You may have this only one time or many times.  Chest pain that often feels worse when you cough or breathe in.  Fast heartbeat.  Feeling very tired or feeling very weak.  Nausea and vomiting.  Diarrhea. Treatment: Your doctor will give you medicines called antibiotics. These almost always cure pneumonia caused by bacteria. You need to take all of your antibiotics so you get well. Do not stop taking them because you feel better. Take them exactly as your doctor tells you. DENGUE( hemorrhagic fever )
  6. 6. DESCRIPTION: : Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes SYMPTOMS: The disease manifests as a sudden onset of severe headache, muscle and joint pains (myalgias and arthralgias—severe pain that gives it the nick-name break-bone fever or bonecrusher disease), fever, and rash.[7] The dengue rash is characteristically bright red petechiae and usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest; in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Some cases develop much milder symptoms which can be misdiagnosed as influenza or other viral infection when no rash is present. TREATMENT: The mainstay of treatment is timely supportive therapy to tackle shock due to hemoconcentration and bleeding. Close monitoring of vital signs in critical period (between day 2 to day 7 of fever) is critical. Increased oral fluid intake is recommended to prevent dehydration. Supplementation with intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and significant concentration of the blood if the patient is unable to maintain oral intake. A platelet transfusion is indicated in rare cases if the platelet level drops significantly (below 20,000) or if there is significant bleeding. SORE-EYES
  7. 7. DESCRIPTION: “Sore eyes" is a common term for an inflammation of the thin covering of the eyeball and the inner eyelid brought about by a viral infection which may be highly contagious. SYMPTOMS: 1. Redness of the eye 2. Eye discomfort describing as burning or gritty but not sharp 3. Vision is usually normal although smearing particular in waking, maybe common. 4. Pain on the eye on exposure to light 5. Water-like discharge commonly seen but later eyes maybe difficult to open in the morning, glued together 6. Runny nose and sore throat maybe present TREATMENT: Sore eyes which is of viral origin is self-limiting. Anti-inflammatory and antibiotic eye drops or ointment may be used upon the advice of a health professional. To relieve the discomfort, warm compress may be applied to the eye 5 to 10 minutes three times a day. HEPATITIS
  8. 8. DESCRIPTIION: Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ SYMPTOMS: Majority of patients will remain asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, abnormal blood tests being the only manifestation. Features may be related to the extent of liver damage or the cause of hepatitis. Many experience return of symptoms related to acute hepatitis. Jaundice can be a late feature and may indicate extensive damage. Other features include abdominal fullness from enlarged liver or spleen, low grade fever and fluid retention (ascites). Extensive damage and scarring of liver (i.e., cirrhosis) leads to weight loss, easy bruising and bleeding tendencies. Acne, abnormal menstruation, lung scarring, inflammation of the thyroid gland and kidneys may be present in women with autoimmune hepatitis.[6] TREATMENT: There are only a few specific remedies for most types of hepatitis. The conventional approach in each case is to treat the disease with rest and proper diet and to make efforts to contain its spread
  9. 9. AIDS DESCRIPTION: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SYMPTOMS: • Coughing and shortness of breath • Seizures and lack of coordination • Difficult or painful swallowing • Mental symptoms, such as confusion and forgetfulness • Severe and persistent diarrhea • Fever • Vision loss • Nausea, abdominal (stomach) cramps, and vomiting • Weight loss and extreme fatigue • Severe headaches • Coma.
  10. 10. TREATMENT: There is currently no publicly available vaccine for HIV or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only known methods of prevention are based on avoiding exposure to the virus or, failing that, an antiretroviral treatment directly after a highly significant exposure, called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP has a very demanding four week schedule of dosage. It also has very unpleasant side effects including diarrhea, malaise, nausea and fatigue. CHICKEN POX DESCRIPTION: Chickenpox or chicken pox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It usually starts with vesicular skin rash appearing in two or three waves, mainly on the body and head rather than the hands and becoming itchy raw pockmarks, small open sores which heal without scarring for the most part. SYMPTOMS: •A fever of 100.4°F (38°C) to 103°F (39.4°C). •Feeling sick, tired, and sluggish. •Little or no appetite. •Headache and sore throat. •Red or swollen spots or bumps appear and turn into pimplelike blisters filled with clear or cloudy fluid.
  11. 11. •The blisters break open, often leaking fluid. •A dry crust forms over the broken blisters as they heal. TREATMENTS: The major problem in dealing with chicken pox is control of the intense itching and reduction of the fever. Warm baths containing baking soda can help; sometimes cool compresses or cool baths will calm itching. Aspirin should not be used for children or adolescents with chicken pox because of the associated risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but life-threatening condition. Fever can be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofren. TUBERCULOSIS
  12. 12. DESCRIPTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by a germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but they can also damage other parts of the body. TB spreads through the air when a person with TB of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes or talks. If you have been exposed, you should go to your doctor for tests. You are more likely to get TB if you have a weak immune system. SYMPTOMS: • A bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer • Weight loss • Coughing up blood or mucus • Weakness or fatigue • Fever and chills • Night sweats TREATMENTS: Today, doctors treat most people with TB outside the hospital. Gone are the days of going to the mountains for long periods of bed rest. Doctors seldom use surgery. Doctors will prescribe several special medications that you must take for six to nine months. Standard therapy for active TB consists of a six-month regimen: