Wine would have been first traded around 5000bc Wine would have been a reasonable valuable commodity, it was alcoholic which meant was valuable and safe to drink.
Grapes in early Mediterranean civilization was the most labour intensive agriculture, therefore families who produced and exported more than they used often relied on slaves for labour (Unwin, 1996) As city states emerged, there became a demand for quality wine, wine became a feasible way to survive and families and communities were encouraged to grow grapes and began to specialize in particular grapes and wine styles as trends developed.
Different areas became known for different styles, for example wine from Cos in Greece tended to be very sour. Appellation systems were developed to recognize regions which produced consistent quality wine. Every wine producing region developed there own version of an appellation system. Archaeologists have found countless remnants of amphorae bearing wine related seals, these indicate that wine was traded and valued from the regions it came from, different regions became recognized for there wine. (Wikipedia, n.d.) The Ancient Greeks developed the first noted appellation system which included regions such as Arioussios Oinos, Thasos and Meronian, they also enforced strict regulation and strong penalties were imposed on violators (All about Greek Wine, 2003)
The Romans were the first to fully develop a commercial wine production industry, this relied heavily on the use of slaves for labour and this meant commercial winemaking was viable before the development of modern winemaking practices (Unwin, 1996)
Colonial regions were also established and became successful because they had easy access to commodities such as oak, winemaking communities which had cheap access to barrel’s thrived, such communities existed in southwest France (Wikipedia, n.d.)
As the population grew in areas such as Greece and Italy, wine became not only a religious drink but a basic staple of many people’s diets, this created a demand for bulk wine Wine Importing regions were restricted in the regions they could import from; wine during that time was very unstable and generally only lasted a year or less before it became acetic acid (vinegar) or became undrinkable. This that usually these regions imported from neighbouring producers Often importing regions developed where vines weren’t grown, throughout northern Europe emerged important wine importation regions
Wine producing regions known for wine exportation generally are situated in regions were indigenous vines thrive, e.g. Mediterranean, California Early wine making regions were successful because of there weather, terroir e.g. Crete was a recognized wine producing region in Ancient Greece because of there hot dry Mediterranean weather French wine regions were chosen and planted because the Romans understood viticulture practices well enough to determine good soil types and particular weather, this was the case with regions such as Bordeaux and Burgundy
Historically wine producing and importing regions were often chosen because of there access to water, vineyards all over France were planted because they were near rivers or the coast, travel over land was expensive and strenuous. In cities such as Bordeaux, the wine industry flourished as producers could export wine easily and importers could get easy access to foreign wine, these centres became recognized wine regions very quickly.
Regions where wine production was not feasible, such as London, quickly became very important wine importers, the English quickly developed a liking for wine during there occupation of France during the middle ages. The massive demand for wines such as Claret from France and port from Portugal meant London has become and still a major wine trading centre.
Wine producing regions were far more recognized than wine importing regions, wine became known by the region it was produced in not the variety it contained, this is still the case today
Wine producing regions tended be very traditional, They retain winemaking practices in some cases that are almost 2000 years old and grow the same varieties, Whereas wine regions which import wine tended to change there style due to societal and political reasons These regions and city states in places such the Roman empire, Greece and Egypt not only became known for there wine trade but for there knowledge of viticulture, this was also traded. Wine in regions who were importers has always been a drink of the aristocracy and upper class, drunk when celebrating, whereas wine in regions which exported held less value and was only thought of as a means of sustenance.
Wine exportation versus importation
Pre-HistoryLocalised Production Versus Importation Anton Luiten
At first a family produces wine forconsumption at home. The betterproducers become known and sellto other people in the village, and inthe land around. Eventually, somepeople, villages and regionsspecialise in wine production andbecome net exporters of wine.Other regions become specialists inother fields and become netimporters of wine. The social andphysical nature of these regions arefundamentally different. Discuss.
The development of wine exporting regions• Wine became feasible as a trading commodity as soon as it became possible to store liquids, about 5000bc• Wine was not produced significantly until a demand for it developed, growing grapes was very labour intensive
• Wealthy small family vineyards developed all throughout the Mediterranean where vines grew indigenously, they often used slaves for labour• As city states emerged throughout the Mediterranean and wine became an intrinsic part of ancient culture, small families and communities began to grow grapes and make wine as the demand for wine grew exponentially Mediterranean, Greek and Roman period
• In many cases families and communities which had previously grown wheat, olives and other crops saw the potential wealth in wine and whole regions developed and became known for their particular style due to there soils and climate• As the wine culture developed, regions became known for their wine, for example the ancient region of Cos was renown for its sour wine style• Due to the demand for wine from particular regions a recognisable appellation system was Wine Growing regions of developed and the Greeks and Ancient Greece Romans introduced strict laws and strong penalties for violators
• As demand grew, viticulture flourished especially through out ancient Greece and what would develop in the Roman empire • The Romans were the first to fully industrialize small scale family winemaking, whole regions of southern Italy practiced viticulture, wine was an integral part of their economyRoman Wine making processes
• The Romans consumed such an amount of wine that soon they spread viticulture to the colonies, recognisable regions such as Burgundy and Bordeaux can trace there origins back to Roman viticulture• Communities prospered due to the wine trade and soon those colonial regions became recognized for there particular style The Bordeaux region and a classical Bordeaux vineyard
Development of wine importing regions• As populations grew in ancient Mediterranean cultures, cities soon became huge importers of wine at first the surrounding country side then from surrounding empires as wine became tradable over long distances• Wine was a very important and valuable tradable commodity, biblical towns such as Daha in what is now Syria was famous as importing regions• Wine was a valuable trade item for all ports and cities. not only was important as a food commodity, it was used medicinally, religiously and was safe to drink in cities which often had bad water
• The Roman port city of Pompeii imported millions of litres of wine to support the roman empire, this had massive ramifications and benefits to the region• Wine importing regions developed due to need, wine was not a luxury for the wealthy but was part the everyday diet• Wine not only was important as a food commodity, it was used medicinally, religiously and was safe to drink in cities which often had bad water Wine amphorae discovered from the wreck of a Roman trading vessel
• An example of the development of a wine importing region is London during the middle ages• England is unsuited to viticulture so almost all wine was imported• The English developed a passion for wine and imported thousands of shiploads a year• Wine regions such as London could emerge because wine wasn’t perishable over long distances
Physical differences between importing exporting regions• Due to the nature of the vine, early wine exporting regions developed where the indigenous vine thrived, all throughout the Mediterranean• Early successful wine exporting regions developed on land that was viable for viticulture, it was only as viticulture knowledge grew, Typical Mediterranean vineyard, dry mountainous land vineyard sites were selected with care with respect to “terroir” and climate
• Early viticulture practices were varied and grapes were grown by a variety methods• Wine exporting regions were often chosen due to their access to water, wine was heavy and difficult to export over land, an example of this is Bordeaux Barrels such as this, used in early French and German winemaking were very heavy and cumbersome
• Wine importing regions developed where local wine was not sufficient or viable• Most net importing regions were cities, most cities throughout the Mediterranean would have been net importers of wine, not everywhere was suitable for viticulture but there was still demand• Regions throughout northern Europe became net importers of wine simply because there climate meant viticulture was impossible• Wine importing regions were often places which held a lot of different cultures who imported different styles of wine and brought with them different viticulture knowledge
Social differences betweenExporting and Importing regions• Early exporting regions were usually populated by the poor, slaves were often used on vineyards• Exporting regions mostly saw grapes as a means of sustenance for the community• Often the success of an exporting region with a particular style was reliant on the trends of the consumer• During the Roman period, many exporting regions were colonies and influenced by people such as the Gauls• Exporting regions became renowned for there style of wine
• Wine exporting regions tended to be very traditional, growing the same vines for hundreds of years and producing the same wine• Important importing regions became very wealthy, wine was valuable and a necessity and it created huge wealth for those who traded it Exporting regions kept traditional• Importing regions were often methods for hundreds of years centres for wine knowledge, countless papers on viticulture and the treatment of wine have been found in ancient Rome• Important wine importing regions were home to the elite of society, they imported the best from all over the known world not just locally Roman Elite imported the best wine from all over the world
References• Johnson, H. (1971). The World Atlas of Wine. London, England: Mitchell Beazley Publishers• Bezzant, N. Burroughs, D. (1979). Wine Regions of the World. Oxford, England: Reed international books• Foulkes, C. (1994). Larousse Encyclopedia of Wine. Italy: Larousse• Wikipedia. (2012). History of wine. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_wine• Simon, A. (1906). The History of the Wine Trade in England. London, England: Wyman and Sons• EIT, Faculty of Science and Technology. (2009). History of wine and the wine [PDF] Retrieved on 26/07/12 from: http:// eitonline.eit.ac.nz/course/view.php?id=1875• Agis, L. (2005). History of Ancient Wine: The Beginnings of the Wine Trade. Retrieved on 26/07/12 from: http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/433249• Pellechia, T. (2006). The 8,000 Year Old Story of the Wine Trade. New York, USA: Thunders Mouth Press• Unwin, T. (1996). Wine and the Vine. London: Routledge