Causes of WWI – MANIA!Militarism - policy of building up a strong military to prepare for warAlliances – agreements between nations to provide aid and protecton anotherAssassination – of Austrian Archduke Francis FerdinandImperialism – when one country takes over another countryeconomically and politically.Nationalism – extreme pride in one’s country
Militarism1910-1914 Increase in DefenseExpendituresFrance 10%Britain 13%Russia 39%Germany 73%
AlliancesTriple Alliance Triple Entente
Nationalism• At the settlement of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, theprinciple of nationalism was ignored in favor ofpreserving the peace. Germany and Italy were left asdivided states, but strong nationalist movements andrevolutions led to the unification of Italy in 1861 and thatof Germany in 1871. Another result was that France lostAlsace-Lorraine to Germany, and regaining it was amajor goal of the French. Nationalism posed a problemfor Austria-Hungary and the Balkans, areas comprised ofmany conflicting national groups. The ardent PanSlavism of Serbia and Russias willingness to support itsSlavic brother conflicted with Austria-Hungarys Pan-Germanism.
Imperialism• Great Britain, Germany and France neededforeign markets after the increase inmanufacturing caused by the IndustrialRevolution.• These countries competed for economic expansion in Africa. AlthoughBritain and France resolved their differences in Africa, several crisesforeshadowing the war involved the clash of Germany against Britainand France in North Africa.• In the Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire wasalluring to Austria-Hungary, the Balkans and Russia.
AssassinationArchduke Franz Ferdinand andDuchess Sophie at Sarajevo, Bosnia,on June 28th, 1914.
AustrianArchduke Franz Ferdinandwas killed inBosnia by aSerbiannationalist groupcalled the BlackHand whobelieved thatBosnia shouldbelong to Serbia.
Domino EffectAustria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declaredwar on Serbia.Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary.Russia pledged their support for Serbia.
Domino EffectGermany declares war on Russia.France pledges their support for Russia.Germany declares war on France.Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
Allied Powers Central PowersWorld War IWorld War IWorld War IWorld War I
Why was WWI a Stalemate?• What’s a stalemate?– Neither side can make a move to win.• Machine gun. How did this change war?How was it fought before?• Trench Warfare = “solution”.• Millions die without gaining ground.
What new weapons were used inWWI?• Machine gun• Poison gas• Submarine• Airplane• Tank• Why these weapons? Why now?INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION!!
What were the results?• Germany surrendered.• Allies impose Treaty of Versailles.– Declares Germany guilty for war.– Germany must pay reparations to Allies.• This sets the stage for WWII!• League of Nations formed to try to preventwar in the future.
Casualties?• Total troops mobilized by all countries in WW165,038,810• Total troops dead from all countries in WW18,556,315• Total troops wounded from all countries in WW121,219,452• Total missing or POWs7,750,945