Latitude and LongitudeHow do we find places on maps?
LatitudeWhat is Latitude?• Lines of Latitude run horizontally• Latitude is measured in degrees.• The Equator is 0 degrees Latitude.• Lines of Latitude locate places North or South of the Equator.• The North Pole is 90 degrees N Latitude, and the South Pole is 90 degrees S Latitude.
Longitude• Lines of Longitude run vertically.• They are also called Meridians.• The Prime Meridian is found in Greenwich, England.• The Prime Meridian is 0 degrees Longitude.• Lines of Longitude locate places East or West of the Prime Meridian.• There are 180 degrees of east Longitude, and 180 degrees of west Longitude.
Time Zones• Time zones are broad strips that measure 15 degrees wide.• Time zones differ from their neighboring time zones by 1 hour.• The continental U.S. has 4 time zones, Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific.• In the Spring we shift the clocks 1 hour ahead. This is called Daylight Saving Time.• In the Fall we shift the clocks 1 hour back.
Time Zones (cont…) Local Time and Universal TimeLocal Time- is what we use everyday, and regulates our lives.Examples of Local Time are: meal time, sleep time, work time, and school timeUniversal Time- is what we use when we need a time that is agreed upon marking time world-wide.An example when Universal Time was used was when a supernova in 1987 was first seen. Astronomers, and Astronauts use Universal Time..
Time Zones (cont….)• Greenwich Mean Time- is the time that is registered at Greenwich, England.**Greenwich Mean Time is another name for Universal Time.The International Dateline was established following the 180th meridian, where ever we cross it the date advances 1 day ( if you are going west), or goes back 1 day (if you are going east).
Summary1.What do lines of Latitude and Longitude combine to make?A grid.2.Compare and Contrast Latitude and Longitude.Latitude- horizontal, north- south, parallelsLongitude- vertical, east-west, meridians3.What is 0 degrees Latitude?Equator4.What is 0 degrees Longitude?Prime Meridian5.How many time zones do we have in the U.S.A.?4- Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific6. Explain the difference between Local Time, and Universal Time.Local time- used everydayUniversal Time- is used for a planetary event, or for
Map Elements Write On
Learner Expectation• Content Standard: 3.0 Geography – 3.01 Understand how to use maps, globes, and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process and report information from a spatial perspective.
In this activity you will:• Learn about the elements of a map: latitude, longitude, the hemispheres, directions, time zone, scale, and map legends.• Write a paragraph describing the parts of a map. Tell the function of each part in reading a map.
Latitude and Longitude• The earth is divided into lots of lines called latitude and longitude.
Lines• Longitude lines run north and south.• Latitude lines run east and west.• The lines measure distances in degrees. Latitude Longitude
Where is 0 degree?• The equator is 0 degree latitude.• It is an imaginary belt that runs halfway point between the North Pole and the South Pole. Equator
P M E R R Where is 0 degree? I I D M I• The prime meridian E 0Adegrees longitude. is This imaginary line runsNthrough the United Kingdom, France, Spain, western Africa, and Antarctica.
Latitude and Longitude Resources• Latitude & Longitude Activity• A Printable Latitude & Longitude Map• Latitude & Longitude Map Making• Latitude and Longitude Quiz
Hemispheres• By using the equator and prime meridian, we can divide the world into four hemispheres, north, south, east, and west.
Compass• A compass is a tool that helps the user know what direction one is headed.• On a map, a compass or a compass rose helps the user locate these directions.
Compass Rose• The needle on a compass is magnetized to point to the earths north magnetic pole. Thus with a compass, a person can roughly tell which direction they are headed.• There are four major or cardinal directions on a compass- north, south, east & west. In between are the directions northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest.• Direction Quiz Source: http://aerocompass.larc.nasa
Directions• The cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west.• The intermediate directions are northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest.• They help describe the location of places in relation to other places.
Scale• Maps are made to scale; that is, there is a direct connection between a unit of measurement on the map and the actual distance.• For example, each inch on the map represents one mile on Earth. So, a map of a town would show a mile-long strip of fast food joints and auto dealers in one inch.
Time Zones• The Earth is divided into 24 time zones, corresponding to 24 hours in a day.• As the earth rotates, the sun shines in different areas, moving from east to west during the course of a day.• Places that have the same longitude will be in the same time zone.
Map Legends• The legend is the key to unlocking the secrets of a map. Objects or colors in the legend represent something on the map. Religions Legend
Can you understand this legend?
Legend Reading Activities• What You Can Learn From A Map – What do Maps Show Activity – Road Map – Road Map Legend – Road Map of Salt Lake City Region – Map Worksheet
Sites to visit• Look up Latitude and Longitude for US Cities• Maps and Map Skills Degrees, Latitude, & Longitude Worksheet• Latitude and Longitude Map (lesson plan)• Scale• Time Zones• Anchors Aweigh (a map adventure)• Map Quiz• Make Your Own Map• Topography Maps• U. S. Map Collection• GeoSpy Game• Globe Projector
Additional Sources• Atlas - World (Holt, Rinehart and Winston)• Outline Map of US• Map Packet Download• Maps.com• National Geographic Xpeditions• Maps & Globes
Writing Activities• Write a paragraph describing the parts of a map. Tell the function of each part in reading a map.
Typical Graphexample of a • This is an typical graph we are all familiar with. • The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.
• Each point has two Typical values: Graph • The “X” value thatY axis runs along the horizontal “X” axis • The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis X axis
• X value is always Typical Graph stated first • Followed by the Y Y (3,8) value (9,5) • The “origin” is the point where the 2 axes intersect with a X value of (0,0)(0,0)
• A point can also Typical Graph have negative (-) values Y • Negative X values are to the left(-X,+Y) (+X,+Y) of the origin (0,0) (0,0) X • Negative Y values(-X,-Y) (+X,-Y) are below the origin
East West, North South on The Earth • Let the X axis be the Equator. Y • Let the Y axis be the Prime Meridian that runs through X Greenwich outside of London. • Lat/Long are the 2 grid points by which you can locate any point on earth.
East West, North South on the Earth • Let each of the N four quarters then beW E designated by North or South and East or S West.
East West, North South on the Earth • The N tells us we’re(N, W) (N, E) north of the Equator. The S tells us we’re south of the Equator. • The E tells us that we’re east of the Prime Meridian. The (S, W) (S, E) W tells us that we’re west of the Prime Meridian.
East West, North South on the Earth(N, W) • That means all points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the Equator and West Prime Meridian of the Prime Meridian.
East West, North South on the Earth • What would be the latitude and longitude directions inPrime Meridian ? Australia? If you said South and East , you’re right!
• Latitude is the distance What is Latitude? from the equator along the Y axis.90°N Y • All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees latitude. X • North pole = 90°N • South pole = 90°S • Values are expressed in 90°S terms of degrees.
What is Latitude? • Each degree of90°N Y latitude is divided into X 60 minutes. • Each minute is divided into 60 90°S seconds. This is also true of longitude.
What is Latitude? • For Example:90°N Y • 37°, 02’,51’’N • This is close to X the latitude where you live. 90°S
What is Longitude? • Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis. Y • All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees X longitude. • The earth is divided into two parts, or hemispheres, of east180°W 180°E and west longitude.
What is Longitude? • The earth is Y divided into 360 equal slices X (meridians) • 180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian180°W 180°E
What is Latitude? • Our latitude and90°N Y longitude might be: X • 37°, 03’,13’’N • 76°, 29’, 45’’W 90°S
• The origin pointSo Where is (0,0)? (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian. • (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean.
See If You Can Tell In Which Quarter These Lon/Lats Are Located • 1. 41°N, 21°E • 2. 37°N, 76°WA B • 3. 72°S, 141°W • 4. 7°S, 23°WC D • 5. 15°N, 29°E • 6. 34°S, 151°E
• 1. B • 2. A • 3. C • 4. C • 5. B • 6. D
• See if you can find those same latitude/longitude locations on a map!
Positioning on the Earth’s Surface East is the direction of rotation of the Earth Latitude: (90oN to 90oS) North Pole Prime Meridian Longitude: (180oE to 0o Longitude 180oW) Tropic of Cancer Latitude 23½o North 21st June 90 60 60ooE o 30 W 30 909022nd Sept 66½o o 23½ Equator Latitude 0o20 March th 900 23½o 22nd December Tropic of Capricorn Latitude 23½o SouthLongitude 90o West Longitude 90oEast Longitude 60o West Longitude 60o East Longitude 30o West Longitude 30o East South Pole Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.