Setting Objectives and
Chapter 3 – Hill & Flynn
▪ Focus Learning and focus teaching
▪ How can we, as teachers, develop the language proficiency of ELLs
while at the same time deliver content instruction?
Four Reasons for Combining Language
Objectives with Content Objectives
▪ Development from study of areas of interest
▪ Activate and +1 prior knowledge
▪ Authentic contexts
▪ Content based instruction
▪ Devices and procedures:
▪ Manipulatives, realia, visuals, kinesthetic, facial expressions,
gestures, eye contact, short sentences, high-frequency vocabulary,
reduction of idiomatic expressions, personalized language,
▪ (SIOP) – Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
Language functions in the classroom
Agreeing and Disagreeing
Asking for assistance
Asking for permission
Planning and predicting
Wishing and hoping
▪ Content Objective: To understand the sequential pattern of an
experiment and how one step affects another.
▪ Needed Language Function?
▪ Explain the steps of a science experiment
▪ Language Objective?
▪ Sequence – using if-then statements
Another Classroom Example
▪ Content Objective: To comprehend the differences between two or
▪ Needed language function?
▪ Language Objective?
▪ Using greater than, similar, equal to, in order to classify polygons
Identifying Vocabulary and Key Concepts
▪ Another way to set language objectives
▪ Close the gap
▪ Learning processes
Generalizations on Setting Objectives
▪ Content Objective: To help students understand that making choices
can be difficult because it often involves trade-offs.
▪ Scenario: Students are going on a camping trip and they have $120
to spend on supplies. Students will need to make a list of supplies
they will buy, how much they cost, and the reason they chose those
Initiate class discussion about the choices that
they made. Which items were most commonly chosen? Which items
were the least popular? What factors influenced their decision?
Language Structure and Objectives by
Stages of 2nd Language Acquisition
▪ Early Production
▪ Speech Emergence
▪ Intermediate and Advanced Fluency
▪ Comprehensible, useful, and relevant
▪ Modeling correct grammar versus overemphasizing grammar
▪ Avoids fossilizaton
Four Generalizations for Providing
▪ Rubrics for declarative knowledge or procedural knowledge
▪ Jointly constructed rubrics
▪ Feedback on written language
▪ Student led
Feedback by Stages of 2nd Language
Chapter 4 – Hill & Flynn
Classroom Example – Graphic Organizer
▪ Content Objective: How to teach ELL students using graphic
▪ The class receives a short lecture on the importance and use of
nonlinguistic representations and then creates a graphic organizer on
the information they received.
▪ The graphic organizer combines linguistic information with