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AMP: Learning Creativity
 

AMP: Learning Creativity

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This lecture is given in the First Year Program at Bowling Green State University, School of Art, in the Artist Methods and Practice workshop. This presentation is by Anthony Fontana, Instructor of ...

This lecture is given in the First Year Program at Bowling Green State University, School of Art, in the Artist Methods and Practice workshop. This presentation is by Anthony Fontana, Instructor of Art and Learning Technologist.

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  • during a recent retreat the faculty identified those learning outcomes were the best predictors of student success
  • we teach facts concepts and attitudes facts are easy so why is creativity so difficult?
  • GENETIC!
  • ALSO GENETIC!
  • STIMULTATION, CONTACT TIME W/ ADULTS, BIRTH ORDER, CHILD HOOD TRAUMA
  • in general, instructors do a great job of dealing with creativity from an adaptive perspective creating environments that are permissive
  • in general, instructors do a great job of dealing with creativity from an adaptive perspective creating environments that are permissive
  • so I will focus on a cognitive perspective which focuses on teaching directly to the outcome
  • U GRAPH OF CONVENTIONALITY UNCANNY VALLEY
  • U GRAPH OF CONVENTIONALITY UNCANNY VALLEY
  • the chinese philosophers stone is a great example of how process shape the mundane into the extraordinary rather than tap your pencil on your forehead, get up and do something
  • Johnathan Schooler verbal overshadowing visual recognition and insight problems the bandwidth of preconscious is large the bandwidth of language small

AMP: Learning Creativity AMP: Learning Creativity Presentation Transcript

  • thinking about the box reconsidering creativity
  • What we typically teach in art courses elements and principles disciplinary studio skills problem solving creativity work ethic studio citizenship perception/acuity critical self reflection social production/collaboration aesthetic theory communication skills art historical context social context/ visual culture
  • What we typically teach in art courses elements and principles disciplinary studio skills problem solving creativity work ethic studio citizenship perception/acuity critical self reflection social production/collaboration aesthetic theory communication skills art historical context social context/ visual culture As important as all of these knowledges and skills may be, this long list can be reduced to 4 traits that predict whether or not a student will be successful in their art/ design degree 3 1 2
  • predictors of student success
  • predictors of student success work ethic curiosity
  • predictors of student success critical self reflection work ethic curiosity
  • predictors of student success creativity critical self reflection work ethic curiosity
  • predictors of student success We will address them as a single complex we will call Creativity curiosity work ethic critical self reflection creativity Any one of these is not sufficient. While not causally dependant, these traits are entailed & entangled with each other.
  • creativity is a complex No less than eleven creativity perspectives identified by Runco, 2006 Creativity is studied in several fields using numerous perspectives.
  • creativity is a complex
  • creativity is a complex
  • creativity is a complex
  • creativity is a complex
  • creativity is a complex
  • creativity is a complex
  • can creativity be learned? The degree to which an individual believes that creativity is learnable depends upon their perspective and understanding of creativity.
    • Teach cognitive Use adaptive
    • strategies strategies
    creativity behaviors techniques tactics strategies mental habits permission safety encouragement modeling expectations two primary approaches In order to make students more creative, instructors can use two approaches:
  • creativity Adaptive strategies: permission values experimentation & a variety of solutions safety freedom to fumble & fail & look “stupid” along the way encouragement supportive of real effort and accomplishment modeling instructor demonstrates creative values and techniques expectations sets & communicates clear and constant goals Adaptive strategies I will provide & you should take advantage of a learning environment that promotes creative thinking.
  • creativity Cognitive strategies: mental habits recognize conventional thinking, creativity blocks behaviors think with process strategies shift paradigms, synaesthesia tactics x-ternalize thinking, visual research, role play, x-ray vision techniques divergent, convergent Cognative stratagies
  • creativity mental habits
  • creativity mental habits age based on Piaget, 1970,1976; Kohlberg,1987; Johnson 1985 Numerous studies over the years have established a strong correlation between age and conventional thinking. Your cohort is currently near the bottom of the “creative valley”. Your thinking tends to be highly conventional. conventional thinking
  • creativity mental habits based on Piaget, 1970,1976; Kohlberg,1987; Johnson 1985 but take heart: the studies were randomized. as art students you have already “skewed” the sample” so this is less predictive for this group. also, there are, of course, individual variations. your results may vary. this is not meant to impugn your creativity, rather it is meant as a challenge and a check: suspecting that your thinking is not as original as it may at first seem to you is key to unlocking your creativity. conventional thinking
  • Developing a Create Mind Works like…
  • “ The heart of all new ideas lies in the borrowing, adding, combining, or modifying of old ones. Do it by accident and people call you lucky. Do it by design and they’ll call you creative .” - Michael LeBoeuf
    • Be Receptive
    • try new things
    • welcome the unfamiliar
    • ask a lot of questions
    • learn to listen
    Ask the question: “ Why?”
    • Foster a Wide Range of Interests
    • make connections between backgrounds
    • collaborate and learn
    • feed your hobbies
    • make art with your music
    • make art with your clothes
    • make art out of your apartment
    • make your hair a work of art
    • make art out of your trash
    • make art with friends
    • make art with your video games
    • make art with out of sports
    • make art with food
    • make art with your phone
    • make art online
    • make art you can smell
    • make art
    • Be Curious
    • research the unknown
    • explore somewhere new
    • seek out information
    • be a “lifelong learner”
  • How often are you taking pictures with that cell camera?
    • Be Attentive
    • realize the value in every experience
    • see past the superficial
    • seek out new possibilities
    • Make Connections
    • find similarities between disparate parts
    • Conviction
    • never be satisfied with the same old answers
    • innovate!
    • start a revolution
    • Investigate New Levels of Complexity
    • play
    • experiment
    • use your intuition
  • creativity mental habits stress Stress is not only a distraction which drains energy which could otherwise be used creatively. It is bad for one's health. Creativity is Play! routines Routines or set ways of performing tasks have their uses, but they can limit the range of responses available and can lead to the development of the anathema of creativity, the "bureaucratic mind”. "The will to a system is a lack of integrity." –Nietzsche goal directed behavior Overly focusing on goals rather than process limits perception and blinds us to possibility. A straight line is the scalpel with which we excise opportunity. beliefs Having a strong belief in something not only limits our response options, but causes us to limit the way in which we perceive and process information from the outside world. We may "filter out" information which contradicts our belief, and end up in our own "reality tunnel", blissfully unaware of much that occurs in front of our very eyes. ego One must be humble before one's subject. Having a strong ego identity with a particular belief exacerbates the realty tunnel. This is not to imply that one must have no beliefs, merely that one needs to be very aware of one's beliefs and consequent limitations. fear Fear of self expression and of the judgment of others can severely limit one's creativity. self criticism Negative thinking and self criticism are also limiting factors of an individual's creativity. creativity blocks
  • creativity behaviors
  • creativity behaviors I hear: I forget. I see: I remember. I do: I understand. Chinese proverb i hear: i forget. i see: i remember. i do: i understand. chinese proverb think with process
  • creativity behaviors I hear: I forget. I see: I remember. I do: I understand. Chinese proverb the 500ms. delay even for simple volitional acts consciousness lags half of a second behind readiness potential. we have made our decisions and have initiated our actions before we consciously decide to act. readiness potential 1 -1 s. conscious wish -0.2 s. readiness potential 2 -0.5 s. act based on Libet, 1979; Keller and Heckhausen, 1990 "the role of consciousness in our decisions is greatly overestimated" -tor norretranders think with process
  • creativity behaviors I hear: I forget. I see: I remember. I do: I understand. Chinese proverb rapid cognition malcolm gladwell's blink, ( 2005) makes the case for "thinking without thinking" citing numerous studies and examples that reveal how subconscious processes that he calls "thin slicing" allow us to make better decisions and more accurate predictions for problems involving several variables or multiple dimensions with little conscious decision making. think with process
  • creativity behaviors rapid cognition 500 ms. delay think with process preconscious perceptivity & creativity are reactive. try to put put consciousness in charge of planning the strategy and allow the preconscious to evaluate progress, readjust tactics and resolve the problem. thinking with process = preconscious "thinking" = visual thinking
  • creativity behaviors I hear: I forget. I see: I remember. I do: I understand. Chinese proverb rapid cognition 500 ms. delay when in doubt do something the point is not to think less, rather to think differently. avoid a "plan and execute" division of process the journey is the destination. in creative works problem seeking is problem solving. process is a collaborator– "our actions think louder than words" think with process
  • creativity techniques
  • creativity techniques attribute listing bug listing (seinfeld whine) problem reversal force-field analysis change perspective convergent thinking
  • creativity techniques lateral thinking associative thinking bisociation (forced analogy) divergent thinking
  • creativity strategies
  • creativity strategies shift paradigms communication model machine model mapping model catalyst model diagnostic model force/field model pointing model
  • creativity strategies what does the artwork say ? what do I want to say ? standard model encode decode transmission medium shift paradigms communication model meaning meaning artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies what does the artwork say ? what do I want to say ? corrected communication model encode decode transmission medium “ noise” shift paradigms communication model meaning meaning meaning meaning artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies what does the artwork say ? what do I want to say ? deconstruction/feminist communication model transmission medium “ noise” “ noise” “ noise” shift paradigms communication model meaning meaning meaning meaning artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies machine model what does the artwork do ? what do I want it to do ? In this model artworks do not create meaning, they create effects machine inventor effects consumer shift paradigms artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies machine model what does the artwork do ? what do I want it to do ? applied arts such as advertising, interior & product design most often use a machine model– the machine is a “tool” used to alter the viewer “ tool” shift paradigms artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies What relationships does the artwork show ? what do I want to show ? representation filter scale important features level of detail style territory & terrain mode of Investi- gation key shift paradigms mapping model artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies What is the territory? How do I know what to look for? What are the landmarks? How are they related? representation filter scale important features level of detail style territory & terrain mode of Investi- gation key shift paradigms mapping model artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies What style of representation is appropriate? At what level of detail (resolution)? Have I provided a key? representation filter scale important features level of detail style territory & terrain mode of Investi- gation key shift paradigms mapping model artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies catalyst model What reactions does the artwork create? What reactions do I want? shift paradigms artist viewer viewer viewer viewer artwork effect
  • creativity strategies catalyst model focus on creating social change or interaction rather than communicating meaning shift paradigms artist viewer viewer viewer viewer artwork effect
  • creativity strategies catalyst model The artwork can be an object or design but often it is performative or an event shift paradigms artist viewer viewer viewer viewer artwork effect
  • creativity strategies What forces & fields are displayed? Upon what influences, power s & spheres should I draw? What agencies, authorities & domains are in play? shift paradigms force/field model viewer artwork “ flow chart” filter scope important features level of complexity style perception analysis domain forces
  • creativity strategies In the “weak” force/field model the artist perceives, processes and encodes domains for display to the viewer shift paradigms force/field model viewer artwork “ flow chart” filter scope important features level of complexity style perception analysis domain forces
  • creativity strategies In the “strong” force/field model the artist is not an observer, The artwork is an effect of forces at work on the artist. The reception of the artwork is an effect of the forces at work on the viewers. domain shift paradigms force/field model forces forces forces forces forces forces forces artwork
  • creativity strategies diagnostic model What is the artwork a symptom of? What does the artwork indicate or reveal ? shift paradigms intended meaning unintended meanings symptoms decode symptoms artwork viewer artist meanings
  • creativity strategies diagnostic model in this model the artist’s intended meanings are the primary focus during creation, but are only of secondary importance In the reception shift paradigms intended meaning unintended meanings symptoms decode symptoms artwork viewer artist meanings
  • creativity strategies diagnostic model artworks are” read” for clues or evidence of of underlying forces or conditions at work in the the artist or in society shift paradigms intended meaning unintended meanings symptoms decode symptoms artwork viewer artist meanings
  • creativity strategies pointing model what discovery, experience or concept does the artwork share ? how do I present my interest so that the viewer shares my experience? shift paradigms artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies pointing model this model represents the fundamental function of all artworks: to redirect the attention of viewers. It is not so concerned with communication per say, rather it is an attempt toreplicate the artist’s experience, curiosity, or enthusiasm in the viewer shift paradigms artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies pointing model Although all artworks “point” in this way, by focusing on the pointing model artists make an important shift from making work that is “about” a concept or experience to work that participates in the concept or experience as much as possible shift paradigms artist viewer artwork
  • creativity strategies medically: involuntary linking of 2 or more senses artistically: translation of one sense into another synaesthesia
  • creativity strategies hearing arousal taste balance tension touch smell There are the “traditional” 5 senses, but also other bodily sensations such as balance, tension, arousal, hunger, etc. becoming consciously aware of our physical responses & tapping into sense memories provide important resources for generating creative solutions to visual problems that are less prone to be based on cliché symbols... synaesthesia
  • Symbolic approaches to depict “death” creativity teach: strategies black coffin skeleton grim reaper blood ghost black rose synaesthesia cliché
  • synaesthetic approaches to depict “death” creativity strategies acrid, sweet stench of moldering flesh; the smooth, or serene aroma of lilies. what does death smell like? does death have the tension of rigor mortis or the repose of release? what does death feel like? is death as solid and weighty as packed earth, as open and airy as a picked carcass, or as ephemeral as a cold breath on your cheek? What is the tactile quality of death? does it sound like a hushed and empty silence or have the stretched, rounded sonority of a funeral dirge? What does death sound like? synaesthesia
  • creativity tactics
  • creativity tactics
    • externalize your thinking: keep a journal
  • creativity tactics
    • research: the easiest way to get out of your own
    • head is to get into somebody else’s
  • creativity tactics
    • game 1: always assume that you are wrong…
    • this will test your thinking and push you on to alternative solutions, conceptions & perceptions.
  • creativity tactics
    • game 2: habitually play “could be…what if…”
    • look at things not just as they are, but what they could be
    • airplane
    • Mccroskey (showing map): what do you make out of this?
    • Eugene: This? I can make a hat, or a broach, or a teradactyl!
mccroskey: gimme that!
  • creativity tactics
    • develop x-ray vision
    • as metaphor
    frame 1 (surface):: 1950’s stock photo image of girls gossiping or sharing a secret. frame 2 (depth): “encountering the double” (doppelganger; evil twin; ka; subconscious; id/ego; inner voice, inspiration)
  • creativity tactics the key concept is to hold two frames of reference simultaneously
    • develop x-ray vision
    • as metaphor
  • creativity tactics
    • develop x-ray vision
    • literally
  • creativity tactics a common example of x-ray vision occurs in figure drawing classes. typically students learn anatomy, especially bones, major muscle groups and insertions (where and how muscles connect to the bones). students use surface clues on the model such as boney landmarks to trigger projections of the internal anatomy which help them to draw the figure more accurately
    • develop x-ray vision
    • literally
  • creativity tactics other common examples of projective vision (what we are calling x-ray vision) include rorschach tests, kuleshov effects in film, constellations and, of course, “undressing with the eyes”
    • develop x-ray vision
    • literally
  • creativity tactics many will argue that x-ray vision is as described here is not literal–that it’s not “real”. it is a point well taken, but real or not x-ray vision is a useful creativity tactic. a final thought for doubters: are your dreams real? the vision that you experience in dreams IS real (in the sense that it really happens & can be verified with eeg and pet scans) even though it only simulates external events & is not caused by them.
    • develop x-ray vision
    • literally
  • creativity summery mental habits behaviors techniques strategies tactics