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Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
Nick mcmasterpresentation
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Nick mcmasterpresentation

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Massey University Assignment

Massey University Assignment

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  • 1. Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 2. Issues of language and power when teaching refugees in New Zealand one on one. Asymmetrical discourse between teacher and student Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 3. Asymmetrical discourse between teacher and student
    • Sources:
    • Arndt, V. , Harvey, P. , & Nuttall, J (2000). Alive to Language . United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
    • Auerbach, E.R. (1995). The politics of the ESL classroom: Issues of power in pedagogical choices. In J.W. Tollefson (Ed.), Power and inequality in language education (pp. 9-33). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Brown, H.D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching . New York: Pearson Longman
    • Casanave, C. (2004) Controversies in second language writing (pp. 205-223). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    • Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 5-20.
    • Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman
    • Matsuda, A. (2006). Negotiating assumptions in EIL classrooms. In J. Edge (Ed), Re- locating TESOL in an age of empire (pp. 158-170). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Norton, B., & Toohey, K. (2001). Changing perspectives on good language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 35(2), 307-322.
    • Oxford, R., Massey, R. & Anand, S. (2005). Transforming teacher-student relationships: Toward a more welcoming and diverse classroom discourse. N J. Frodense & C. Holten (Eds). The power of context in language teaching and learning (pp.249-266). Heinle:Boston.
    • Paltridge, B. (2001) . Genre and the Language Learning Classroom (pp. 2-15).
    • Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    • Tomlinson, B. (2005). English as a foreign language: Matching procedures to the context of learning. N E. Hinkel (Ed.) Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.137-153). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • (Study Guide, Unit 14, pp. 193-216)
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 4. The teacher student relationship is not equal – you cannot get away from it!
    • The premise:
    • This presentation suggests that all teacher student settings have explicit and implicit asymmetrical power relations that need to be considered when teaching second language students (Arndt, Harvey & Nuttall, 2000).
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 5. Asymmetrical discourse between teacher and student “ Inequality exists within any culture (Brown, 2007. pp-201)”. The question for language tutors is what is lost by not identify and addressing power imbalances that may hinder second language acquisition (SLA)? Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 6. Potential reasons for 1 on 1 power imbalances – the causes are many and varied
    • 1. Refugees will have pre-determined expectations, as to how they will be taught, that may not be met (Tomlinson, 2005.; Oxford, Massey & Anand, 2005).
    • 2. Refugees are subjected to unfamiliar cultural differences and context as well as the omnipresence of English. They can find themselves between two cultures (Crystal, 1997.; Brown, 2007).
    • 3. As English dominates, spreads and develops variants teachers may increasingly ignore the need to adapt to local contexts (Matsuda, 2006).
    • 4. Teachers, fearful of losing power, are adverse to the possibilities of technology in the classroom as a means of facilitating an advantage to refugee learning (Casanave, 2004).
    • 5. Refugees focus on text without an explicit explanation of the genre required for successful communication thereby limiting their understanding CN p410 (Paltridge, 2001).
    • 6. Teachers trained in the West incorrectly assume constructs such as critical thinking apply to all refugee cultures and teach accordingly (Casanave, 2004)
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 7. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance
    • 1. Refugees will have pre-determined expectations, as to how they will be taught, that may not be met (Tomlinson, 2005.; Oxford, Massey & Anand, 2005).
    • The refugee student will come to the tutoring setting with unspoken expectations of the tutor ( Auerbach, 1995). .
    • The tutor cannot assume that a student used to an autocratic teaching-style will learn in a contrasting laisse-faire setting that may be the tutors preferred approach (Brown, 2007).
    • Tutors must adapt and give full consideration to student expectations (Brown, 2007)
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 8. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance
    • 2. Refugees are subjected to unfamiliar cultural differences and context as well as the omnipresence of English. They can find themselves between two cultures (Crystal, 1997.; Brown, 2007).
    • Be aware that English is a widespread sort-after written and spoken language. As such it has a power of its own. “English has been closely linked with imperialism and elitism ( Arndt et al.,2000 pp-195).
    • Teachers will need to address the power imbalance inherent in the learners need to understand a new cultural setting in order to develop contextual language skill.
    • Simply teaching language skills without reference to the cultural setting will not suffice because relating to the new cultural setting is important to English acquisition (Brown, 2007)
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 9. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance
    • 3. As English dominates, spreads and develops variants teachers may increasingly ignore the need to adapt to local contexts (Matsuda, 2006).
    • Don’t fall into the trap of imposing a one size fits all curriculum (Matsuda, 2006).
    • Conduct local needs assessments and develop local materials that are fit for purpose (Matsuda, 2006)
    • Are your generic textbooks fit for purpose (Harmer, 2007).
    • Imposing a curriculum without a local needs assessment can be regarded as a detrimental abuse of power (Matsuda, 2006).
    • A bilingual teaching approach may be employed to address power imbalance within a local context ( Auerbach, 1995, Harmer, 2007).
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 10. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance
    • 4. Teachers, fearful of losing power, are adverse to the possibilities of technology in the classroom as a means of facilitating an advantage to refugee learning (Casanave, 2004).
    • It’s time to be the guide on the side (Brown, 2007).
    • Power comes from student progress through facilitation, there is no need to take total control (Harmer, 2007).
    • Selected computer applications can provide a source of motivation and student empowerment (Arndt et al., 2000., Harmer, 2007).
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 11. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance
    • 5. Refugees focus on text without an explicit explanation of the genre required for successful communication thereby limiting their understanding CN p410 (Paltridge, 2001).
    • Language relates to genre, refugee learners need to understand the intent behind the words, not just the words themselves (Paltridge, 2001).
    • Refugees will gain power and SLA by gaining insight into the norms and values of their adopted community (Brown, 2007.; Norton & Toohey, 2001).
    • Reliance on a single text can be disempowering ( Auerbach, 1995).
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 12. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance
    • 6. Teachers trained in the West incorrectly assume constructs such as critical thinking apply to all refugee cultures and teach accordingly (Casanave, 2004).
      • Identify and be aware of your implied constructs ( Auerbach, 1995).
      • Understand the teaching and learning implications of those constructs
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 13. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance
    • Conclusion
    • Those wishing to acquire a second language need to adapt. Second language teachers should consider power imbalances inherent in their practices and adapt their approaches in order that the balance be restored.
    Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  • 14. Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038

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