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  • 1. Personal Development,Health andPhysical Education K-6Syllabus
  • 2. The Board of Studies has made all reasonable attempts to locate ownersof third party copyright material and invites anyone from whom permissionhas not been sought to contact the Copyright Officer,Board of Studies NSW. Ph: (02) 9367 8111; fax: (02) 9367 8484.© Board of Studies NSW 2007Published byBoard of Studies NSWGPO Box 5300Sydney 2001AustraliaTel: (02) 9367 8111Fax: (02) 9367 8484Internet: 1 7414 7400 0First published August 1999Reprinted with Foundation Statements April 2006Revised March 2007 in response to the Australian Resuscitation Council’s revisedcardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines. Official Notices BOS 06/07 Board Bulletin Vol16 No1 (OBOS Job No 2007160)2007160
  • 3. ContentsIntroduction 5Rationale 6Aim 8Objectives 8Overview of Learning in PDHPE K–6 9Outcomes 13Foundation Statements 14Overview of Outcomes 16 Values and Attitudes Outcomes 17 Skills Outcomes 18 Knowledge and Understanding Outcomes 19Outcomes and Indicators 20Content 35Overview of Content 36 K–6 36 Early Stage 1 38 Stage 1 40 Stage 2 42 Stage 3 44 Beyond Stage 3 46Implications for Teaching and Learning in PDHPE 47General Principles for Planning, Programming,Assessing Reporting and Evaluating 49Glossary 57
  • 4. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6IntroductionPersonal Development, Health and Physical Education is one of the six key learning areas in the NSWprimary curriculum. This syllabus makes a unique contribution to the total school curriculum in that itis directly concerned with supporting the development of the student as a whole person. Itsimplementation has the potential to contribute to improved and ongoing quality of life for allindividuals within the community. This syllabus replaces the K–6 Personal Development, Health andPhysical Education Syllabus and Support Document, Formal Consultation Draft, 1992. It incorporateselements of the Physical Activity for Health and Fitness Support Document, which was distributed toschools in 1997.This syllabus is based on a broad notion of health that encompasses all aspects of an individual’swellbeing, inclusive of social, mental, physical and spiritual health. It is concerned with developing instudents the knowledge and understanding, skills, values and attitudes that will enable them to leadhealthy and fulfilling lives. It also provides schools with a curriculum framework for teaching andlearning related to the health priorities for young people of drug education, fitness and physical activity,child protection and nutrition.School Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) programs should focus onencouraging students to make informed decisions related to health and physical activity and developpositive attitudes towards a healthy lifestyle. Programs should include participation in regular and variedphysical education experiences, which provide the foundation for a lifelong commitment to valuing andleading a healthy lifestyle. They should also include systematic and explicit teaching of personal andsocial skills to give students a basis for resilience and the resourceful management of their own lives.Student learning in PDHPE will also be enhanced through the use of computer-based technologies.Information technology enables students to locate, access, view and analyse a range of texts, graphics,sounds and images. Students can also use computer technology to design and create informationproducts. The indicators shown in this syllabus include some examples of how students might usedifferent technologies to work towards the achievement of outcomes.The syllabus is designed to give all schools the flexibility to treat sensitive and controversial issues ina manner reflective of their own ethos. While the selection of specific program content and learningapproaches is to occur at the school level, learning experiences must be drawn from all strands in eachstage.Parents should be involved in decisions about the PDHPE program. This will assist teachers to adjusttheir programs to accommodate the perspectives of different groups within the community. Parentswill also be in a better position to assist in the implementation of the school program and to activelysupport their child’s learning outside the school environment. The partnership between the school andthe home will be most productive when both contribute in a consistent manner to the child’sdevelopment of positive health behaviours and attitudes.It is important that students are encouraged to understand their own growth and development withinthe context of their families and communities. The active participation of parents and students in theplanning, implementation and evaluation of programs will assist exploration of different aspects ofhealth as they are understood within different communities and to place teaching and learning in acontext that is meaningful and valued by students.While the syllabus has a clear focus on promoting better health for all, it is acknowledged that not allstudents enjoy the same opportunities in this regard. Social, economic, environmental and politicalfactors are key determinants of health status. Health inequities may be linked to such factors as race,ethnicity, class, gender, disability, sexuality and age. Sensitivity to the circumstances of individualstudents is essential in designing appropriate PDHPE programs. It is important for teachers, parentsand students to understand that improving health is the responsibility of all members of society. 5
  • 5. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationRationaleIn our rapidly changing society there is increasing community awareness of the importance of healthylifestyles. The resultant good health is characterised by improved quality of life, less sickness anddisability, happier personal, family and social experiences and the opportunity to make choices in workand recreation.Individuals lead a healthy lifestyle when they live in a way that allows them the greatest chance ofachieving and maintaining mental, physical, social and spiritual wellbeing. When individuals are wellinformed on health issues and have a sense of control about the decisions they make, they are morelikely to experience positive relationships, improved quality of life and less illness. PDHPE programsplay a unique role in the development of students’ knowledge, understandings and practical skills thatlead to better health.The ability of individuals to adopt a healthy lifestyle may be affected by the social and cultural context inwhich they live. Student learning is enhanced by an understanding that health is the responsibility of allparts of society. Through promoting the fundamental principles of diversity, social justice and supportiveenvironments, individuals and communities are better able to act for positive health outcomes.Students should be concerned not only about their own health but also about better health for all nowand in the future. This is encouraged through raising: concern for the welfare, rights and dignity of allpeople; understanding of how equity is effected by structures and practices within communities;awareness of disadvantages and actions for their redress; and understanding of how decisions aremade and priorities established.PDHPE is an important key learning area within the primary curriculum as it:■ encourages an understanding and valuing of self and others Students who understand and value themselves as individuals and as members of groups, exercise more control over their own lives. They can identify and appropriately express a range of feelings. They also appreciate that the way they think influences the way they feel. They are open to learning more positive ways of responding to situations. They are therefore able to make more considered choices and are less influenced by immediate circumstances and responses. When students understand and value others, they work more cooperatively in teams and enjoy more stable and satisfying interpersonal relationships. They are also more tolerant and caring members of the community who value difference and respond to others as individuals. Students who understand and value themselves and others are better equipped to respond to change and to overcome adversity. They are also more likely to seek help when they need it. This key learning area provides opportunities for students to form positive attitudes about themselves and others, to communicate effectively, to work cooperatively and to develop and maintain positive relationships.■ promotes physical activity Students should be physically active every day in as many ways as they can. Health experts agree that all people should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate physical activity each day for health benefits. It is also generally agreed that, in addition, children should engage in more vigorous activity of at least 20 minutes at least 3 times per week. Adolescence is a time when the trend to inactivity is a concern. Efforts to encourage young children to be more active (one hour per day) provides optimum health and allows some scope for reducing activity in later life but still retaining the minimum daily requirement. 6
  • 6. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6 Regular physical activity is an essential ingredient for the development and maintenance of optimum health. It can improve cardiovascular efficiency and aid efforts to reduce risk factors of coronary heart disease. It is critical for enhancing bone development, controlling obesity and improving psychological health and immune status. The related health and fitness benefits enable the individual to engage in leisure activities and to meet physical work demands without excessive physiological stress. Physical activity is also important in contributing to quality of life. Participation in active pursuits can be an enjoyable, creative and social outlet that has the potential to build esteem. School programs at all levels have a responsibility to encourage the physical growth and development of all students, support the acquisition of movement skills and nurture positive attitudes towards physical activity. This key learning area provides regular and frequent opportunities for students to acquire and apply movement skills, enhance their creativity and aesthetic awareness and develop positive attitudes towards regular physical activity.■ emphasises informed decision making leading to effective and responsible action Schools can help students to take responsible action regarding their own lifestyle. They can support them in making informed decisions about factors that may hinder or promote the wellbeing of themselves and others. This key learning area builds upon the decision-making skills children have when they first come to school. It provides opportunities for the teaching of decision-making skills and learning through behaviour rehearsal. School programs can assist all students to become more aware of the process that is occurring when decisions are made so that they can increase their knowledge of options available to them and predict likely consequences. To make informed decisions, students also require accurate and appropriate information about issues that are relevant to them. Students are more likely to use strategies developed and learned in the classroom in their own lives if they have been developed and rehearsed over a period of time in simulated situations that are as close as possible to the real-life contexts of the students. For example, refusal skills in drug situations need to be part of the repertoire of students’ responses well ahead of the time when they are exposed to drugs.More specifically the study of PDHPE is concerned with:■ physical, social, cognitive and emotional growth and development patterns Feelings of self-confidence and self-acceptance and the ability to act in the best interests of themselves and others are fostered by an understanding of the nature of life’s changes and the uniqueness of individual development.■ the development and maintenance of positive interpersonal relationships Successful interaction with others in contexts such as the family, peer group and teams is essential to meet the individual’s need for belonging and security. Students’ capacity to form relationships and cope with changes in relationships is influenced by understandings and skills in negotiation, conflict resolution, tolerance, roles, responsibilities and community expectations associated with friendships and relationships.■ the factors influencing personal health choices Young students need clear guidance concerning appropriate health attitudes and behaviours. As students mature they require assistance in discerning between conflicting messages from a range of sources. An understanding of health issues empowers students to make appropriate decisions and commit to adopting sound community values. 7
  • 7. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education■ living and learning in a safe secure environment The safety and security of children is enhanced when they can recognise situations where their personal safety may be at risk, and use strategies to protect themselves. When power is used positively in relationships, individuals can support their own and others’ rights to respect and safety.■ the adoption of an active lifestyle Physical activity habits developed in school years are often maintained in later life. Students need to understand the importance of a balanced lifestyle incorporating regular physical activity for health and fitness.■ fundamental movement patterns and coordinated actions of the body Children do not naturally develop fundamental movement skills as they grow. Opportunities should be provided for these skills to be taught, practised and encouraged. Having mastery of the Fundamental Movement Skills such as throwing, catching, running and jumping opens up a vast array of sport, leisure and recreation options for the individual. Skills are developed through play, dance, gymnastics, games, sports, aquatics and other recreational activities. The quality of movement is further enhanced through exploring, composing, performing and appreciating movement.■ skills that enable action for better health and movement outcomes Understanding about health and movement is utilised when students have the necessary ability and self-confidence. The skills of effective communication, interaction, decision making and problem solving and moving with efficiency and confidence empower students to take action leading to better health, improved performance and enhanced self-esteem. Not all students will have the same degree of control over their health. Illness, disability and sociocultural circumstances will have significant impacts on health and the ability to affect change. However, an emphasis on these skills and understandings of those factors that influence health best prepares students to work towards better health for themselves and others.AimThe aim of this syllabus is to develop in each student the knowledge and understanding, skills andvalues and attitudes needed to lead healthy, active and fulfilling lives. In doing so, the syllabus will formthe basis for students to adopt a responsible and productive role in society.ObjectivesValues and Attitudes Skills KnowledgeTo develop students’: To develop students’ skills in: To develop students’ knowledge and understanding about:■ appreciation of and a ■ making, communicating commitment to healthy and acting upon health ■ ways to enhance personal and socially just ways of decisions; and community health and living. wellbeing, and ■ moving with competence and confidence; and ■ the composition, performance and appraisal ■ forming and maintaining of movement. positive relationships. 8
  • 8. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Overview of Learning in PDHPE K–6The following diagram represents the key components of the syllabus. The syllabus content consists oftwo elements: subject matter and skills. These form the basis for achieving the syllabus aims,objectives and outcomes. Syllabus Aims Objectives Outcomes Indicators Subject Matter • relationships • personal identity • communication • the body • families • human sexuality • peers • changes • groups • values Strand • personal Interpersonal Growth and safety Relationship Development • non locomotor • home and skills rural safety • locomotor skills • school and • manipulative skills play safety moving • games • road safety Safe problem-solving Games • athletics • water safety Living communicating and Sport • aquatics • emergency • playing the games procedures SKILLS • making interacting decisions Personal decision-making Gymnastics • non locomotor • nutriton Health skills • health services Choices • locomotor skills and products • elements of • drug use movement • environmental Active Dance • composition health Lifestyle • preventive measures • components of • non locomotor skills an active lifestyle • locomotor skills • ways to be active • elements of dance • effects of physical • composition activities • dance styles Specific content and learning experiences are selected to achieve the syllabus objectives and outcomes 9
  • 9. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationSubject MatterThe subject matter of PDHPE K–6 is organised into eight interrelated strands. The eight strands are notmutually exclusive. Programs may select subject matter from a number of the eight strands. Particularthemes and issues may be revisited in relation to a number of strands to reinforce understandings.In order for students to achieve the outcomes of this syllabus it is essential that teaching/learningoccurs in each of the strands in each stage of primary education.Active LifestyleActive Lifestyle is concerned with students adopting activity patterns that promote their wellbeing. Inthis strand, students will examine the components of a balanced lifestyle, explore options forrecreation and develop the skills and attitudes necessary for an active lifestyle.DanceDance develops the ability of students to communicate and express themselves through movement.Through dance, students develop awareness of the ways their bodies move, the space in which theymove, the time and quality of their movements and their relationship to each other and objects.Students participate in composing, moving and appreciating a range of dance styles.Games and SportsThis strand develops each student’s competence and confidence in a broad range of games, sports andphysical activities. Students develop fundamental movement skills (FMS), progressing to more games-and sports-specific skills in non-competitive and competitive environments that foster positive feelingsof success and enjoyment.Growth and DevelopmentGrowth and Development involves developing each student’s understanding of their own physical,social, cognitive and emotional development in the context of increasing awareness of changes thatoccur throughout the cycle of people’s lives. Students participate in activities that increase theirconfidence and competence to manage change.GymnasticsThe focus of this strand is on initial movement exploration leading to the acquisition of somepreliminary gymnastics skills. Students investigate and succeed in a wide variety of movementexperiences and challenges, developing skill, demonstrating control and exploring the ways in whichthe body can move. The gymnastics experiences recommended in this syllabus are appropriate for allstudents. They do not involve Olympic or competitive gymnastics disciplines.Interpersonal RelationshipsInterpersonal Relationships is concerned with developing an understanding of the nature ofrelationships. Students develop skills for building positive responsible relationships, and practise theirapplication so that they can use them effectively in their lives.10
  • 10. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Personal Health ChoicesPersonal Health Choices examines the process of making lifestyle decisions and putting them intopractice. This strand considers the personal health decisions that students make about their livesrelating to nutrition, hygiene, consumerism, drug use, the environment and disease prevention.Safe LivingSafe Living is concerned with the protection of individuals through the promotion of safe environmentsand practices. This strand focuses on developing in students a commitment and an ability to act inways that will keep themselves and others safe from harm.SkillsThere are five essential skills that students should develop from PDHPE. They are:CommunicatingStudents should develop a variety of skills for communicating: being able to express needs, wants,feelings, ideas and opinions; being able to listen attentively and respond appropriately; being able touse negotiation, conflict resolution, refusal and assertiveness skills effectively in a range of situations.Decision MakingStudents should develop decision-making skills in the context of making healthy personal and lifestylechoices. This involves: making informed decisions; selecting and adopting safe practices; distinguishingbetween fact and opinion in health matters; accepting responsibility for decisions and resultingconsequences; being able to use information gained to inform future decision making; makingcollective decisions for the common good.InteractingSkills for relating positively to others and the environment include: working cooperatively as a groupmember; generating and abiding by rules for common benefit; developing and maintainingfriendships; offering assistance and encouragement to others; accepting support and assistance.MovingStudents develop the ability to: move effectively in response to a variety of stimuli; participate regularlyin a range of games and sports; demonstrate mastery of fundamental movement skills such asthrowing, catching, kicking, jumping and running; create and perform sequences of movement withvariation in movement quality.Problem SolvingStudents develop problem-solving skills by: gathering relevant information by observing, questioningand researching; generating alternative ways of resolving problems; using a range of problem-solvingstrategies; selecting the most appropriate solution; identifying people who can assist; carrying out aplan and reflecting on the results. 11
  • 11. Outcomes Foundation Statements Overview of Outcomes Outcomes and Indicators
  • 12. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationFoundation StatementsFoundation Statements set out a clear picture of the knowledge, skills and understanding that eachstudent should develop at each stage of primary school.Early Stage 1 Stage 1Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and RelationshipsStudents participate in regular physical activity Students participate and perform in dance,through creative play, dance, gymnastics and gymnastics, minor games and sports. Theyminor games. They practise body movement complete simple movement sequences thatand control, demonstrating different ways the show an understanding of dynamics, spatialbody can move by composing and sequencing awareness, relationships, timing and rhythm ofsimple movement patterns. Students show movement. They demonstrate fair play andawareness and consideration of others during cooperation in small groups. Students developplay situations and practise the fundamental proficiency in the fundamental movement skillsmovement skills of balance, sprint run, vertical of the hop, side gallop, skip, overhand throw,jump and catch. They describe the components kick and two-handed strike. They participate inof an active lifestyle and identify different ways physical activities that promote enjoyment andto be active at school and at home. recognise the importance of these for health and lifestyle balance.Students make simple decisions in relation tohealth and safety and identify medicines and Students describe ways to keep healthy and safehow to store them. They describe balanced and explore choices relating to food, suneating habits and healthy personal habits as well protection and personal safety. They identify theas safe and unsafe situations at home, on and appropriate use, administration and storage ofnear roads, travelling to and from school and medicines. Students describe strategies to staynear water. Students identify people who can safe at home, on and near roads, when travellinghelp and describe actions such as ‘no, go, tell’ to and from school, and near water. Theythat might be taken in unsafe situations. recognise safe and unsafe environments and situations and suggest a range of protectiveStudents identify personal characteristics and strategies for dealing with unsafe situations.qualities, and physical changes that haveoccurred since birth and identify different parts Students describe similarities and differencesof the body. With self-control, students express between themselves and others. They describefeelings and develop positive relationships. They different body parts and how the body growsinteract and communicate with peers in a and changes. Students explore different types ofvariety of play and group situations, listening, relationships and describe the skills needed tosharing and showing concern when working develop and maintain positive relationships.with others. They identify the effects of bullying.14
  • 13. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Stage 2 Stage 3Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and RelationshipsStudents apply movement skills in dance, Students apply, adapt and vary movement skillsgymnastics, games and sports, and practise in dance, gymnastics, games and sports. Theymanipulative skills in a range of minor games. understand the elements of movement andThey perform movement sequences with compose and perform movement sequencesconsistency and control and demonstrate with control and coordination in variouscooperation, effort and practice in physical contexts. Students demonstrate teamwork,activity. Students demonstrate proficiency in the tactics and strategies when participating in teamfundamental movement skills of static balance, games. They demonstrate proficiency in thesprint run, vertical jump, catch, hop, side gallop, fundamental movement skills of leap, kick, two-skip and overarm throw through practice and handed strike and dodge and apply them in aapplication in different games and sports. They range of challenging physical activity contexts.participate in physical activity and investigate Students participate in a range of moderate tohow it contributes to a healthy and active vigorous physical activities and apply movementlifestyle. skills with increased confidence and precision. They investigate the effects of physical activityStudents describe the factors that influence on health and monitor and evaluate physicalhealthy lifestyle decisions and demonstrate an activity levels.understanding of the decision-making process.They examine how the use of drugs such as Students examine key factors that contribute to atobacco and alcohol can cause harm. They balanced lifestyle and keeping safe and healthy.investigate nutritional choices relating to cultural They examine nutritional information, diseasebeliefs, special dietary needs and ‘fast food’. prevention and the effects of drugs on the bodyStudents demonstrate behaviours to stay safe at and they identify behaviours that impact onhome, on and near roads, when travelling to and wellbeing. Students assess the safety offrom school, and near water. They demonstrate situations in home, school, water and roadthe capacity to deal with unsafe situations environments and identify appropriateincluding abuse, bullying and harassment. responses. They describe and practise a range of personal safety strategies that could be used inStudents recognise individual strengths and threatening or abusive situations. They takelimitations and they identify characteristics that responsibility for personal decisions, recognisingmake them unique. They explore body changes the effects that decisions have on self andthat occur during life, including puberty. others.Students explain how positive relationships areformed and the importance of effective Students describe the factors that influencecommunication of feelings and needs in personal identity and examine the physical,maintaining relationships. They recognise the social and emotional changes that occur duringrights, values and feelings of others and devise puberty. They devise strategies for coping withstrategies to solve problems, recognise and change, grief and loss. They value the differencesaccept differences and manage conflict. between individuals and challenge discrimination and harassment. Students value different roles and responsibilities in relationships, the importance of communication and they practise positive ways to deal with conflict. 15
  • 14. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Overview of Outcomes Outcomes Syllabus outcomes are specific statements of desired student achievement intended by the syllabus. These outcomes are achieved as students engage with the content of the syllabus. They are organised in stages. The outcomes are statements of the knowledge and understandings and skills expected to be gained by most students at the end of a stage as a result of effective teaching and learning of PDHPE. Stages are sequential, chronological curriculum organisers that provide a convenient way of structuring syllabus outcomes. The stages of PDHPE K–6 are as follows: Early Stage 1 (ES1): Kindergarten Stage 1 (S1): Years 1 and 2 Stage 2 (S2): Years 3 and 4 Stage 3 (S3): Years 5 and 6 Most students will achieve the outcomes of each stage in the years listed above. Some students will be working towards outcomes at an earlier or later stage. The values and attitudes outcomes for PDHPE are applicable to all stages of primary schooling. They are progressively reinforced in each stage and therefore they are not presented in stages.Outcomes A code has been applied to each of the outcomes. This does not indicate any intended sequence or hierarchy of the outcomes. Rather, it is a classification system to facilitate ease of reference. The following codes are used: Strands Skills AL Active Lifestyle CO Communicating DA Dance DM Decision Making GY Gymnastics IN Interacting GD Growth and Development MO Moving GS Games and Sports PS Problem Solving IR Interpersonal Relationships PH Personal Health Choices SL Safe Living V Values and Attitudes For example, the following outcome: GSS1.8 Performs fundamental movement skills with equipment in minor games. refers to an outcome from the Games and Sports strand in Stage 1. The last number indicates that this outcome belongs to the eighth set of PDHPE outcomes. Indicators Each outcome in this syllabus is accompanied by a set of indicators. An indicator is a statement of the behaviour that students might display as they work towards the achievement of syllabus outcomes. The indicators included in this syllabus are examples only. They exemplify the range of observable behaviours that contribute to the achievement of outcomes. They assist teachers to monitor student progress within a stage and to make on-balance judgements about the achievement of outcomes at the end of a stage. Teachers may wish to develop their own indicators. Alternatively, they may adapt and/or modify the syllabus indicators as appropriate. 16
  • 15. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Values and Attitudes OutcomesThroughout the years of primary schooling students will develop an appreciation and commitment tohealthy and socially just ways of living. The following outcomes apply at all stages.A student:V1 refers to a sense of their own worth and dignity;V2 respects the right of others to hold different values and attitudes from their own;V3 enjoys a sense of belonging;V4 increasingly accepts responsibility for personal and community health;V5 willingly participates in regular physical activity; andV6 commits to realising their full potential. Outcomes 17
  • 16. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Skills Outcomes Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Communicating COES1.1 COS1.1 COS2.1 COS3.3 Expresses feelings, Communicates Uses a variety of Communicates needs and wants in appropriately in a ways to confidently in a appropriate ways. variety of ways. communicate with variety of situations. and within groups. Decision Making DMES1.2 DMS1.2 DMS2.2 DMS3.2 Identifies some Recalls past Makes decisions as Makes informed options available experiences in an individual and as decisions and accepts when making making decisions. a group member. responsibility for simple decisions. consequences. Interacting INES1.3 INS1.3 INS2.3 INS3.3 Relates well to Develops positive Makes positive Acts in ways that others in work and relationships with contributions in enhance the play situations. peers and other group activities. contribution of self people. and others in a range of cooperative situations.Outcomes Moving MOES1.4 MOS1.4 MOS2.4 MOS3.4 Demonstrates a Demonstrates Displays a focus on Refines and applies general awareness maturing quality of movement skills of how basic performance of movement in creatively to a movement skills basic movement applying movement variety of apply in play and and compositional skills to a variety of challenging other introductory skills in a variety of familiar and new situations. movement predictable situations. experiences. situations. Problem Solving PSES1.5 PSS1.5 PSS2.5 PSS3.5 Seeks help as Draws on past Uses a range of Suggests, considers needed when faced experiences to solve problem-solving and selects with simple familiar problems. strategies. appropriate problems. alternatives when resolving problems. 18
  • 17. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Knowledge and Understanding Outcomes Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3Active Lifestyle ALES1.6 ALS1.6 ALS2.6 ALS3.6 Develops a Participates in physical Discusses the Shows how to repertoire of physical activity, recognising relationship between maintain and activities in which that it can be both regular physical improve the quality they can participate. enjoyable and activity and health. of an active lifestyle. important for health.Dance DAES1.7 DAS1.7 DAS2.7 DAS3.7 Moves in response Performs simple Performs familiar Performs a range of to various stimuli. dance sequences movement patterns dance styles and incorporating basic in a variety of dance sequences movement skills and situations. confidently. patterns.Games and Sports GSES1.8 GSS1.8 GSS2.8 GSS3.8 Demonstrates Performs Participates and Applies movement fundamental fundamental uses equipment in a skills in games and movement skills movement skills variety of games sports that require while playing with with equipment in and modified sports. communication, and sharing minor games. cooperation, decision equipment. making and Outcomes observation of rules.Growth and GDES1.9 GDS1.9 GDS2.9 GDS3.9Development Identifies how people Describes the Describes life changes Explains and grow and change. characteristics that and associated demonstrates make them both feelings. strategies for dealing similar to others and with life changes. unique.Gymnastics GYES1.10 GYS1.10 GYS2.10 GYS3.10 Performs basic Follows a simple Demonstrates Demonstrates movement patterns sequence that links control in performing coordinated to show actions of basic movement sequences of actions of the body the whole body. patterns. introductory when performing gymnastic gymnastic movements. sequences.Interpersonal IRES1.11 IRS1.11 IRS2.11 IRS3.11Relationships Identifies how Identifies the ways Describes how Describes roles individuals care for in which they relationships with a and responsibilities each other. communicate, range of people in developing and cooperate and care enhance wellbeing. maintaining positive for others. relationships.Personal Health PHES1.12 PHS1.12 PHS2.12 PHS3.12Choices Displays basic Recognises that Discusses the factors Explains the positive health positive health influencing personal consequences of practices. choices can health choices. personal lifestyle promote wellbeing. choices.Safe Living SLES1.13 SLS1.13 SLS2.13 SLS3.13 Demonstrates an Recognises that Discusses how safe Describes safe emerging awareness their safety depends practices promote practices that are of the concepts of on the environment personal wellbeing. appropriate to a safe and unsafe and the behaviour range of situations living. of themselves and and environments. others. 19
  • 18. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Outcomes and Indicators Values and Attitudes Outcomes and Indicators Values and attitudes outcomes in PDHPE are applicable at all stages. They are progressively reinforced in each stage, therefore they have not been presented in stages. Outcomes Indicators A student: V1 • accepts themselves as they grow and change refers to a sense of their • appreciates that their physical, social, emotional and intellectual own worth and dignity development is unique • values themselves as an important member of various groups • expresses a realistic perception of their personal capabilities • appreciates and accepts the importance of developing a personal value system V2 • appreciates the similarities and differences between themselves and others respects the right of others • shows sensitivity to the needs, rights, feelings and efforts of others to hold different values and • shows concern for the welfare of others attitudes from their own • questions forms of discrimination against people on the grounds of their sex, race, marital status, sexuality or disability • values fair playOutcomes V3 • recognises the contribution they and others make to social living enjoys a sense of belonging • appreciates the importance of family life • displays a commitment to developing and maintaining positive relationships • values positive relationships • appreciates the need to belong to various groups • values the need to work cooperatively • appreciates the important contributions they can make to various groups V4 • values their health and safety and that of others increasingly accepts • defends the need for making decisions that enhance health responsibility for personal • appraises the values and attitudes of different groups within society and community health in relation to lifestyle and health • appreciates the need for shared responsibility and decision making • appreciates the need for safe practices in a range of situations and environments • values the need to pursue healthy lifestyles V5 • values the importance of physical activity to personal health willingly participates in • enjoys regular participation in worthwhile physical activity regular physical activity • recognises the challenging and satisfying nature of performance • recognises the value of lifelong commitment to regular physical activity • appreciates the need to participate in physical activity with safety V6 • acknowledges effort in achieving results commits to realising • recognises the aesthetic and technical qualities of movement their full potential • appreciates the features of a skilled performance • strives to achieve quality in personal performance • values the contribution made by support personnel in achieving quality performance 20
  • 19. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Communicating Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3COES1.1 COS1.1 COS2.1 COS3.1Expresses feelings, Communicates Uses a variety of ways Communicatesneeds and wants in appropriately in a to communicate with confidently in a varietyappropriate ways. variety of ways. and within groups. of situations.• responds to simple • creates a poster about • shares ideas, feelings and • presents an opinion with instructions and rules safety rules using, for opinions with others confidence, eg the case for example, a computer about issues such as smoke-free zones• plays simple response package bullying, passive smoking games • recognises and articulates • actively listens to others • communicates with feelings about transition• makes simple requests talk about their families students in a buddy class to high school• uses correct vocabulary using e-mail to find out • talks about why they need their likes and dislikes • designs and produces a for body movements, eg friends multimedia presentation run, slide, skip, stretch, • uses clip art and word detailing group findings reach • expresses feelings about processing to develop about a health issue, eg safe and unsafe situations merit certificates that effects of alcohol or• prepares simple health messages using, for • shows understanding acknowledge achievement tobacco example, a touch-sensitive about others’ feelings (sporting, academic, social) • devises questions to pad or graphics program analyse media messages, • talks about the importance• identifies people who can of regular physical activity • reports on participation in eg body shape, placement Outcomes help them games and activities to a of tobacco products on • expresses themself large group television and in films through movement • role-plays correct road • uses negotiation skills in • expresses appreciation crossing procedure group activities, eg games when others give help • demonstrates assertive • communicates an idea or • writes and sends simple responses to protect story through movement questions to determine themselves from drug- health advice using e-mail related harm • uses reflective listening in order to clarify a friend’s • discusses how to store • makes a complaint, states point of view about the medicines safely a problem or disagrees in uptake of smoking acceptable ways • justifies why they refuse offers of cigarettes from friends and other peers 21
  • 20. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Decision Making Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 DMES1.2 DMS1.2 DMS2.2 DMS3.2 Identifies some options Recalls past Makes decisions as Makes informed decisions available when making experiences in an individual and as and accepts responsibility simple decisions. making decisions. a group member. for consequences. • nominates people who can • predicts consequences of • discusses advantages and • discriminates between a help in particular options in order to make a disadvantages of options variety of products that situations, eg in the decision, eg where to with friends when making are healthy and unhealthy, playground swim safely decisions, eg decisions eg food, drinks about smoking • chooses between safe and • chooses to play in a shady • applies decision-making unsafe situations place when available • gathers accurate processes when choosing information about drugs a recreational pursuit • observes rules and • chooses games to play in from reliable sources procedures that keep them free time with friends • evaluates personal safe, eg wear a hat outside • considers individual decisions • discusses feelings others strengths and limitations • classifies foods as healthy may have in response to when allocating group • accepts responsibility for you, not healthy for their own actions roles, eg team positions for their decisions you • sets simple goals, eg • chooses physical activities • predicts the consequences • generates a number of improve skipping skills that are enjoyed by all of their choices, eg use possible solutions to a members of a group of tobacco and alcohol problem • chooses the friends theyOutcomes play with • works towards developing • modifies rules or realistic goals to support procedures to maximise • identifies the healthier of participation of all two alternatives, eg food decisions made, eg participates in regular members of a group choices, appropriate hat for sun protection physical activity • discerns the reliability of • assists the group to what is presented in the • identifies some items not media, eg body image, shared, eg medicines, achieve consensus in group goal setting drug use toothbrush, comb • considers feelings and • chooses an appropriate needs of others in making way to respond to peer decisions influence, eg refusal skills in relation to drug use • clarifies reasons for reaching a particular • strives to achieve a decision relevant personal target, eg improves swimming distance • recognises a medical emergency and knows how to give and gain assistance • finds and analyses information upon which to make an informed decision 22
  • 21. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Interacting Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3INES1.3 INS1.3 INS2.3 INS3.3Relates well to others Develops positive Makes positive Acts in ways that enhancein work and play relationships with peers contributions in the contribution of selfsituations. and other people. group activities. and others in a range of cooperative situations.• learns to share equipment, • displays cooperation in • participates in the • engages in community material and workspace group activities, development of class rules action, eg fundraising to eg taking turns support others• identifies the people • helps others to achieve and things that are special • uses positive talk to set tasks • identifies factors that to them encourage others influence selection of • works independently friends• observes classroom • listens and responds or in a group to devise and playground rules to others a simple game • uses strategies to resolve conflict, eg negotiation• acknowledges significant • observes rules regarding • develops friendships events, eg birthdays group conduct and support networks • expresses and acts with a range of people appropriately on concern• works happily with • develops friendships for others class peers with peers • displays tolerance in relation to individual • demonstrates actions• uses self-control to deal • interacts with other differences, eg ability that support the rights with anger or excitement students and adults, eg levels, culture and feelings of others, peer support, clubs eg fair play, consideration, Outcomes • discusses personal encouragement, peer • shows concern for the strategies to deal with wellbeing of others, eg tutoring difficult situations sends a get well card, • engages in care for the demonstrates care for • participates in group environment, eg recycling, a child who requires discussions to list the Landcare asthma medication harms relating to tobacco and alcohol use • clarifies opinions and attitudes towards drug use 23
  • 22. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Moving Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 MOES1.4 MOS1.4 MOS2.4 MOS3.4 Demonstrates a general Demonstrates maturing Displays a focus on Refines and applies awareness of how basic performance of basic move- quality of movement in movement skills movement skills apply in ment and compositional applying movement skills creatively to a play and other introductory skills in a variety of to a variety of familiar variety of challenging movement experiences. predictable situations. and new situations. situations. • maintains stillness of • hops on preferred and • throws overarm • adapts throwing action head and trunk when non-preferred foot proficiently to cater for different types balancing of equipment for distance, • strikes a stationary object, • kicks and strikes accuracy and speed, eg • demonstrates balance eg soccer ball, teeball proficiently for distance netball, frisbee, shotput and high knee lift when sprinting • absorbs force when • performs a simple dance • demonstrates survival jumping and landing from combining locomotor and water skills (25 m swim, • stretches and curls different heights non-locomotor movements deep water entry/exits) the body at levels (high and low) • pushes and glides with • performs a forward roll • transfers sequence of or without aids in water down an incline locomotor and non- • rolls ball to partner locomotor movements • balances on different body • performs bunny hops over • walks, runs, slides at parts, eg balance on one a low bench from the floor to simple different tempos/speeds hand and one knee, apparatus (bench, hoops) individually, with partner, • shows a range of ways toOutcomes • climbs up through, under, enter and move through • varies running patterns or on apparatus to cater for sprinting, over apparatus, eg the water benches • repeats movements to distance running, side form a sequence, eg jump, stepping, dodging and hop, run defensive marking • combines known movements to create a dance with partner or small group 24
  • 23. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Problem Solving Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3PSES1.5 PSS1.5 PSS2.5 PSS3.5Seeks help as needed Draws on past Uses a range of Suggests, considerswhen faced with experiences to solve problem-solving and selects appropriatesimple problems. familiar problems. strategies. alternatives when resolving problems.• demonstrates procedures • when appropriate, • analyses problem • selects the most for obtaining information, identifies problem situations appropriate solution eg what to do if I miss situations to a given problem the bus • identifies ways to improve • follows basic safety unsafe environments • reflects on outcomes• asks for help when procedures of chosen solution injured or hurt • performs a simple • suggests solutions movement sequence given • formulates and practises• identifies who to ask for to problems particular limitations, eg action plans for assistance when using restricted use of space, emergency situations, new equipment • suggests ways to varied levels and tempo eg lost in bush, a drug- share play equipment related incident• follows advice on how to • initiates problem solving use new equipment • determines a safe way on a group or individual • demonstrates assertive to travel over fixed basis ways to deal with different• recognises when someone equipment types of harassment wants assistance and • uses reach and throw offers this help • determines the techniques to perform • enlists support of local components of a a water rescue community bodies, Outcomes• accepts being told ‘no’ healthy lunch eg write to council for when appropriate • develops a plan to assistance with tree increase shade in the planting playground • devises a plan for the • identifies what needs safest ways to travel to to be done to achieve school, shopping centre, a goal local park • identifies ways that drug • surveys students and use can cause harm, teachers to develop a eg medication, tobacco, healthy canteen menu alcohol and analyses results using a spreadsheet • devises a plan for more active use of the playground • devises strategies to reduce the negative impact of alcohol and tobacco on society 25
  • 24. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Active Lifestyle Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 ALES1.6 ALS1.6 ALS2.6 ALS3.6 Develops a repertoire of Participates in physical Discusses the relationship Shows how to maintain physical activities in which activity, recognising that between regular and varied and improve the quality they can participate. it can be both enjoyable physical activity and health. of an active lifestyle. and important for health. • takes part in different • engages in a range of • participates in regular • participates in physical types of physical activity, planned activities, eg physical activity and activity programs based eg climbing, jumping, fundamental movement discusses progress on personal goals walking, dancing, skills, favourite simple skipping, running games, movement • keeps a log of activity • compares activities people exploration using a spreadsheet and do to stay fit and why they • makes a personal list of analyses patterns of choose them preferred activities • describes places set aside participation over time. in the community for play • identifies barriers to • explains how physical and considers how they • identifies factors that participation in physical activities affect the body, might use them influence participation activity and suggests ways eg hot, sweaty, puffed in physical activity to modify or overcome • describes how activity, them • describes the things they rest, nutrition and sleep • identifies the activities do to refuel their body, eg are important for lifestyle people participate in • generates personal goals rest, relaxation, nutrition balance to maintain an active based on their lifestyle, eg bushwalking, understanding of what it • compares the physical • describes their feelings sports means to be fit and active activities that they do as aOutcomes and emotions when trying family or group and how something new, eg riding • contributes to physical • devises strategies to these make them feel a bicycle, entering water, activity programs, eg peer achieve personal active balancing leader/tutor, sharing lifestyle goals equipment • identifies physical changes • describes the negative during and after exercise, • describes links between impact of smoking on eg heart racing, breathing nutrition, exercise and participation in physical quickly, feeling hot performance activity • contributes to a class list of activities they like or do not like to play 26
  • 25. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Dance Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3DAES1.7 DAS1.7 DAS2.7 DAS3.7Moves in response Performs simple dance Performs familiar Performs a range ofto various stimuli. sequences incorporating movement patterns in a dance styles and basic movement skills variety of dance situations. sequences confidently. and patterns.• listens to music and • follows and repeats simple • compares and practises • performs steps and moves body parts to beat movement skills and basic movements of dance patterns from known patterns to specific styles dances with increasing• observes and repeats rhythms, eg walk – skill movements that require walk – jump – jump • creates and performs a action of the whole body dance sequence that • modifies dance • imitates dance movements includes movements from performance as a result• plays follow the leader used in different cultures sports, life, culture of practice, peer and self to explore different levels assessment and directions • explores rhythmical • varies a simple sequence patterns using different by applying elements of • remakes known• explores ways the body body parts dance, eg speed, direction dances, eg by varying the can move to portray combinations of various images, eg • performs simple dance • practises and reproduces movement patterns, animals, nature sequences related to a a simple folk or teacher- the elements of dance specific theme, eg devised dance or the music• moves safely when machines, magic sharing confined space • transfers movement • composes own sequences with others • shows movements with patterns from one dance Outcomes for performance using a various parts of the body situation to another, variety of stimuli• replicates simple in response to words, eg adds square dance combinations of skills, eg music movements to a bush • performs own or set Hokey Pokey, Looby Loo dance movement sequences • performs locomotor skills with consistency• moves in response to at different speeds, eg different quality of music, walk fast, slowly, heavily • uses some elements of eg loud, strong, soft dance to create movement sequences • interprets the messages communicated in dance performances 27
  • 26. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Games and Sports Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 GSES1.8 GSS1.8 GSS2.8 GSS3.8 Demonstrates fundamental Performs fundamental Participates and uses Applies movement skills movement skills while movement skills with equipment in a variety in games and sports that playing with and sharing equipment in minor of games and modified require communication, equipment. games. sports. cooperation, decision making and observation of rules. • moves and stops a ball • participates in a range of • demonstrates fun ways • devises games or refines with hands and feet, eg minor games and of practising skills, eg rules of games that roll, kick and dribble practices that assist skill partner, team require equipment development • shows understanding of • describes how cooperation • participates in games and the language used in • throws a small ball or and encouragement lead sports combining strategy, games by responding to beanbag overarm to a to success in games teamwork, movement skill verbal and nonverbal wall, target or partner, and fair play directions, eg run, hop, using high and low • practises and refines roll, chase, bounce, skip, pathways movement skills in a • analyses a video of a wheel variety of games from a performance and devises • catches a large ball range of cultures practices to improve skill • identifies a variety of travelling along the level games and play equipment ground or through the air • demonstrates efficient with two hands ways of using equipment • describes the roles they • runs, skips and hops with while working play as a team member, equipment, eg rope, large • continuously bounces a cooperatively with others eg captain, defence player,Outcomes balls large ball with one hand goalkeeper, attack player while moving in different • demonstrates a range of • participates in games directions skills in practices and • explains the rationale for where cooperation is modified games, eg particular strategies and important for success • strikes a ball from a tee throwing and catching in rules in individual and with a small bat moving and stationary team games and sports positions, striking or • identifies the most dribbling with hand, foot, • negotiates and uses rules efficient ways of using a stick or bat and scoring systems and variety of games demonstrates basic equipment, eg grip, • explains how their level umpiring skills stance, action of skill can influence their participation in movement • combines a series of skills activities for use in a game, eg run, kick, catch and pass • runs in, skips and runs out of large rope turned by • develops strategies for others effective teamwork • explains the correct use of • identifies people who can specific sports equipment help them improve their game and sport skills 28
  • 27. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Growth and Development Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3GDES1.9 GDS1.9 GDS2.9 GDS3.9Identifies how people Describes the characteristics Describes life changes Explains and demonstratesgrow and change. that make them both and associated feelings. strategies for dealing with similar to others and unique. life changes.• describes physical changes • identifies specific • explains and values • recognises that many that have occurred since attributes of other differences in growth and changes occur in a birth students development between predictable sequence individuals at different• talks about things they • discusses things they do stages • suggests ways of like to do well, eg games, school developing new skills and work, caring for siblings • identifies their own competencies, eg practice,• lists basic human needs, strengths and limitations peer tutoring, goal setting, eg clothing, food, shelter, • recognises and names seeking support love different types of • values their own unique emotions abilities • devises strategies to cope• labels external body parts with life changes, eg and names their functions, • locates some important • identifies feelings puberty, changing eg ears are for hearing internal body organs and associated with life friendships, commencing discusses their functions, changes, eg grief, loss, high school• identifies and describes eg the heart pumps blood family change, new their personal friends • recognises a wide range characteristics and • identifies reasons why of influences on personal abilities some individuals require • describes how identity, eg peers, media, medications, eg diabetes, achievements and Outcomes• describes nurturing cultural beliefs asthma responsibilities change interactions between as people grow older • prepares a multimedia caregivers and their • demonstrates ways of presentation that shows children encouraging and caring • expresses any fears or the relationship between for others concerns about change functions of the body appropriately systems • demonstrates sensitivity • identifies some language to the needs, rights, or actions that may feelings and efforts of constitute harassment others • explores how expectations • recalls and reports about of girls and boys, and of some situations, and men and women, can feelings they experience influence their choices as a result and options • identifies situations where • describes aspects of social expectations can differ and emotional growth and according to gender development 29
  • 28. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Gymnastics Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 GYES1.10 GYS1.10 GYS2.10 GYS3.10 Performs basic movement Follows a simple sequence Demonstrates control in Demonstrates coordinated patterns to show actions that links basic movement performing sequences of actions of the body when of the whole body. patterns. introductory gymnastic performing gymnastic movements. sequences. • identifies ways in which • draws on imagination to • identifies ways they can • performs gymnastic skills their body can travel and select movement patterns move by using different using correct techniques form shapes pathways, levels and • takes weight on different directions • performs variations • explores movement parts of the body, using of basic movements, patterns using different small and large bases of • practises and reproduces eg roll with straddle parts of the body, eg climb support, eg hands, knees, movement sequences and on, through and over play feet, back, hips skills that include a • describes how individual equipment; slide along starting and finishing and group movements can benches; crawl under bars • transfers weight using a position be linked to form variety of body shapes sequences • makes different shapes and positions • creates and performs with the body while in movement sequences that • devises and performs contact with the ground • explores ways of travelling vary in shape, size, sequences with partners using large bases of along benches using feet, direction, level, speed, and groups using support hands and feet, sliding and flow apparatus and floor action • experiments with different • demonstrates variations • creates a sequence of • performs simple movements with a clearOutcomes ways of transferring of force and speed in weight from one body part movement sequences movement, eg slow/ beginning, middle and end to an adjacent body part involving running, sustained action, fast/ jumping, leaping and • appraises the quality explosive action of movement in order to • moves in relation to landing from and onto one others, personal and or two feet • takes weight on different modify and improve imposed space body parts to perform a performance • performs known patterns series of static balances • shows a number of with different movement demonstrating different different ways to move to qualities shapes, eg tuck sit, front express an idea and rear support with stretched, tucked, twisted shapes • identifies aspects of a performance that indicate control 30
  • 29. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Interpersonal Relationships Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3IRES1.11 IRS1.11 IRS2.11 IRS3.11Identifies how Identifies the ways in Describes how Describes roles andindividuals care which they communicate, relationships with responsibilities in developingfor each other. cooperate and care for a range of people and maintaining positive others. enhance wellbeing. relationships.• identifies people they • explains why different • identifies people from • discusses how they relate can trust people are important whom they can seek to people in various to them advice and support contexts• talks about their family and who cares for them • demonstrates ways to • recognises that families • identifies their roles and help encourage and care and groups have both responsibilities within• recognises the need to for others common and different groups, eg family, friends, share and cooperate with customs, behaviours, team, class others, eg class, family, • describes their families values friends and other groups to which • analyses the effects of they belong • explains how positive actions that enhance or• demonstrates active relationships are disrupt relationships, eg listening skills, • discusses how they developed peer influences, drug use, questioning and recalling cooperate with others in bullying, mediating, active of information when work and play situations • discusses how trust is listening, prejudice, interacting with others developed in relationships violence • demonstrates appropriate• demonstrates the skills ways of communicating • participates in group Outcomes • practises assertive ways involved in giving and with others, situations, showing to deal with different receiving messages eg listening, No-Go-Tell, consideration for the types of harassment or verbal/nonverbal needs, rights and feelings coercion, eg pressure to• talks about feelings of others experienced in particular • practises some of the use drugs situations, eg sad, happy, skills involved in • demonstrates • demonstrates acceptable frightened maintaining friendships communication ways of resolving conflict skills that enhance• lists ways of showing • demonstrates actions they relationships, eg listening, • models behaviour that kindness to others can take when they feel showing care, negotiating, reflects sensitivity to the frightened, lost, upset or refusing, assertiveness needs, rights, feelings of bullied and identifies who others can help them • discusses the benefits of friendships • describes the factors that can influence • recognises behaviours communication, eg that are threatening, such listening, expression, as bullying, being bribed, feelings, peer pressure, and identifies people who body language, drug use can help • develops and maintains • discusses ways that peers a personal network of and others can influence trusted adults who could decisions about safety provide advice and and risk support 31
  • 30. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Personal Health Choices Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 PHES1.12 PHS1.12 PHS2.12 PHS3.12 Displays basic positive Recognises that positive Discusses the factors Explains the consequences health practices. health choices can influencing personal of personal lifestyle promote wellbeing. health choices. choices. • describes good hygiene • describes what people do • explains the need for good • discusses why people practices to stay healthy, eg care health practices use different products of teeth, balanced diet, • talks about different foods not smoking • discusses reasons why • analyses personal food that keep them healthy people use drugs for intake to identify the • recognises that a variety medical and non-medical balance of choices made • discusses the safe use of food is needed for good purposes and storage of medicines health • identifies the positive and • identifies major steps negative effects of various • identifies health care • identifies appropriate use, involved in making substances on the body, workers who can help administration and decisions in regard to drug eg sunblock, alcohol, them, eg doctors, nurses, storage of different types use, eg tobacco analgesics, tobacco, dentists of medication and alcohol caffeine • makes simple choices, • makes personal health • identifies physical factors • identifies the effects eg clothes worn choices and gives reasons that influence lifestyle of their decisions on • uses draw or paint for their choices choices, eg asthma, themselves, others software to draw healthy diabetes, skin type and the environment, • names the people whoOutcomes foods eg smoking, recycling influence their health • identifies their • talks about environmental decisions responsibility to • makes judgements on the factors that impact on contribute towards a reliability of information • identifies environmental healthy environment from different sources, health, eg play in the factors that impact on shade, place rubbish in eg labels, websites, health, eg passive • discusses food needs for advertising, cigarette bin smoking, pollution, sun growth and activity packets • identifies a range of • identifies different foods • identifies foods prepared foodstuffs and groups • researches current that can keep them and enjoyed by particular global issues affecting them according to their healthy cultural groups sources, eg vegetable, the environment using meat, dairy, fruit • identifies and discusses information from the family practices related to Internet lifestyle that keep them • discusses how other healthy and safe, eg people/media influence administration and body image and food storage of medicines intake • identifies how climatic • identifies how and why and cultural influences males and females are impact upon people’s targeted in a range of health choices, eg clothes advertisements, eg worn, foods eaten, advertising for alcoholic immunisation products • describes the factors that influence personal health choices, eg family, friends, religion, culture, environment 32
  • 31. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Safe Living Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3SLES1.13 SLS1.13 SLS2.13 SLS3.13Demonstrates an Recognises that their safety Discusses how safe Describes safe practicesemerging awareness depends on the environ- practices promote that are appropriateof the concepts of safe ment and the behaviour personal wellbeing. to a range of situationsand unsafe living. of themselves and others. and environments.• indicates a number of • compares the • discusses why substances • demonstrates ways possible actions for characteristics of places such as tobacco can be to improve unsafe safety, eg No-Go-Tell where students feel safe dangerous to the body environments, eg home, and unsafe school, local parks• talks about feeling • recognises behaviours safe/unsafe • role-plays what to do in that are risky and • practises emergency an emergency, eg dial 000 identifies people who response procedures, eg• identifies people who can help basic first aid, dial 000 keep them safe • identifies things needed to play safely, eg • describes certain • devises strategies to• describes safe places helmets for bike riding, behaviours that can respond to risky and to play sun screen, taking turns create a safe environment dangerous situations,• recalls and uses on equipment for themselves, their such as where people playground rules school and community may be misusing drugs, • describes what is needed discarded needles and• describes dangerous for them to travel to and • identifies people from syringes things they can see, from school safely and whom they can seek Outcomes reach and touch, eg practises these things advice and support in • formulates and practises medicines emergency situations action plans for accident • describes dangerous and emergency situations things they can see, • explains the need for in the home, school and reach and touch and rules and laws made for local environment ways of dealing with the protection of them, eg electrical themselves and others • plans how to take appliances, poisons, responsibility for their medications • identifies the potential own safety and that of hazards of various others, eg swim only in • demonstrates actions appliances in their safe places they can take when they environment feel unsafe and identifies • identifies factors that who can help them • creates a video on a may cause accidents, eg particular safety issue, when a driver is under eg safe play, smoke-free the influence of alcohol areas • uses safety devices and • explains the need for protective equipment in rules for safe behaviour relevant situations, eg in familiar settings wear seatbelts, helmets • compares the • identifies individuals characteristics of people and services in the and situations that community that help cause students to feel protect their wellbeing safe and unsafe • describes the • recognises how their consequences of accidents body reacts and how for the individual and they might feel in safe the community and unsafe situations 33
  • 32. 34
  • 33. Content
  • 34. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Overview of Content Overview of Subject Matter K–6 It is a requirement that school programs incorporate the skills of communicating, decision making, interacting, moving and problem solving. It is also important that all strands be addressed in each of the stages of primary schooling. It is expected that over Years K–6 all of the following subject matter will be addressed. Active Lifestyle Dance Games and Sports Growth & Development Components of Non-locomotor Skills Non-locomotor Skills Personal Identity an Active Lifestyle • swaying • stretching/bending/ • similarities and • balancing lifestyle • swinging twisting differences components for • twisting • pivoting • strengths optimal health • turning • feinting • feelings • benefits of lifestyle • moving isolated parts • swinging • influences on self-esteem balance of the body • balancing • body image – physical, social, – hand/foot gestures • setting relevant goals emotional Locomotor Skills for addressing problems • use of leisure time Locomotor Skills • running/sprinting • gender images and – active, passive pursuits • walking • dodging expectations • importance of adequate • running • jumping/landing • respecting others’ rest, nutrition • galloping ideas and opinions Manipulative Skills • regular participation in • hopping daily activity • rolling The Body • sliding • stopping • skipping • body parts/systems/ Ways to be Active • throwing functions • safe stretching and • marching • catching • senses warm-up techniques • step patterns • pat bouncing • caring for the body • skill development • jumping and leaping • dribbling • effects of illness/disease activities Elements of Dance – hand, foot, stick • heredity • skill practice in minor games • dynamics • striking Human Sexuality • minor games, dance and – firm/light • kicking • reproduction movement with high – directly to • trapping (stopping) • pubertyContent level of participation • time and rhythm Games • menstruation – circuits • space • minor games • sexual identity – fun runs – directions – imaginative games • STDs, HIV/AIDS, blood- – aerobics – pathways – running games borne viruses – obstacle courses • relationships – simple ball games – partner activities – individual Changes – relays • appearance – relays – group • modified games – power walking – objects • identifying changes – lead-up games over time • organised and non- Composition – Aussie Sports organised recreational • effects of life changes pastimes that promote • structure • major games • physical/social/ emotional physical activity – contrasting – individual games changes movement patterns – team games • response to change Effects of Physical Activity • transitions • changing friendships/ • effects on the body Aquatics – beginning, middle, end relationships/feelings/ • feelings about being • water skills environments/needs • sequences active – creating Athletics • grief/loss – challenge, satisfaction, – reproducing • track and field events • stress enjoyment, • coping with change achievement • simple compositional Playing the Game techniques – preferences • safety considerations Values – influences Dance Styles • benefits of participation • personal/family/school/ • experience in a range • influences on choice of community/cultural of dance styles, eg activity • importance of values – folk dance • teamwork/cooperation • respecting different values – social dance • roles and responsibilities • rights and responsibilities – creative dance • effort and practice • uniqueness of self – bush dance • competition • identity – modern • fair play • development – contemporary dance • rules and tactics • goals styles • refereeing/umpiring • challenging – Aboriginal discrimination and – Afro–Caribbean harassment 36
  • 35. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Gymnastics Interpersonal Personal Safe Living Relationships Health ChoicesNon-locomotor Skills Relationships Making Decisions Personal Safety• bending • recognising individual • decision-making process • protection• twisting needs • influences on decision • warning signals• stretching • caring making • identifying safe/unsafe• turning • trust – family/peers situations• curling • bullying, harassment – other significant people • organisations and• rocking • fairness – media networks• static • positive relationships – feelings and needs – people who can help – balance • types of abuse of others • assertiveness (No-Go-Tell)• laterality • effects of abuse • taking responsibility • influences on safety – moving right and • different kinds of for one’s own decisions choices left body parts relationships • supporting others in • responding to unsafe• handstand • recognising and their decision making situations accepting differences • evaluating decisions • reducing/eliminatingLocomotor Skills • support networks risks• running/walking Nutrition • forms of discrimination • secrets• hopping/skipping • balanced eating habits • anti-discrimination • bribes/threats• galloping • special needs legislation – illness, eg diabetes, Home and Rural Safety• jumping/landing Communication heart disease • safe and unsafe places – mounting, dismounting (bench, box) • active listening skills – cultural, eg festivals • using machines/ • communicating needs • fast food: a health choice appliances/substances• travelling on different body parts and wants • digestive system • safety near animals – cartwheels • recognising and • responsibility for Health Services and younger children• rolling articulating feelings Products• climbing, hanging • understanding feelings • health information School and Play Safety and swinging of others and services • need for safety rules in • appropriate expression • influences of media and around schoolElements of Movement of feelings • traditional and alternative • safe play• spatial awareness • expressing concerns health products • safety awareness – position • showing concerns for – levels others Drug Use Road Safety – directions • communication • identifying drugs • pedestrian safety – pathways in group situations – appropriate use – being safe in the – floor, air • assertiveness • labelling of drugs traffic environment Content – shape • managing conflict • drugs in everyday lives – safe crossing• dynamics situations/negotiation • administration and procedure – interplay of force • self-control storage of drugs • passenger safety and time • caffeine – responsibility as a Families passenger• relationships • types of families – effects on body – with other people • tobacco – use of restraints • family changes – safe passenger – with apparatus • parenting – effects on body – passive smoking behaviourComposition • roles, rights and • safety on wheels responsibilities • alcohol• simple combinations – safe places to ride of locomotor and non- – effects on body Peers • media and drugs – safety equipment locomotor activities • making and maintaining – practical cycling skills friendships Environmental Health • effects of pollution Water Safety • peer influence • passive smoking • water environment • rights and responsibilities • individual/group/global • safe places to swim • acting on concern for others responsibility • safety equipment • recycling • safety skills Groups • environmentally Emergency Procedures • types of groups friendly products • group membership • recognising an injury/ Preventive Measures seeking assistance • roles, rights and responsibilities • sun protection • contacting emergency • disease prevention services • cooperation and sharing • communicable diseases • basic first aid • interacting with adults – immunisation – resuscitation procedures – blood-borne viruses, HIV/AIDS • heart disease – nutrition, physical activity • personal hygiene – dental care • choice of health care products 37
  • 36. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Overview of Subject Matter Early Stage 1 The following overview is provided to assist teachers in planning ways in which they will cover the subject matter in this stage. Typically, it is expected that the subject matter described will be covered in this stage. The scope, sequence and degree of emphasis to be given to the subject matter, across K–6, will be determined by the needs of students and the ethos of the school. Teachers should select subject matter to ensure that students have opportunities to achieve the outcomes of this stage. Active Lifestyle Dance Games and Sports Growth & Development Components of Non-locomotor Skills Non-locomotor Skills Personal Identity an Active Lifestyle • bending • stretching/bending/ twisting • similarities and • concept of being • curling • swinging body parts differences physically active • twisting • balancing – appearance • importance of a • stretching – experiences balanced lifestyle Locomotor Skills • turning – abilities – rest, relaxation • walking, running • rocking • jumping/landing The Body – active and passive • wriggling pursuits • hopping/skipping • body parts • moving isolated • side sliding – external – nutrition parts of the body • regular participation • senses Manipulative Skills in activity Locomotor Skills – sight, sound, taste, • rolling/stopping an object hearing, touch • walking Ways to be Active • throwing • basic needs • running • developing skills for • catching – shelter, clothing, food participation in basic • galloping – large objects games and activities • sliding • looking after the body • bouncing • applying movement • hopping – one hand, two hands Changes skills in fun games • step hop/skipping • bouncing and catching • changes in appearance and activities • creeping a large ball and abilities – obstacle courses • crawling • striking/hitting – since birth – ball games – a stationary object Elements of Dance Values • participating in active – one hand, two hands recreational pastimes • dynamics • likes/dislikes • kicking – smooth/jerky – stationary object • accepting uniqueness Effects of Physical Activity – light/heavy/strong – target, distance • accepting difference • effects on the body • time and rhythm • caring relationshipsContent – immediate – fast/slow Games • feelings about being – even beat • spatial awareness active before, during – directions, pathways • space – boundaries, levels and after participation – high/low • minor games • benefits of participation – position – imaginative games • nominating favourite activities – direction – miming/imitating – size/shape – running/chasing games • relationships – circle games – partners – simple ball games – cooperation games – group – parachute games – objects – music Athletics • running Composition – in a straight line, novelty • sequencing locomotor races, shuttle relays movements • jumping • sequencing non- – with a safe landing locomotor movements – from one foot to two feet – for distance and height Dance Styles • throwing • singing games – underarm, chest pass • creative dance – slinging – responding to a variety of stimuli Aquatics • water familiarisation – buoyancy, water safety – survival skills Playing the Game • safety • fair play • cooperation • formations – lines, circles, pairs, groups • signals, eg whistle 38
  • 37. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Gymnastics Interpersonal Personal Safe Living Relationships Health ChoicesNon-locomotor Skills Relationships Making Decisions Personal Safety• bending • expression of feelings • awareness of choices • protection• twisting • caring for others • making choices • warning signals• stretching • permission and choices • possible solutions • safe/unsafe situations• turning • trust to a problem • touching• curling • positive relationships • effects of actions • people who can help• rocking • liking and loving Nutrition • Safety Houses• static balance on large • special people/things • balanced eating habits • assertiveness (No-Go-Tell) body parts • rules in relationships • food choices • telling (persistence)• laterality • people to go to for help for good health • responding to unsafe – moving right and situations left body parts Communication Health Services • expressing needs, wants and Products Home and Rural SafetyLocomotor Skills and feelings • people who keep • hazards inside/outside• step patterns • verbal and nonverbal me healthy home – walking • giving and receiving – home – poisons/fuels/guns – running messages – community • keeping safe around – hopping • active listening skills machines/appliances/ Drug Use animals – skipping • persistence • administration • toys and games – galloping • self-control of medicines – jumping/landing • seeking help • identifying medicines School and Play Safety – 2 feet to 2 feet • giving help • safe use of medicines • appropriate behaviour• travelling on different • asking questions • safe storage in and around buildings/ body parts • recalling information playground/equipment• rolling Environmental Health • rules for safe play at Families • effects of pollution home and at school – log/pencil • family roles – school/home • sharing, taking turns, – egg roll • rights and responsibilities • recycling getting on with others• climbing and hanging • family activities – climbing on play Preventive Measures Road Safety equipment Peers • pedestrian safety • sun protection – grips • making and – hold an adult’s hand • disease prevention keeping friends • passenger safetyElements of Movement – immunisation• spatial awareness Groups • care of the body – use of seatbelts and – position: near, far, • working and playing – toileting/washing safety restraints Content in front of/behind, with others – clothing – safe entry and exit opposite • sharing and helping from a vehicle – dental care – focus: facing forwards, • safety on wheels – ear care sideways, upwards, – safe places to downwards – hair care play on wheels – boundaries: moving Water Safety within an area • never swim alone – levels: high, low, medium • water safety awareness – directions: upwards, Emergency Procedures backwards, sideways, • seeking assistance forwards • identifying an – formation: lines emergency situation• dynamics – soft, hard• time and rhythm – slow, fast• relationships – partners, small teams – using a variety of surfaces, eg mats, floor, equipmentComposition• simple locomotor games/relays – simple rules – formations 39
  • 38. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Overview of Subject Matter Stage 1 The following overview is provided to assist teachers in planning ways in which they will cover the subject matter in this stage. Typically, it is expected that the subject matter described will be covered in this stage. The scope, sequence and degree of emphasis to be given to the subject matter, across K–6, will be determined by the needs of students and the ethos of the school. Teachers should select subject matter to ensure that students have opportunities to achieve the outcomes of this stage. Active Lifestyle Dance Games and Sports Growth & Development Components of Non-locomotor Skills Non-locomotor Skills Personal Identity an Active Lifestyle • swaying • stretching/bending/twisting • attributes of self • concept of being • swinging – whole body and others physically active • twisting – body parts • experiences • importance of a – swinging body parts • abilities • turning • balancing balanced lifestyle • moving isolated parts • feelings – rest, relaxation of the body Locomotor Skills • wants – active and passive – hand/foot gestures • walking • needs pursuits – running/jogging • range of emotions – leisure Locomotor Skills – jumping/leaping – nutrition • walking – skipping with ropes The Body – regular participation • running Manipulative Skills • body parts in activity • galloping • rolling/stopping small objects – internal, external • hopping • throwing – private, non-private Ways to be Active • sliding – underarm, overarm, • body systems • stretching parts of the chest, bounce pass body before and after • skipping – skeletal • step hop • catching • senses activity – different-sized objects • developing skills for • marching – different heights – sensory systems participation in games • step tap – two hands • body care and and activities • jumping and leaping • bouncing/dribbling maintenance • moderate to vigorous – continuous with large • basic needs games, dance and Elements of Dance ball, one hand gymnastics with high • dynamics – alternate hands Changes level of participation – flowing • striking/hitting • body appearance – obstacle courses – sharply – one hand, two hands • physical activity – circuits • time and rhythm – a stationary object: – developmental abilityContent – partner activities – simple rhythmic different-sized bats – types and range patterns, ie even, • kicking of activities – relays – stationary, bootlace • participating in uneven beat • feelings about change • space – inside/outside of foot recreational activities • trapping Values that encourage physical – changing levels – using feet • individual/group activity – pathways Games • personal rights Effects of Physical Activity – size/shape and responsibilities • relationships • spatial awareness • effects on the body – changing levels • caring relationships – immediate, long term – individual • minor games • feelings about being – group – imaginative games active before, during, – objects – running, cooperation, after parachute and simple Composition ball games • benefits of participation • structure – enjoyment, friendship – improvisation Athletics • recording activity levels – repetition of • running – activities I participate movement patterns – standing start, in regularly sprinting • simple combinations – distance shuttle relay – activities I would like of locomotor and non- to learn • jumping locomotor movements – long jump with run up Dance Styles – scissor jump for height • simple folk dance • throwing – push a shot • creative dance – sling a hoop or quoit – responding to a variety of stimuli Aquatics • water confidence • mobility • water safety – survival skills Playing the Game • safety in play • fair play • benefits of play • cooperation • effort and practice 40
  • 39. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Gymnastics Interpersonal Personal Safe Living Relationships Health ChoicesNon-locomotor Skills Relationships Making Decisions Personal Safety• bending • recognising individual • identifying choices • protection• twisting needs • making choices • warning signals• stretching • caring • influences on decisions • safe/unsafe situations• turning • privacy • reasons for • kinds of touch• curling • bullying choices/decisions • people who can help• rocking • permission and choices • effects of actions • Safety Houses• static • positive relationships • possible solutions • assertiveness (No-Go-Tell) – balance on small • liking and loving Nutrition • secrets body parts • different kinds of • food groups • telling (persistence)• laterality relationships • responding to unsafe • balanced eating habits – moving right and • special people/things situations • food choices for good left body parts • rules in relationships health Home and Rural SafetyLocomotor Skills • people to go to for help Health Services and • hazards inside/outside• running/walking Communication Products home: poisons/fuels/guns• hopping/skipping • expressing needs, • people who keep • keeping safe around• galloping wants and feelings me healthy machines/appliances/• jumping/landing • verbal and nonverbal – home animals – 2 feet to 2 feet • assertiveness – community • safe handling of• travelling on different • giving and receiving substances/animals • products that keep body parts, large messages me healthy • toys and games and small • active listening skills • recreation activities – sliding • self-control Drug Use • purpose of medication School and Play Safety• rolling • identifying feelings • appropriate behaviour – log/pencil of others • safe use of medication in and around buildings/ – egg roll • understanding feelings • administration of playground/equipment of others medicines• climbing and hanging • rules and fair play at • positive self-talk • safe storage of medicines school and at home – on frames – grips • encouraging others Environmental Health Road Safety • showing concern • effects of pollutionElements of Movement for others • pedestrian safety – school/home – places to cross safely• spatial awareness • expressing concerns – water/air/land – safe crossing – position • seeking help • recycling procedures – levels Content Families • environmentally friendly • passenger safety – directions products – shape • family roles – use of a seatbelt• dynamics • rights and responsibilities Preventive Measures – safe entry and exit – soft, hard • family activities • sun protection from a vehicle• time and rhythm Peers • disease prevention • safety on wheels – slow, fast • making and keeping – immunisation – wear a helmet• relationships friends • protective clothing and Water Safety – partner, team, group • qualities of friends equipment • safe places to swim – with simple apparatus • sharing • personal hygiene and play near water • cooperating – cleanliness • survival strategiesComposition – clothing• simple combinations Groups – hair care Emergency Procedures of locomotor activities • types of groups – dental care • what to do in the event• simple non-locomotor • working with others of an emergency – ears and nose combinations of activities • sharing and helping • interacting with adults 41
  • 40. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Overview of Subject Matter Stage 2 The following overview is provided to assist teachers in planning ways in which they will cover the subject matter in this stage. Typically, it is expected that the subject matter described will be covered in this stage. The scope, sequence and degree of emphasis to be given to the subject matter, across K–6, will be determined by the needs of students and the ethos of the school. Teachers should select subject matter to ensure that students have opportunities to achieve the outcomes of this stage. Active Lifestyle Dance Games and Sports Growth & Development Components of Non-locomotor Skills Non-locomotor Skills Personal Identity an Active Lifestyle • swerving • stretch/bend/twist • recognising strengths • balancing lifestyle • shaking • pivoting and limitations components for • dodging (body lean) – developing strengths optimal health Locomotor Skills • swinging – setting goals • benefits of lifestyle • step patterns • balancing Locomotor Skills • recognising attributes balance – chassé of self and others – physical, social, – skipping • running/sprinting • dodging • confronting problems emotional – two step • feelings about self – side stepping • use of leisure time – schottische • jumping/landing • positive self-talk – active, passive pursuits – hop-point Manipulative Skills • gender images and • importance of adequate • throwing expectations rest, nutrition Elements of Dance – overarm, chest pass, • regular participation • dynamics shoulder pass The Body in daily activity – firmly/lightly – 2 hand overhead pass • systems • time and rhythm – goal shooting – functions Ways to be Active – metre – bowling/pitching • appropriate/inappropriate • safe stretching • space • fielding/catching touch techniques – one hand, two hands – directions • rates and stages of • skill development – glove/mitt – combinations – high/low growth and development activities of pathways • dribbling • heredity • skill practice in minor games • relationships – pat bouncing Human Sexuality • minor games, dance – individual – feet/stick • male/female and movement with high – group – change direction: characteristics level of participation – objects • striking/hitting – one hand, two hands • changes related to – circuits Composition – drive/sidearm hit/volley puberty – fun runsContent • structure – push/bunt Changes – aerobics – contrasting movement • kicking • physical body changes – obstacle courses patterns – stationary/rolling ball – different-shaped balls – feelings about changes – partner activities • transitions • trapping/passing • changing friendships – relays – beginning, middle, end and relationships – power walking Games • sequences • spatial awareness • organised and non- – creating Values – creating space organised recreational – reproducing – positional awareness • definition of values pastimes that promote • minor games – personal values physical activity • simple compositional techniques – chasing games – school values Effects of Physical Activity – unison, canon – ball games/relays – family and cultural • effects on the body – territorial games values Dance Styles – modified games • rights and responsibilities – immediate, long term • folk dance Athletics – self – body temperature • running • social dance – others – breathing rates – standing start • creative dance • uniqueness of self – strength – sprint, middle • bush dance – identity – flexibility distance/cross-country – cardiovascular – circular relay – development endurance • jumping • challenging • recording accumulated – high jump (scissors) discrimination activity – long jump • throwing • feelings about – shotput being active – roll/sling a discus – challenge, Aquatics satisfaction, • floating/movement skills enjoyment, • basic swimming strokes achievement • water safety/rescue skills – preferences Playing the Game – influences • safety considerations • fair play • teamwork • benefits of and influences on participation • roles/responsibilities • effort and practice • competition 42 • rules/tactics/strategies
  • 41. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Gymnastics Interpersonal Personal Safe Living Relationships Health ChoicesNon-locomotor Skills Relationships Making Decisions Personal Safety• refine non-locomotor • recognising • analysis of problems • protection skills individual needs • decision-making process • warning signals• static • caring • influences on • safe/unsafe situations – balance • trust decision making • organisations – pairs, groups • bullying – family/peers and networks – counterbalance • fairness – other significant – people who can help • positive relationships people, media • assertiveness (No-Go-Tell)Locomotor Skills • types of abuse – feelings and • influences on• refine and practise needs of others locomotor skills • effects of abuse safety choices • different kinds • taking responsibility • identifying and• jumping/landing for one’s own decisions of relationships responding to – mounting, • risk-taking and decisions unsafe situations dismounting • recognising and (bench, box) accepting differences Nutrition • reducing/eliminating • support networks risks• travelling on different • balanced eating habits body parts • forms of discrimination • secrets • special needs – cartwheels • bribes and threats Communication – illness, eg diabetes,• rolling • active listening skills heart disease Home and Rural Safety – forward roll (incline) • appropriate expression – cultural, eg festivals • safe and unsafe places – backward roll (incline) of feelings • fast food: a health choice • safety with – side roll • communicating • digestive system machines/appliances/• climbing and hanging feelings and needs animals/substances Health Services and • responsibility for – climbing frames • communication in Products – grips group situations younger students • health information • assertiveness and services School and Play SafetyElements of Movement • managing conflict • influences of media • need for safety rules• spatial awareness situations around school/ – position • encouraging others Drug Use playground – levels • understanding feelings • identifying drugs • modelling fair and – directions of others – appropriate use safe behaviour – pathways • expressing a complaint • administration and• dynamics storage of medicines Road Safety or problem – interplay of force • tobacco • pedestrian safety and time Families – safe crossing – effects on the body • types of families procedures Content – resilience – effects of passive• relationships • family changes smoking – using traffic facilities – with other people, • parenting • alcohol • passenger safety pairs, groups • roles, rights and – effects on the body – safe passenger – matching, mirroring, responsibilities behaviour • labelling of drugs contrasting Peers • safety on wheels – counterbalancing Environmental Health – safe places to ride • making and maintaining – with apparatus friendships • effects of pollution – safety equipment • peer influence • individual/groupComposition responsibility Water Safety• simple combinations • rights and responsibilities • water rescue skills • recycling of locomotor and non- Groups • environmentally friendly • safety skills locomotor activities • types of groups products – water entry and exit • group membership Preventive Measures Emergency Procedures • roles, rights and • sun protection • recognising an injury/ responsibilities seeking assistance • disease prevention • cooperation and sharing • contacting emergency • communicable diseases services – immunisation • heart disease – nutrition, physical activity • personal hygiene – dental care • choice of health care products 43
  • 42. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Overview of Subject Matter Stage 3 The following overview is provided to assist teachers in planning ways in which they will cover the subject matter in this stage. Typically, it is expected that the subject matter described will be covered in this stage. The scope, sequence and degree of emphasis to be given to the subject matter, across K–6, will be determined by the needs of students and the ethos of the school. Teachers should select subject matter to ensure that students have opportunities to achieve the outcomes of this stage. Active Lifestyle Dance Games and Sports Growth & Development Components of Non-locomotor Skills Non-locomotor Skills Personal Identity an Active Lifestyle – dance holds • stretching/bending/ • influences on self-esteem • use of leisure time – safe dance posture twisting/pivoting/ and behaviour – balance of active/ swinging/balancing – family, friends, passive pursuits Locomotor Skills Locomotor Skills community – adequate rest • step patterns • running variations – personal abilities – grapevine – accelerate, decelerate – enjoyment – stop, start – body changes • community contacts for – waltz – increased responsibility • dodging outside school interests – polka • base running – changing needs • lifestyle risk factors – triplets Manipulative Skills and requirements – exercise, nutrition, – jive • throwing – media and culture smoking – for distance/accuracy • developing and Elements of Dance – pitch/bowl/lob • disease prevention • dynamics maintaining a positive • accumulated activity – underarm/overarm/chest self-concept • time and rhythm • catching/fielding • setting goals Ways to be Active – contrasting use – using equipment of tempo – attacking/defensive • influences of media • developing behavioural and culture skills, eg self-motivation, – gradual/sudden • dribbling goal setting, monitoring speed change – changing speed – body image progress • space – hand/feet/stick • feelings • stretching muscle groups – dance figures • striking/hitting – about self and others – one hand, two hands • gender images • skills practice activities – explore symmetrical – distance and accuracy • moderate to vigorous and asymmetrical and expectations – tackling/heading activities body shapes • kicking The Body – skipping games • relationships – distance and accuracy • appropriate/inappropriate – tag games – individual and partner – punt, drop, chip, goal touchingContent – circuits – group formations • trapping/passing • body systems – fun runs – objects – using body parts – functions – aerobics – stick – interrelationships Composition Games – obstacle courses • structure • spatial awareness • effects of nutrition, activity – relays – contrasting – tactics/strategies Human Sexuality – power walking movement patterns – team positions • changes at puberty – ball games • using stimulus – trajectory • minor games – menstruation Effects of Physical Activity accompaniment • reproductive process – territorial games • effects of physical – story, music, poem – ball games • responsibility in activity on the body Dance Styles – tag games sexual relationships – immediate, long term • folk dance – relays – emotional readiness – strength • social dance • modified games • major games Changes – flexibility • indigenous dance • identify changes Athletics – cardiovascular – Aboriginal • running – physical, social endurance – Afro–Caribbean – sprinting, crouch start and emotional – muscular strength • modern – middle distance • methods of coping – muscular endurance • contemporary and cross-country with change – balance popular dance – circular relay – activity, relaxation, – speed • jumping stress management • monitoring personal – high jump, long jump • grief and loss fitness and activity • throwing – shotput, discus – dealing with emotions progress Aquatics Values • stroke development • importance of values • diving • water safety • influences on • emergency procedures personal values Playing the Game • developing a code • teamwork of behaviour • safety considerations • uniqueness of self • benefits and influences – identity on participation – development • effort and practice – goals • competition • fair play • challenging discrimination • rules/tactics/strategies 44 • refereeing/umpiring
  • 43. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Gymnastics Interpersonal Personal Safe Living Relationships Health ChoicesNon-locomotor Skills Relationships Making Decisions Personal Safety• consolidate and practise • personal rights • decision-making process • protection non-locomotor skills • rights and responsibilities • influences on • warning signs and• static • sources of power decision making signals – balance (refining) • coercion – family/peers • identifying risk – partner balance • harassment – other significant situations, people and – counterbalance • types of abuse people places – handstand • effects of abuse – media • reacting to unsafe – feelings and needs situationsLocomotor Skills • solving problems of others • assertiveness• consolidate and practise • importance of positive relationships • considering the effect • rights and responsibilities locomotor skills of decisions on others • maintaining/extending• jumping/landing • relating to people • supporting others in networks – mounting, • changing networks their decision making • responding to risk dismounting • strengthening networks situations • making health decisions – tucks • challenging • bribes, threats discrimination • risk-taking and decisions• travelling on different • evaluating decisions • safety plans body parts – racism, sexism, – cartwheels homophobia Nutrition Home and Rural Safety• rolling • anti-discrimination • nutritional needs • safety with machines, – forward roll (incline) legislation across lifespan appliances, animals • energy intake/energy and substances – forward roll (flat mat) Communication expenditure • reducing and – backward roll (incline) • appropriate expression eliminating hazards – backward roll (flat mat) of feelings • variety of food choices • food preparation, storage • promoting safety – side roll • empathising awareness• climbing and hanging • assertiveness • special needs/considerations • responsibility for – climbing frames • ‘I’ messages self and others • listening skills • salt/sugar intake – bars • bribes, threats • barriers to • saturated fats – rope ladder • safety plans – climbing ropes communication Health Services and • conflict resolution/ Products School and Play SafetyElements of Movement negotiation • health information • minimising hazards• spatial awareness • supporting others and services around the – position • recognising and • influence of media school/playground – precision/accuracy articulating feelings • traditional and • modelling fair and safe Content – shape • presenting a viewpoint alternative health behaviour• dynamics products and services • promoting safety Families awareness at school – interplay of force Drug Use and in play situations and time • parental responsibilities and rights • definition, legal and illegal – acceleration, Road Safety deceleration • sibling dependence • appropriate use, administration and • pedestrian safety• relationships • mutual dependence, rights and responsibilities storage of medicines – rights and – with other people, • effects of drugs responsibilities pairs, trios, groups Peers of a pedestrian – caffeine – matching, mirroring, • developing and – safe practices contrasting maintaining friendships – alcohol near buses – counterbalancing and working – tobacco • passenger safety – with apparatus relationships • media and drugs – responsibility • rights and responsibilities • effects of drug use as a passengerComposition • overcoming peer for the community • safety on wheels• combinations of influence • labelling of drugs – using bicycles, locomotor and non- • positive peer influence skateboards and locomotor activities Environmental Health • acting on concerns • energy conservation rollerblades safely for others • global pollution – safety equipment Groups • recycling Water Safety • changing groups • environmentally • in different water • peer support friendly products environments • roles and responsibilities • planting programs • survival swimming skills Preventive Measures Emergency Procedures • sun protection • basic first aid — • disease prevention DRABCD – communicable diseases • contacting emergency – immunisation services – sexually transmitted diseases – blood-borne viruses, HIV/AIDS – hereditary diseases – lifestyle diseases, eg development of 45 heart disease
  • 44. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Content Overview: Beyond Stage 3 Students will be provided with opportunities to: Active Lifestyle ■ Plan and undertake programs that prepare the body for specific events. ■ Research various techniques for the development of physical capacities, eg flexibility, strength. Dance ■ Observe a video of personal performances to analyse and modify compositions. ■ Compose and teach sequences for a group performance. Games and Sports ■ Adopt the role of peer coach or referee in games. ■ Develop and undertake a program for developing specific games skills. Growth & Development ■ Research a range of stress management strategies. Gymnastics ■ Participate in introductory Olympic gymnastics experiences. Interpersonal Relationships ■ Develop and apply skills of mediation to resolving peer issues. ■ Choose one aspect of discrimination and compile a multimedia file on anti-discrimination issues. Personal Health Choices ■ Investigate a local environmental health issue — for example, passive smoking and smoke-free environments — and design a set of recommendations for personal and community action. ■ Review the portrayal of alcohol in popular television series.Content Safe Living ■ Complete a lifesaving award. ■ Use creative thinking skills to appraise local traffic conditions. Communicating ■ Prepare articles for student newsletters advocating better health practices and policies. ■ Model reflective listening in order to clarify opinions held by different parties. Decision Making ■ Explore and debunk common myths that influence health decisions. ■ Participate in collaborative decision-making processes in order to affect health action in the school and community. Interacting ■ Adopt collaborative leadership roles in order to accomplish group goals. ■ Show empathy and support for peers who are experiencing personal difficulties. Moving ■ Show mastery of fundamental movement skills in increasingly competitive or complex movement contexts. Problem Solving ■ Resolve a range of simulated personal development and health scenarios relating to issues that typically confront teenagers. ■ Use strategies such as a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) in order to analyse problems. 46
  • 45. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Implications for Teaching and Learning in PDHPEAllocating Time to PDHPEThe Board of Studies does not prescribe time allocations to primary syllabuses. Schools, however,should consider a number of factors when planning time for PDHPE programs:■ Time should be allocated to adequately address all PDHPE syllabus outcomes. Components of the program concerned with assisting students to act in an informed and responsible way in complex social situations require systematic and explicit teaching in a carefully sequenced program. Drug education and child protection components, for example, will only be effective if adequate time is provided in each stage to develop and practise the skills necessary for students to be able to act in their own best interests in situations where they may be at risk of harm.■ The primary years are an important time for the development of fundamental movement skills. A failure to gain these skills in primary years creates a barrier to ongoing physical activity in adolescence and adulthood. If not developed at this time they are seldom learnt in later life.■ To support health, children must be active for a minimum of 30 minutes per day. In order to reinforce the importance of this as a lifestyle issue, schools need to make a significant contribution towards this goal.Safety and Physical ActivityThe syllabus promotes safe participation in physical activity. To minimise the risk of injury, childrenshould be exposed to a developmentally appropriate sequence of learning experiences. Students shouldbe given adequate instruction and practice before participating in activities that have an element of risk.Warm-up and warm-down routines should be taught and incorporated in every movement lesson. ContentDangerous exercises should be avoided, including those that place excessive strain on the body. Thelearning environment needs to promote safety, with facilities and equipment well maintained. Teachersshould be aware of the special medical needs of students in their class and how to manage thesesituations. (For further information see ‘Safety and Physical Activity’ on page 41 of the PDHPE K–6Modules.)Sensitive IssuesThe syllabus includes a number of issues that may be considered as sensitive in nature, eg sexuality,drug education, child protection education. The syllabus advocates an approach that supports the ethosof the school and its community. This requires:■ the management of issues in the context of a comprehensive PDHPE program;■ complying with related school and systems policies;■ involving parent and community participation;■ adopting appropriate teaching strategies.(For further information see ‘Dealing with Sensitive Issues’ on page 42 of the PDHPE K–6 Modules.) 47
  • 46. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Dealing with Discrimination Throughout the syllabus subject matter related to discrimination and harassment is included. Teachers should be aware of the forms of discrimination covered in anti-discrimination legislation and should address them in a developmentally appropriate sequence. The specific areas of discrimination covered in the NSW Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 are: race (including colour, nationality, descent and ethnic, ethno-religious or national origin), sex, marital status, disability (including HIV/AIDS), homosexuality, age and transgender. Development of Knowledge and Skills within PDHPE Effective learning in PDHPE enables students to act upon their understanding of an issue, and values related to it. The syllabus advocates an approach where students are given a balance of firm advice and the opportunity to practise the skills of communicating, interacting, decision making, problem solving and moving. There will be particular issues where it will be appropriate to give clear advice on appropriate behaviour. However, as students develop and gain greater levels of autonomy, their degree of competence in the skills becomes increasingly important. Therefore, the emphasis on skill development should commence in the early stages of schooling. For example, for some young people, early experimentation with cigarette smoking and alcohol use is a significant factor in later illegal drug use. It is therefore essential to plan a drug education component of the PDHPE program that builds decision-making skills across all years and provides opportunities for behavioural rehearsal in Stages 2 and 3. Information that is relevant to students’ experiences at different ages also needs to be incorporated. Adopting such an approach can have significant health benefits. Delaying or avoiding the onset of a young person’s early experimentation with legal drugs reduces the likelihood of future illegal drug use.Content Movement Skills The syllabus places significant emphasis on the development of fundamental movement skills. The process by which students progress to mastery of skills commences with their being introduced to the concept of the skill through demonstration and explanation. This is followed by practice and feedback in a controlled environment that leads to the student reproducing the skill with consistency. It is important that students have the opportunity to learn skills in an environment that is predictable and modified to suit their level of development. The teaching process must involve the provision of clear feedback. It is only when skills have been learnt that students can transfer and apply them to the less predictable and dynamic contexts of different physical activities, eg games, dance, gymnastics. The syllabus also requires students to apply skills in the process of composing, performing and appraising movement. 48
  • 47. General Principlesfor Planning,Programming,Assessing,Reportingand Evaluating
  • 48. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6General Principles for Planning, Programming,Assessing, Reporting and EvaluatingEffective teaching and learning in PDHPE requires effective planning, programming, assessing andreporting practices. The quality of these practices is further enhanced when evaluation procedures thatfocus on improvement are also in place. Planning Determining overall policy that will inform the development of programs and procedures for implementation of K–6 PDHPEReporting Evaluating ProgrammingCommunicating to the Reflecting on all aspects of Selecting and sequencingrelevant audience aspects the teaching/learning process specific PDHPE learningof student achievement of in order to identify areas for experiences for studentsoutcomes improved practice Assessing Making judgements about what students know and can do in relation to the PDHPE syllabus outcomes 51
  • 49. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationPlanningThe process of planning is important in establishing shared, continued understanding about the PDHPEsyllabus, and effective organisational and programming practices to support its implementation.Planning needs to occur at whole-school, stage, class and individual level and should invite theinvolvement of parents and students.Schools should establish a school PDHPE policy that reflects the importance of this key learning area inthe total school curriculum. It should incorporate decisions about:■ allocation of curriculum time to PDHPE;■ funds to establish and maintain PDHPE resources;■ staff to teach PDHPE programs;■ general areas and topics to be covered in a K–6 sequence;■ links with other school policies, practices and programs that will create an environment supportive of the health and welfare of everyone within it.Some general principles for effective planning for PDHPE are:■ determining and acknowledging students’ prior learning and future learning needs;■ closely referring to the syllabus requirements, including outcomes, indicators, subject matter and suggested scope and sequence overviews;■ ensuring that students receive a program that is balanced and representative of the breadth of PDHPE;■ considering and utilising resources available within the school and the wider community;■ identifying those aspects of PDHPE that may cause concern and ways they might be addressed to support community values and enhance the wellbeing of the student.To assist with planning, teachers are referred to more detailed advice in the PDHPE K–6 Modules onpage 23.ProgrammingProgramming is the process of selecting and sequencing learning experiences for classes, groups andindividual students to achieve the outcomes of the PDHPE syllabus. Effective programs:■ cater for the diversity of student learning needs of the group concerned;■ incorporate a sequence of learning experiences that enable students to achieve the outcomes;■ include a variety of challenging learning experiences that develop students’ confidence, enthusiasm, enjoyment and independence in their learning;■ focus on the development of knowledge, understanding and skills most relevant to students.Points to consider when programming:Selecting outcomesTowards which PDHPE outcome will students be working? Teachers need to consider assessmentinformation to determine the outcomes that students have previously achieved in order to build uponthem. By referring to indicators, teachers can observe where students are working towards or haveachieved the outcomes.52
  • 50. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Deciding on a programming approachSelecting a programming approach involves deciding between a single strand model or a combinedstrand model. There may be particular issues that are appropriately dealt with by focusing on a singlestrand. Other themes or issues are best dealt with by drawing on two or more strands. For example, aunit of work on ‘Child Protection’ will deal mainly with outcomes related to Interpersonal Relationshipsand Safe Living but also includes outcomes from Growth and Development and Personal Health Choices.Opportunities for integration of PDHPE content and skills with other key learning areas should be consideredin order to effectively utilise curriculum time and enable further reinforcement of PDHPE concepts.On which strand/s will learning experiences focus? Consider the numerous opportunities for anintegrated approach — for example, units may address both Dance and Gymnastics or Personal HealthChoices, Active Lifestyle and Safe Living.Designing, selecting and sequencing learning experiencesTeachers will need to consider the developmental sequence of learning that will provide opportunitiesfor students to achieve outcomes at each stage. It is important that learning experiences engage thestudents’ interest and provide appropriate challenges. It is particularly relevant for PDHPE experiences toreflect an active learning approach in skills development and in engaging the student in physical activity.ResourcesTeachers should identify existing equipment, facilities and human resources and analyse theirsuitability. Decisions should be made about the acquisition of additional resources needed to worktowards syllabus outcomes.AssessmentDecisions need to be made about the aspects of students’ performance in PDHPE that will be assessed.The process to be used for observing or collecting evidence on what students know, believe and can doshould be outlined. Strategies such as diaries, discussions, presentations, debates, performances,observations, projects and peer assessments could be considered.The process for recording and analysing assessment information is also important for tracking studentachievement and facilitating meaningful feedback. Suitable approaches include annotated worksamples, anecdotal records and profiles. Use of the syllabus indicators or teacher-developed indicatorscan provide a useful reference in making judgements about student achievement of outcomes.EvaluationWhen programming evaluation strategies, teachers should ensure an ongoing focus on improvement.Teachers should consider:■ the success of the programmed unit of work;■ the degree to which all students’ needs are catered for;■ the extent to which students enjoyed the unit of work;■ the success of teaching/learning strategies and assessment approaches in providing students with the opportunity to work towards and demonstrate achievement of syllabus outcomes. 53
  • 51. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationAssessingAssessing is the process of collecting, analysing and recording information about student progresstowards achievement of syllabus outcomes. An important purpose of assessment is to determine whatstudents know and can do in order to assist in designing appropriate teaching/learning programs for allstudents. The diverse nature of the skills identified in this syllabus demands that a variety ofappropriate assessment techniques be used. The principles below underpin effective assessment.■ Assessment is integral to teaching and learning. It should be based on the syllabus learning outcomes that specify what students know, understand and are able to do in PHDPE.■ Assessment procedures should relate to the specific knowledge and skills that are taught within the school program, and to the syllabus outcomes.■ A variety of assessment strategies and contexts should be used to give students the opportunities to demonstrate, in an authentic manner, what they know, understand and are able to do in PDHPE.■ Assessment should be reliable and valid, consistently producing results that accurately reflect the student’s ability to perform tasks. Furthermore, it must actually measure what it is intended to measure.■ Students may be assessed on the actual performance of a skill, eg leaping, or they may be assessed on their ability to carry out steps in a particular process, eg problem solving. Knowledge and understandings may be assessed through demonstrations or performances by students.The assessment process should:■ be consistent with overall school goals and general policies;■ be based on the syllabus outcomes and reflect the syllabus content;■ arise from the everyday learning experiences of students;■ enhance the self-esteem and motivation of the individual student;■ recognise and value the diverse backgrounds and experiences of students.Collecting assessment information involves:■ systematically observing students during learning experiences;■ interacting with students to gain a deeper knowledge of what they know, understand and can do;■ analysing work samples by using indicators.Forms of assessmentFormative and summative assessment complement each other, and both should be used to form acomprehensive record of student achievement.Formative assessmentFormative assessment is the practice of building a cumulative record of student achievement. This usuallytakes place during day-to-day classroom learning experiences and involves informal interaction and systematicobservation of the student. The indicators may be used to guide teacher observations. While it may alsoinclude more formal assessment procedures, formative assessment provides a broader profile of the studentthan can be determined through formal testing alone. It is a valid and valuable part of overall assessment.Summative assessmentSummative assessment is the practice of making judgements about student achievement at certain relevantpoints in the learning program, such as at the end of units of work, or the end of a term or year of schooling.Formal assessment strategies such as tests, projects and assignments are generally used to make summativejudgements. Such assessment tools may focus on a single outcome or on a number of outcomes.Diagnostic assessmentInformation gained from assessment will be used in conjunction with other information to diagnose areasof need for individuals or groups of students and to determine students’ future goals. This informationinforms planning and programming.54
  • 52. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Choosing Assessment Tasks and Strategies in PDHPEThe following table may assist schools and teachers in selecting valid assessment tasks and strategies.These strategies can be used singularly or in combination to provide opportunities for students todemonstrate what they know and can do.Areas of Assessment Some examples of assessment tasks and strategiesKnowledge and Understanding Quizzes; multiple choice or true/false tests; cloze passages; blanks in matrices; matching questions with answers; labelling diagrams or models; written and spoken textsSkillsCommunicating Written spoken and visual texts; movement performances; debates; multimedia presentationsDecision Making Role-plays; scenarios; unfinished stories; mapping alternatives; identifying pros and consInteracting Group performances; diary journals; group projects; peer appraisalMoving Dance or gym performances; skills checklists; activity journalsProblem Solving Mind maps; essays; initiative games; action plansValues and Attitudes Actions; written, spoken and visual texts; Likert scales; values continuumsReportingReporting is the process of providing information, both formally and informally, about the progress ofstudent achievement. The purpose of reporting is to provide information about student learning inPHDPE, ie learning experiences that students have engaged in over a period of time and theachievement that they have demonstrated. Reports can be presented in a spoken or written form. Theprinciples below underpin effective reporting.■ Reporting of student achievement has a number of purposes for a variety of audiences such as students, parents, teachers, school and the wider community. It should provide them with constructive feedback.■ Reporting should provide a diagnosis of areas of strength and need, including those in which the students might be given additional support.■ Reporting information needs to be in language that is understood by the audience.Parents/caregivers will want to know how their child is progressing in relation to:■ what the student knows;■ what skills the student has gained. 55
  • 53. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationWhen reporting to parents, the key features of the report should be:■ to provide information about how the student is progressing;■ to suggest ways in which parents can help at home, such as: initiating games that focus on movement skills; integrating with others; practising communication skills; sharing, taking turns; demonstrating personal hygiene, nutrition and safety practices.The form of reporting to parents should take account of the levels of parent literacy in their firstlanguage and/or English, and levels of fluency in spoken English. Teachers may consider having reportstranslated into the home language. In some circumstances, interviews may be an appropriate way ofreporting to parents.EvaluatingProgram evaluation is an ongoing process. Information for use in evaluation may be gathered through:student assessment; teachers’ reflections on their teaching practices; written records such asquestionnaires, logs and diaries, submissions or records of meetings; and discussion with general staffmembers, teaching staff (including support staff), parents and other community members.Teachers need to gather, organise and interpret information in order to make judgements about theeffectiveness and appropriateness of:■ the school PDHPE policy and plan;■ teaching programs;■ teaching strategies;■ assessment strategies;■ resources;■ staff development programs.The following questions may assist in ensuring that the information sought is relevant to the evaluation:■ How did planning, programming and teaching contribute to student achievement of PDHPE outcomes?■ Were the special needs of individual students catered for?■ Was adequate time allocated for the program/units of work and sequences of PDHPE?■ How did students respond to the resources selected?■ Which learning experiences generated the most student interest and enjoyment?■ Which teaching strategies resulted in maximising student participation?Modifying programsThe final stage of program evaluation is the integration of the evaluation information into a modifiedand improved program with:■ more appropriate teaching strategies;■ more effective assessment/evaluation;■ more efficient and effective use of resources;leading to improved student outcomes in PDHPE.The process of school-level evaluation highlights the need for reflection and provides opportunities for:■ identifying areas of need;■ addressing the professional development of teachers;■ recognising school/system achievements.The evaluation of a particular area of the school’s operation will provide a starting point for a cycle offuture action for improvement.56
  • 54. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6GlossaryActive listening Effective listening behaviours that enhance the communication process. At ES1 it involves looking at the speaker, asking questions and summarising. At later stages it involves more complex skills such as clarifying, checking, reflecting and reframing.Activity patterns Information on the physical activity level of an individual or population, including frequency of participation, preferred activities and reasons for participation.Analgesics Drugs that relieve mild to moderate pain. They include aspirin, paracetamol, codeine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. Usually self-prescribed.Assertiveness An attitude that conveys a message that a person is ‘set’ in their response and will not be influenced. This attitude comes from strength from within – not necessarily from superficial dramatic responses. It may be apparent only in facial expression or posture. It is possible to be quiet, yet strong in assertive expression.Basic first aid Providing simple emergency care, such as control of bleeding.Bunny hops Hands are placed on the ground, shoulder width apart. From a crouched position, push off both feet to take weight on hands. Adopt a tucked position in the air. Can be performed as a locomotor or non-locomotor skill.Bunt To strike a ball with a bat with a restricted follow-through in order to stop its progress.Bush Dance A dance style of the early colonists expressing a range of life themes. It uses simple skipping, stepping and sliding movements performed in patterns that range in complexity, generally in circles or sets with a partner.Chip kick To kick a ball to clear a particular height. The emphasis is not usually for distance so the power applied is controlled.Circle games Games using a circular formation where all groups members can see each other.Compositional skills Ability to put together individual skills into an interesting and logical order, using the elements of movement to structure movement to express ideas. It may result in a product such as a dance, gym routine, or set play in a game.Counterbalance Moving the body or an object outside its normal point of balance in order to compensate for other forces acting upon it.Creative dance A non-stylised dance form that involves the use of movement to express ideas, thoughts and feelings in response to a stimulus.Creative play Play that evolves from the student’s own thoughts, ideas and imagination. This form of movement exploration is not restricted by complex rules or conventions.Defensive marking Keeping in close contact with an opposition player in a competitive game situation in order to counteract their play.Dodge To change position suddenly to evade an opposing player. The movement can also be incorporated in other areas such as dance.DRABCD Represents the process to follow in emergency care situations (Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing, Compressions, Defibrillation).Drug Any substance that when taken into the body alters its function physically or psychologically, excluding food, water and oxygen. 57
  • 55. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationDynamics This refers to how movement is performed in terms of force and flow. Dynamics is one of the elements of movement.Egg roll Begin in a kneeling position. Tuck arms into the body and form a tight ball. Roll sideways (not over the head) and end in a kneeling position.Elements of The variables that are combined in composing and performing movement.movement (also The specific elements are dynamics, time, space and relationships.elements of dance) Other aspects that may be considered as elements are action or the types of movements used and structure or the way that movements are put together. In this syllabus action is dealt with in terms of locomotor and non-locomotor movement and structure is covered under composition.Exercise Planned, structured, repetitive bodily movement, an objective of which is to improve or maintain one of the components of fitness.Fitness A multi-component trait related to the capacity to perform physical activity. It consists of health-related components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition) and skill-related components (agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time and speed).Free play Unconstrained play, exempt from regulations and restrictions.Front support Prone body position, with a straight line between shoulders and ankles. Body weight supported by hands with arms straight. Fingers point forward. Head neutral. In essence, this is the extended push-up position.Fundamental An organised series of basic movements that involve the combinationmovement skills of movement patterns of two or more body segments. They are considered the building blocks or foundations of human movement. Running, jumping, throwing, catching, kicking and striking are all examples of fundamental movement skills.Grapevine A movement used in a range of dance styles. Moving right: step sideways with right foot, then step left foot behind, then step right foot sideways, then left foot in front of right, step right, feet together. Repeat to left.‘I’ messages A form of assertive communication where the individual expresses their feelings and opinions in a way that promotes their rights while preserving the rights of others, eg ‘I don’t like it when you call me names because it hurts my feelings. I would prefer if we were friends.’Indicator Indicators exemplify the range of behaviours that contribute to achievement of outcomes. Indicators assist teachers in monitoring student progress within a stage. They also assist teachers in making on-balance judgements about the achievement of outcomes.Laterality Ability to use both sides of the body, eg kick a ball with right and left foot; throw and catch with both hands.Likert scale A clarification strategy where students respond to statements indicating the degree to which they agree or disagree.Locomotor skills The range of movements that can be used to make the body travel, eg run, skip, roll, leap.Log roll (or pencil roll) Sideways roll, in extended position, with arms above the head. This skill is performed slowly, with pauses in the prone and supine positions. Body should turn as one, not in segments.Medicine Non-prescribed or over-the-counter medicines can be obtained from chemists without a prescription. Prescribed medicines require a prescription from a medical practitioner or dentist.58
  • 56. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Minor games Simple games, with few rules, designed to practise skills in a competitive situation.Modern dance A dance style originating in ballet and incorporating many of its movements, but disregarding some of its conventions.Modified sports Sports that are adapted to suit young performers by rule or equipment changes.Movement exploration To discover the body’s potential for moving by experimentation with different ways to move.Movement patterns A series of individual movement skills linked together logically.No-Go-Tell A series of safety steps or strategies that can be used in unsafe or threatening situations. It involves the skills required to say no in threatening situations, to get away from the unsafe situation and to seek help, advice and support.Non-locomotor skills The range of movements that can be performed that do not result in the body travelling, eg twist, stretch, punch. These skills can be combined with locomotor skills.On-balance judgements A term used to describe the professional judgement used to assess student achievement of outcomes. It is a determination made based on a range of evidence over time.Outcome A syllabus outcome expresses a specific intended result of the teaching of the syllabus. Outcomes are derived from the content of the syllabus and are arranged in stages. They provide clear statements of the knowledge, skills and understandings expected to be gained by most students as a result of effective teaching and learning.Physical activity Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure.Punt kick To kick a ball that is dropped from the hands before it reaches the ground.Rear support Supine body position, back to the floor, with a straight line between shoulders and ankles. The body weight is supported by the hands. Fingers point to toes and arms are straight. This is an extended ‘dips’ position.Relationships This refers to how movement relates to individuals, groups and objects.(movement) Relationships is one of the elements of movement.Resilience The process and capacity that allows individuals to successfully adapt to challenges in their lives.Response games Activities designed to develop physical vocabulary, speed of information processing and reflexes.Roll with straddle Forward or backward roll ending with a finishing position where the legs are apart.Scottische A dance resembling a slow polka. Commonly, couples circle around the room, promenading forward and turning around each other. The music is in 2/4 or 4/4 time.Side gallop A quick sideways movement where both feet are off the ground at once.Side sliding Moving right: step sideways with right foot then drag left foot to meet right. Repeat.Slinging To cast, hurl or fling an object into the air, eg discus. 59
  • 57. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationSocial and emotional Involves increased awareness and realistic expectations of self and others;development demonstration of cooperative and pro-social behaviour; constructive conflict resolution; a positive sense of self and others; pride in heritage and background; and a positive attitude to life.Space This refers to where movement takes place, the shapes, pathways and directions travelled. Space is one of the elements of movement.Static balance A stationary balance on one foot. Dynamic balance is when the moving body remains balanced, eg in fluent running action.Soft landing For safety, students should give on impact (bend at knees, ankles and hips) to absorb the shock of landing.SWOT analysis A creative thinking technique for exploring a problem or issue. It involves identifying relevant strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.Time This refers to when the body moves, its rhythm, duration and speed of movement. Time is one of the elements of movement.Tuck sit Sitting with legs bent at knees, feet close to body and knees together. Arms circle the bent knees or are held out straight to the sides.Tucked/twisted shapes Small, tight, contracted (tucked) and winding, curved, distorted, circling (twisted) shapes that the body makes in a range of movement contexts.Two-handed strike Holding the striking implement, for example bat or racquet, with both hands when hitting a ball.Values continuum Students are asked to communicate their values in relation to particular issues by positioning themselves on a line where the two ends of the line represent ‘agree’ and ‘disagree’ (see Likert scale).60