Personal Development,Health andPhysical Education K-6Syllabus
The Board of Studies has made all reasonable attempts to locate ownersof third party copyright material and invites anyone...
ContentsIntroduction                                       5Rationale                                          6Aim       ...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education         PDHPE                                                         ...
Syllabus                       K-6                       Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationRationaleIn ou...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education           PDHPE                                                       ...
Syllabus                        K-6                       Personal Development, Health and Physical Education■     living ...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education                PDHPE                                                  ...
Syllabus                       K-6                       Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationSubject Matter...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education          PDHPE                                                        ...
Outcomes Foundation Statements Overview of Outcomes Outcomes and Indicators
Syllabus                       K-6                       Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationFoundation Sta...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education       PDHPE                                                           ...
Syllabus                                  K-6                      Personal Development, Health and Physical Education    ...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education        PDHPE                                                          ...
Syllabus                              K-6                       Personal Development, Health and Physical Education       ...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education                   PDHPE                                               ...
Syllabus                                         K-6                   Personal Development, Health and Physical Education...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education               PDHPE                                                   ...
Syllabus                                           K-6                       Personal Development, Health and Physical Edu...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education           PDHPE                                                       ...
Syllabus                                         K-6                       Personal Development, Health and Physical Educa...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education           PDHPE                                                       ...
Syllabus                                            K-6                        Personal Development, Health and Physical E...
Personal Development, Health and Physical Education            PDHPE                                                      ...
Syllabus                                          K-6                          Personal Development, Health and Physical E...
K-6 Syllabus
K-6 Syllabus
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K-6 Syllabus
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  1. 1. Personal Development,Health andPhysical Education K-6Syllabus
  2. 2. The Board of Studies has made all reasonable attempts to locate ownersof third party copyright material and invites anyone from whom permissionhas not been sought to contact the Copyright Officer,Board of Studies NSW. Ph: (02) 9367 8111; fax: (02) 9367 8484.© Board of Studies NSW 2007Published byBoard of Studies NSWGPO Box 5300Sydney 2001AustraliaTel: (02) 9367 8111Fax: (02) 9367 8484Internet: www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.auISBN 1 7414 7400 0First published August 1999Reprinted with Foundation Statements April 2006Revised March 2007 in response to the Australian Resuscitation Council’s revisedcardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines. Official Notices BOS 06/07 Board Bulletin Vol16 No1 (OBOS Job No 2007160)2007160
  3. 3. ContentsIntroduction 5Rationale 6Aim 8Objectives 8Overview of Learning in PDHPE K–6 9Outcomes 13Foundation Statements 14Overview of Outcomes 16 Values and Attitudes Outcomes 17 Skills Outcomes 18 Knowledge and Understanding Outcomes 19Outcomes and Indicators 20Content 35Overview of Content 36 K–6 36 Early Stage 1 38 Stage 1 40 Stage 2 42 Stage 3 44 Beyond Stage 3 46Implications for Teaching and Learning in PDHPE 47General Principles for Planning, Programming,Assessing Reporting and Evaluating 49Glossary 57
  4. 4. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6IntroductionPersonal Development, Health and Physical Education is one of the six key learning areas in the NSWprimary curriculum. This syllabus makes a unique contribution to the total school curriculum in that itis directly concerned with supporting the development of the student as a whole person. Itsimplementation has the potential to contribute to improved and ongoing quality of life for allindividuals within the community. This syllabus replaces the K–6 Personal Development, Health andPhysical Education Syllabus and Support Document, Formal Consultation Draft, 1992. It incorporateselements of the Physical Activity for Health and Fitness Support Document, which was distributed toschools in 1997.This syllabus is based on a broad notion of health that encompasses all aspects of an individual’swellbeing, inclusive of social, mental, physical and spiritual health. It is concerned with developing instudents the knowledge and understanding, skills, values and attitudes that will enable them to leadhealthy and fulfilling lives. It also provides schools with a curriculum framework for teaching andlearning related to the health priorities for young people of drug education, fitness and physical activity,child protection and nutrition.School Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) programs should focus onencouraging students to make informed decisions related to health and physical activity and developpositive attitudes towards a healthy lifestyle. Programs should include participation in regular and variedphysical education experiences, which provide the foundation for a lifelong commitment to valuing andleading a healthy lifestyle. They should also include systematic and explicit teaching of personal andsocial skills to give students a basis for resilience and the resourceful management of their own lives.Student learning in PDHPE will also be enhanced through the use of computer-based technologies.Information technology enables students to locate, access, view and analyse a range of texts, graphics,sounds and images. Students can also use computer technology to design and create informationproducts. The indicators shown in this syllabus include some examples of how students might usedifferent technologies to work towards the achievement of outcomes.The syllabus is designed to give all schools the flexibility to treat sensitive and controversial issues ina manner reflective of their own ethos. While the selection of specific program content and learningapproaches is to occur at the school level, learning experiences must be drawn from all strands in eachstage.Parents should be involved in decisions about the PDHPE program. This will assist teachers to adjusttheir programs to accommodate the perspectives of different groups within the community. Parentswill also be in a better position to assist in the implementation of the school program and to activelysupport their child’s learning outside the school environment. The partnership between the school andthe home will be most productive when both contribute in a consistent manner to the child’sdevelopment of positive health behaviours and attitudes.It is important that students are encouraged to understand their own growth and development withinthe context of their families and communities. The active participation of parents and students in theplanning, implementation and evaluation of programs will assist exploration of different aspects ofhealth as they are understood within different communities and to place teaching and learning in acontext that is meaningful and valued by students.While the syllabus has a clear focus on promoting better health for all, it is acknowledged that not allstudents enjoy the same opportunities in this regard. Social, economic, environmental and politicalfactors are key determinants of health status. Health inequities may be linked to such factors as race,ethnicity, class, gender, disability, sexuality and age. Sensitivity to the circumstances of individualstudents is essential in designing appropriate PDHPE programs. It is important for teachers, parentsand students to understand that improving health is the responsibility of all members of society. 5
  5. 5. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationRationaleIn our rapidly changing society there is increasing community awareness of the importance of healthylifestyles. The resultant good health is characterised by improved quality of life, less sickness anddisability, happier personal, family and social experiences and the opportunity to make choices in workand recreation.Individuals lead a healthy lifestyle when they live in a way that allows them the greatest chance ofachieving and maintaining mental, physical, social and spiritual wellbeing. When individuals are wellinformed on health issues and have a sense of control about the decisions they make, they are morelikely to experience positive relationships, improved quality of life and less illness. PDHPE programsplay a unique role in the development of students’ knowledge, understandings and practical skills thatlead to better health.The ability of individuals to adopt a healthy lifestyle may be affected by the social and cultural context inwhich they live. Student learning is enhanced by an understanding that health is the responsibility of allparts of society. Through promoting the fundamental principles of diversity, social justice and supportiveenvironments, individuals and communities are better able to act for positive health outcomes.Students should be concerned not only about their own health but also about better health for all nowand in the future. This is encouraged through raising: concern for the welfare, rights and dignity of allpeople; understanding of how equity is effected by structures and practices within communities;awareness of disadvantages and actions for their redress; and understanding of how decisions aremade and priorities established.PDHPE is an important key learning area within the primary curriculum as it:■ encourages an understanding and valuing of self and others Students who understand and value themselves as individuals and as members of groups, exercise more control over their own lives. They can identify and appropriately express a range of feelings. They also appreciate that the way they think influences the way they feel. They are open to learning more positive ways of responding to situations. They are therefore able to make more considered choices and are less influenced by immediate circumstances and responses. When students understand and value others, they work more cooperatively in teams and enjoy more stable and satisfying interpersonal relationships. They are also more tolerant and caring members of the community who value difference and respond to others as individuals. Students who understand and value themselves and others are better equipped to respond to change and to overcome adversity. They are also more likely to seek help when they need it. This key learning area provides opportunities for students to form positive attitudes about themselves and others, to communicate effectively, to work cooperatively and to develop and maintain positive relationships.■ promotes physical activity Students should be physically active every day in as many ways as they can. Health experts agree that all people should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate physical activity each day for health benefits. It is also generally agreed that, in addition, children should engage in more vigorous activity of at least 20 minutes at least 3 times per week. Adolescence is a time when the trend to inactivity is a concern. Efforts to encourage young children to be more active (one hour per day) provides optimum health and allows some scope for reducing activity in later life but still retaining the minimum daily requirement. 6
  6. 6. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6 Regular physical activity is an essential ingredient for the development and maintenance of optimum health. It can improve cardiovascular efficiency and aid efforts to reduce risk factors of coronary heart disease. It is critical for enhancing bone development, controlling obesity and improving psychological health and immune status. The related health and fitness benefits enable the individual to engage in leisure activities and to meet physical work demands without excessive physiological stress. Physical activity is also important in contributing to quality of life. Participation in active pursuits can be an enjoyable, creative and social outlet that has the potential to build esteem. School programs at all levels have a responsibility to encourage the physical growth and development of all students, support the acquisition of movement skills and nurture positive attitudes towards physical activity. This key learning area provides regular and frequent opportunities for students to acquire and apply movement skills, enhance their creativity and aesthetic awareness and develop positive attitudes towards regular physical activity.■ emphasises informed decision making leading to effective and responsible action Schools can help students to take responsible action regarding their own lifestyle. They can support them in making informed decisions about factors that may hinder or promote the wellbeing of themselves and others. This key learning area builds upon the decision-making skills children have when they first come to school. It provides opportunities for the teaching of decision-making skills and learning through behaviour rehearsal. School programs can assist all students to become more aware of the process that is occurring when decisions are made so that they can increase their knowledge of options available to them and predict likely consequences. To make informed decisions, students also require accurate and appropriate information about issues that are relevant to them. Students are more likely to use strategies developed and learned in the classroom in their own lives if they have been developed and rehearsed over a period of time in simulated situations that are as close as possible to the real-life contexts of the students. For example, refusal skills in drug situations need to be part of the repertoire of students’ responses well ahead of the time when they are exposed to drugs.More specifically the study of PDHPE is concerned with:■ physical, social, cognitive and emotional growth and development patterns Feelings of self-confidence and self-acceptance and the ability to act in the best interests of themselves and others are fostered by an understanding of the nature of life’s changes and the uniqueness of individual development.■ the development and maintenance of positive interpersonal relationships Successful interaction with others in contexts such as the family, peer group and teams is essential to meet the individual’s need for belonging and security. Students’ capacity to form relationships and cope with changes in relationships is influenced by understandings and skills in negotiation, conflict resolution, tolerance, roles, responsibilities and community expectations associated with friendships and relationships.■ the factors influencing personal health choices Young students need clear guidance concerning appropriate health attitudes and behaviours. As students mature they require assistance in discerning between conflicting messages from a range of sources. An understanding of health issues empowers students to make appropriate decisions and commit to adopting sound community values. 7
  7. 7. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education■ living and learning in a safe secure environment The safety and security of children is enhanced when they can recognise situations where their personal safety may be at risk, and use strategies to protect themselves. When power is used positively in relationships, individuals can support their own and others’ rights to respect and safety.■ the adoption of an active lifestyle Physical activity habits developed in school years are often maintained in later life. Students need to understand the importance of a balanced lifestyle incorporating regular physical activity for health and fitness.■ fundamental movement patterns and coordinated actions of the body Children do not naturally develop fundamental movement skills as they grow. Opportunities should be provided for these skills to be taught, practised and encouraged. Having mastery of the Fundamental Movement Skills such as throwing, catching, running and jumping opens up a vast array of sport, leisure and recreation options for the individual. Skills are developed through play, dance, gymnastics, games, sports, aquatics and other recreational activities. The quality of movement is further enhanced through exploring, composing, performing and appreciating movement.■ skills that enable action for better health and movement outcomes Understanding about health and movement is utilised when students have the necessary ability and self-confidence. The skills of effective communication, interaction, decision making and problem solving and moving with efficiency and confidence empower students to take action leading to better health, improved performance and enhanced self-esteem. Not all students will have the same degree of control over their health. Illness, disability and sociocultural circumstances will have significant impacts on health and the ability to affect change. However, an emphasis on these skills and understandings of those factors that influence health best prepares students to work towards better health for themselves and others.AimThe aim of this syllabus is to develop in each student the knowledge and understanding, skills andvalues and attitudes needed to lead healthy, active and fulfilling lives. In doing so, the syllabus will formthe basis for students to adopt a responsible and productive role in society.ObjectivesValues and Attitudes Skills KnowledgeTo develop students’: To develop students’ skills in: To develop students’ knowledge and understanding about:■ appreciation of and a ■ making, communicating commitment to healthy and acting upon health ■ ways to enhance personal and socially just ways of decisions; and community health and living. wellbeing, and ■ moving with competence and confidence; and ■ the composition, performance and appraisal ■ forming and maintaining of movement. positive relationships. 8
  8. 8. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Overview of Learning in PDHPE K–6The following diagram represents the key components of the syllabus. The syllabus content consists oftwo elements: subject matter and skills. These form the basis for achieving the syllabus aims,objectives and outcomes. Syllabus Aims Objectives Outcomes Indicators Subject Matter • relationships • personal identity • communication • the body • families • human sexuality • peers • changes • groups • values Strand • personal Interpersonal Growth and safety Relationship Development • non locomotor • home and skills rural safety • locomotor skills • school and • manipulative skills play safety moving • games • road safety Safe problem-solving Games • athletics • water safety Living communicating and Sport • aquatics • emergency • playing the games procedures SKILLS • making interacting decisions Personal decision-making Gymnastics • non locomotor • nutriton Health skills • health services Choices • locomotor skills and products • elements of • drug use movement • environmental Active Dance • composition health Lifestyle • preventive measures • components of • non locomotor skills an active lifestyle • locomotor skills • ways to be active • elements of dance • effects of physical • composition activities • dance styles Specific content and learning experiences are selected to achieve the syllabus objectives and outcomes 9
  9. 9. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationSubject MatterThe subject matter of PDHPE K–6 is organised into eight interrelated strands. The eight strands are notmutually exclusive. Programs may select subject matter from a number of the eight strands. Particularthemes and issues may be revisited in relation to a number of strands to reinforce understandings.In order for students to achieve the outcomes of this syllabus it is essential that teaching/learningoccurs in each of the strands in each stage of primary education.Active LifestyleActive Lifestyle is concerned with students adopting activity patterns that promote their wellbeing. Inthis strand, students will examine the components of a balanced lifestyle, explore options forrecreation and develop the skills and attitudes necessary for an active lifestyle.DanceDance develops the ability of students to communicate and express themselves through movement.Through dance, students develop awareness of the ways their bodies move, the space in which theymove, the time and quality of their movements and their relationship to each other and objects.Students participate in composing, moving and appreciating a range of dance styles.Games and SportsThis strand develops each student’s competence and confidence in a broad range of games, sports andphysical activities. Students develop fundamental movement skills (FMS), progressing to more games-and sports-specific skills in non-competitive and competitive environments that foster positive feelingsof success and enjoyment.Growth and DevelopmentGrowth and Development involves developing each student’s understanding of their own physical,social, cognitive and emotional development in the context of increasing awareness of changes thatoccur throughout the cycle of people’s lives. Students participate in activities that increase theirconfidence and competence to manage change.GymnasticsThe focus of this strand is on initial movement exploration leading to the acquisition of somepreliminary gymnastics skills. Students investigate and succeed in a wide variety of movementexperiences and challenges, developing skill, demonstrating control and exploring the ways in whichthe body can move. The gymnastics experiences recommended in this syllabus are appropriate for allstudents. They do not involve Olympic or competitive gymnastics disciplines.Interpersonal RelationshipsInterpersonal Relationships is concerned with developing an understanding of the nature ofrelationships. Students develop skills for building positive responsible relationships, and practise theirapplication so that they can use them effectively in their lives.10
  10. 10. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Personal Health ChoicesPersonal Health Choices examines the process of making lifestyle decisions and putting them intopractice. This strand considers the personal health decisions that students make about their livesrelating to nutrition, hygiene, consumerism, drug use, the environment and disease prevention.Safe LivingSafe Living is concerned with the protection of individuals through the promotion of safe environmentsand practices. This strand focuses on developing in students a commitment and an ability to act inways that will keep themselves and others safe from harm.SkillsThere are five essential skills that students should develop from PDHPE. They are:CommunicatingStudents should develop a variety of skills for communicating: being able to express needs, wants,feelings, ideas and opinions; being able to listen attentively and respond appropriately; being able touse negotiation, conflict resolution, refusal and assertiveness skills effectively in a range of situations.Decision MakingStudents should develop decision-making skills in the context of making healthy personal and lifestylechoices. This involves: making informed decisions; selecting and adopting safe practices; distinguishingbetween fact and opinion in health matters; accepting responsibility for decisions and resultingconsequences; being able to use information gained to inform future decision making; makingcollective decisions for the common good.InteractingSkills for relating positively to others and the environment include: working cooperatively as a groupmember; generating and abiding by rules for common benefit; developing and maintainingfriendships; offering assistance and encouragement to others; accepting support and assistance.MovingStudents develop the ability to: move effectively in response to a variety of stimuli; participate regularlyin a range of games and sports; demonstrate mastery of fundamental movement skills such asthrowing, catching, kicking, jumping and running; create and perform sequences of movement withvariation in movement quality.Problem SolvingStudents develop problem-solving skills by: gathering relevant information by observing, questioningand researching; generating alternative ways of resolving problems; using a range of problem-solvingstrategies; selecting the most appropriate solution; identifying people who can assist; carrying out aplan and reflecting on the results. 11
  11. 11. Outcomes Foundation Statements Overview of Outcomes Outcomes and Indicators
  12. 12. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationFoundation StatementsFoundation Statements set out a clear picture of the knowledge, skills and understanding that eachstudent should develop at each stage of primary school.Early Stage 1 Stage 1Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and RelationshipsStudents participate in regular physical activity Students participate and perform in dance,through creative play, dance, gymnastics and gymnastics, minor games and sports. Theyminor games. They practise body movement complete simple movement sequences thatand control, demonstrating different ways the show an understanding of dynamics, spatialbody can move by composing and sequencing awareness, relationships, timing and rhythm ofsimple movement patterns. Students show movement. They demonstrate fair play andawareness and consideration of others during cooperation in small groups. Students developplay situations and practise the fundamental proficiency in the fundamental movement skillsmovement skills of balance, sprint run, vertical of the hop, side gallop, skip, overhand throw,jump and catch. They describe the components kick and two-handed strike. They participate inof an active lifestyle and identify different ways physical activities that promote enjoyment andto be active at school and at home. recognise the importance of these for health and lifestyle balance.Students make simple decisions in relation tohealth and safety and identify medicines and Students describe ways to keep healthy and safehow to store them. They describe balanced and explore choices relating to food, suneating habits and healthy personal habits as well protection and personal safety. They identify theas safe and unsafe situations at home, on and appropriate use, administration and storage ofnear roads, travelling to and from school and medicines. Students describe strategies to staynear water. Students identify people who can safe at home, on and near roads, when travellinghelp and describe actions such as ‘no, go, tell’ to and from school, and near water. Theythat might be taken in unsafe situations. recognise safe and unsafe environments and situations and suggest a range of protectiveStudents identify personal characteristics and strategies for dealing with unsafe situations.qualities, and physical changes that haveoccurred since birth and identify different parts Students describe similarities and differencesof the body. With self-control, students express between themselves and others. They describefeelings and develop positive relationships. They different body parts and how the body growsinteract and communicate with peers in a and changes. Students explore different types ofvariety of play and group situations, listening, relationships and describe the skills needed tosharing and showing concern when working develop and maintain positive relationships.with others. They identify the effects of bullying.14
  13. 13. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Stage 2 Stage 3Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and RelationshipsStudents apply movement skills in dance, Students apply, adapt and vary movement skillsgymnastics, games and sports, and practise in dance, gymnastics, games and sports. Theymanipulative skills in a range of minor games. understand the elements of movement andThey perform movement sequences with compose and perform movement sequencesconsistency and control and demonstrate with control and coordination in variouscooperation, effort and practice in physical contexts. Students demonstrate teamwork,activity. Students demonstrate proficiency in the tactics and strategies when participating in teamfundamental movement skills of static balance, games. They demonstrate proficiency in thesprint run, vertical jump, catch, hop, side gallop, fundamental movement skills of leap, kick, two-skip and overarm throw through practice and handed strike and dodge and apply them in aapplication in different games and sports. They range of challenging physical activity contexts.participate in physical activity and investigate Students participate in a range of moderate tohow it contributes to a healthy and active vigorous physical activities and apply movementlifestyle. skills with increased confidence and precision. They investigate the effects of physical activityStudents describe the factors that influence on health and monitor and evaluate physicalhealthy lifestyle decisions and demonstrate an activity levels.understanding of the decision-making process.They examine how the use of drugs such as Students examine key factors that contribute to atobacco and alcohol can cause harm. They balanced lifestyle and keeping safe and healthy.investigate nutritional choices relating to cultural They examine nutritional information, diseasebeliefs, special dietary needs and ‘fast food’. prevention and the effects of drugs on the bodyStudents demonstrate behaviours to stay safe at and they identify behaviours that impact onhome, on and near roads, when travelling to and wellbeing. Students assess the safety offrom school, and near water. They demonstrate situations in home, school, water and roadthe capacity to deal with unsafe situations environments and identify appropriateincluding abuse, bullying and harassment. responses. They describe and practise a range of personal safety strategies that could be used inStudents recognise individual strengths and threatening or abusive situations. They takelimitations and they identify characteristics that responsibility for personal decisions, recognisingmake them unique. They explore body changes the effects that decisions have on self andthat occur during life, including puberty. others.Students explain how positive relationships areformed and the importance of effective Students describe the factors that influencecommunication of feelings and needs in personal identity and examine the physical,maintaining relationships. They recognise the social and emotional changes that occur duringrights, values and feelings of others and devise puberty. They devise strategies for coping withstrategies to solve problems, recognise and change, grief and loss. They value the differencesaccept differences and manage conflict. between individuals and challenge discrimination and harassment. Students value different roles and responsibilities in relationships, the importance of communication and they practise positive ways to deal with conflict. 15
  14. 14. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Overview of Outcomes Outcomes Syllabus outcomes are specific statements of desired student achievement intended by the syllabus. These outcomes are achieved as students engage with the content of the syllabus. They are organised in stages. The outcomes are statements of the knowledge and understandings and skills expected to be gained by most students at the end of a stage as a result of effective teaching and learning of PDHPE. Stages are sequential, chronological curriculum organisers that provide a convenient way of structuring syllabus outcomes. The stages of PDHPE K–6 are as follows: Early Stage 1 (ES1): Kindergarten Stage 1 (S1): Years 1 and 2 Stage 2 (S2): Years 3 and 4 Stage 3 (S3): Years 5 and 6 Most students will achieve the outcomes of each stage in the years listed above. Some students will be working towards outcomes at an earlier or later stage. The values and attitudes outcomes for PDHPE are applicable to all stages of primary schooling. They are progressively reinforced in each stage and therefore they are not presented in stages.Outcomes A code has been applied to each of the outcomes. This does not indicate any intended sequence or hierarchy of the outcomes. Rather, it is a classification system to facilitate ease of reference. The following codes are used: Strands Skills AL Active Lifestyle CO Communicating DA Dance DM Decision Making GY Gymnastics IN Interacting GD Growth and Development MO Moving GS Games and Sports PS Problem Solving IR Interpersonal Relationships PH Personal Health Choices SL Safe Living V Values and Attitudes For example, the following outcome: GSS1.8 Performs fundamental movement skills with equipment in minor games. refers to an outcome from the Games and Sports strand in Stage 1. The last number indicates that this outcome belongs to the eighth set of PDHPE outcomes. Indicators Each outcome in this syllabus is accompanied by a set of indicators. An indicator is a statement of the behaviour that students might display as they work towards the achievement of syllabus outcomes. The indicators included in this syllabus are examples only. They exemplify the range of observable behaviours that contribute to the achievement of outcomes. They assist teachers to monitor student progress within a stage and to make on-balance judgements about the achievement of outcomes at the end of a stage. Teachers may wish to develop their own indicators. Alternatively, they may adapt and/or modify the syllabus indicators as appropriate. 16
  15. 15. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Values and Attitudes OutcomesThroughout the years of primary schooling students will develop an appreciation and commitment tohealthy and socially just ways of living. The following outcomes apply at all stages.A student:V1 refers to a sense of their own worth and dignity;V2 respects the right of others to hold different values and attitudes from their own;V3 enjoys a sense of belonging;V4 increasingly accepts responsibility for personal and community health;V5 willingly participates in regular physical activity; andV6 commits to realising their full potential. Outcomes 17
  16. 16. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Skills Outcomes Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Communicating COES1.1 COS1.1 COS2.1 COS3.3 Expresses feelings, Communicates Uses a variety of Communicates needs and wants in appropriately in a ways to confidently in a appropriate ways. variety of ways. communicate with variety of situations. and within groups. Decision Making DMES1.2 DMS1.2 DMS2.2 DMS3.2 Identifies some Recalls past Makes decisions as Makes informed options available experiences in an individual and as decisions and accepts when making making decisions. a group member. responsibility for simple decisions. consequences. Interacting INES1.3 INS1.3 INS2.3 INS3.3 Relates well to Develops positive Makes positive Acts in ways that others in work and relationships with contributions in enhance the play situations. peers and other group activities. contribution of self people. and others in a range of cooperative situations.Outcomes Moving MOES1.4 MOS1.4 MOS2.4 MOS3.4 Demonstrates a Demonstrates Displays a focus on Refines and applies general awareness maturing quality of movement skills of how basic performance of movement in creatively to a movement skills basic movement applying movement variety of apply in play and and compositional skills to a variety of challenging other introductory skills in a variety of familiar and new situations. movement predictable situations. experiences. situations. Problem Solving PSES1.5 PSS1.5 PSS2.5 PSS3.5 Seeks help as Draws on past Uses a range of Suggests, considers needed when faced experiences to solve problem-solving and selects with simple familiar problems. strategies. appropriate problems. alternatives when resolving problems. 18
  17. 17. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Knowledge and Understanding Outcomes Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3Active Lifestyle ALES1.6 ALS1.6 ALS2.6 ALS3.6 Develops a Participates in physical Discusses the Shows how to repertoire of physical activity, recognising relationship between maintain and activities in which that it can be both regular physical improve the quality they can participate. enjoyable and activity and health. of an active lifestyle. important for health.Dance DAES1.7 DAS1.7 DAS2.7 DAS3.7 Moves in response Performs simple Performs familiar Performs a range of to various stimuli. dance sequences movement patterns dance styles and incorporating basic in a variety of dance sequences movement skills and situations. confidently. patterns.Games and Sports GSES1.8 GSS1.8 GSS2.8 GSS3.8 Demonstrates Performs Participates and Applies movement fundamental fundamental uses equipment in a skills in games and movement skills movement skills variety of games sports that require while playing with with equipment in and modified sports. communication, and sharing minor games. cooperation, decision equipment. making and Outcomes observation of rules.Growth and GDES1.9 GDS1.9 GDS2.9 GDS3.9Development Identifies how people Describes the Describes life changes Explains and grow and change. characteristics that and associated demonstrates make them both feelings. strategies for dealing similar to others and with life changes. unique.Gymnastics GYES1.10 GYS1.10 GYS2.10 GYS3.10 Performs basic Follows a simple Demonstrates Demonstrates movement patterns sequence that links control in performing coordinated to show actions of basic movement sequences of actions of the body the whole body. patterns. introductory when performing gymnastic gymnastic movements. sequences.Interpersonal IRES1.11 IRS1.11 IRS2.11 IRS3.11Relationships Identifies how Identifies the ways Describes how Describes roles individuals care for in which they relationships with a and responsibilities each other. communicate, range of people in developing and cooperate and care enhance wellbeing. maintaining positive for others. relationships.Personal Health PHES1.12 PHS1.12 PHS2.12 PHS3.12Choices Displays basic Recognises that Discusses the factors Explains the positive health positive health influencing personal consequences of practices. choices can health choices. personal lifestyle promote wellbeing. choices.Safe Living SLES1.13 SLS1.13 SLS2.13 SLS3.13 Demonstrates an Recognises that Discusses how safe Describes safe emerging awareness their safety depends practices promote practices that are of the concepts of on the environment personal wellbeing. appropriate to a safe and unsafe and the behaviour range of situations living. of themselves and and environments. others. 19
  18. 18. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Outcomes and Indicators Values and Attitudes Outcomes and Indicators Values and attitudes outcomes in PDHPE are applicable at all stages. They are progressively reinforced in each stage, therefore they have not been presented in stages. Outcomes Indicators A student: V1 • accepts themselves as they grow and change refers to a sense of their • appreciates that their physical, social, emotional and intellectual own worth and dignity development is unique • values themselves as an important member of various groups • expresses a realistic perception of their personal capabilities • appreciates and accepts the importance of developing a personal value system V2 • appreciates the similarities and differences between themselves and others respects the right of others • shows sensitivity to the needs, rights, feelings and efforts of others to hold different values and • shows concern for the welfare of others attitudes from their own • questions forms of discrimination against people on the grounds of their sex, race, marital status, sexuality or disability • values fair playOutcomes V3 • recognises the contribution they and others make to social living enjoys a sense of belonging • appreciates the importance of family life • displays a commitment to developing and maintaining positive relationships • values positive relationships • appreciates the need to belong to various groups • values the need to work cooperatively • appreciates the important contributions they can make to various groups V4 • values their health and safety and that of others increasingly accepts • defends the need for making decisions that enhance health responsibility for personal • appraises the values and attitudes of different groups within society and community health in relation to lifestyle and health • appreciates the need for shared responsibility and decision making • appreciates the need for safe practices in a range of situations and environments • values the need to pursue healthy lifestyles V5 • values the importance of physical activity to personal health willingly participates in • enjoys regular participation in worthwhile physical activity regular physical activity • recognises the challenging and satisfying nature of performance • recognises the value of lifelong commitment to regular physical activity • appreciates the need to participate in physical activity with safety V6 • acknowledges effort in achieving results commits to realising • recognises the aesthetic and technical qualities of movement their full potential • appreciates the features of a skilled performance • strives to achieve quality in personal performance • values the contribution made by support personnel in achieving quality performance 20
  19. 19. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Communicating Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3COES1.1 COS1.1 COS2.1 COS3.1Expresses feelings, Communicates Uses a variety of ways Communicatesneeds and wants in appropriately in a to communicate with confidently in a varietyappropriate ways. variety of ways. and within groups. of situations.• responds to simple • creates a poster about • shares ideas, feelings and • presents an opinion with instructions and rules safety rules using, for opinions with others confidence, eg the case for example, a computer about issues such as smoke-free zones• plays simple response package bullying, passive smoking games • recognises and articulates • actively listens to others • communicates with feelings about transition• makes simple requests talk about their families students in a buddy class to high school• uses correct vocabulary using e-mail to find out • talks about why they need their likes and dislikes • designs and produces a for body movements, eg friends multimedia presentation run, slide, skip, stretch, • uses clip art and word detailing group findings reach • expresses feelings about processing to develop about a health issue, eg safe and unsafe situations merit certificates that effects of alcohol or• prepares simple health messages using, for • shows understanding acknowledge achievement tobacco example, a touch-sensitive about others’ feelings (sporting, academic, social) • devises questions to pad or graphics program analyse media messages, • talks about the importance• identifies people who can of regular physical activity • reports on participation in eg body shape, placement Outcomes help them games and activities to a of tobacco products on • expresses themself large group television and in films through movement • role-plays correct road • uses negotiation skills in • expresses appreciation crossing procedure group activities, eg games when others give help • demonstrates assertive • communicates an idea or • writes and sends simple responses to protect story through movement questions to determine themselves from drug- health advice using e-mail related harm • uses reflective listening in order to clarify a friend’s • discusses how to store • makes a complaint, states point of view about the medicines safely a problem or disagrees in uptake of smoking acceptable ways • justifies why they refuse offers of cigarettes from friends and other peers 21
  20. 20. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Decision Making Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 DMES1.2 DMS1.2 DMS2.2 DMS3.2 Identifies some options Recalls past Makes decisions as Makes informed decisions available when making experiences in an individual and as and accepts responsibility simple decisions. making decisions. a group member. for consequences. • nominates people who can • predicts consequences of • discusses advantages and • discriminates between a help in particular options in order to make a disadvantages of options variety of products that situations, eg in the decision, eg where to with friends when making are healthy and unhealthy, playground swim safely decisions, eg decisions eg food, drinks about smoking • chooses between safe and • chooses to play in a shady • applies decision-making unsafe situations place when available • gathers accurate processes when choosing information about drugs a recreational pursuit • observes rules and • chooses games to play in from reliable sources procedures that keep them free time with friends • evaluates personal safe, eg wear a hat outside • considers individual decisions • discusses feelings others strengths and limitations • classifies foods as healthy may have in response to when allocating group • accepts responsibility for you, not healthy for their own actions roles, eg team positions for their decisions you • sets simple goals, eg • chooses physical activities • predicts the consequences • generates a number of improve skipping skills that are enjoyed by all of their choices, eg use possible solutions to a members of a group of tobacco and alcohol problem • chooses the friends theyOutcomes play with • works towards developing • modifies rules or realistic goals to support procedures to maximise • identifies the healthier of participation of all two alternatives, eg food decisions made, eg participates in regular members of a group choices, appropriate hat for sun protection physical activity • discerns the reliability of • assists the group to what is presented in the • identifies some items not media, eg body image, shared, eg medicines, achieve consensus in group goal setting drug use toothbrush, comb • considers feelings and • chooses an appropriate needs of others in making way to respond to peer decisions influence, eg refusal skills in relation to drug use • clarifies reasons for reaching a particular • strives to achieve a decision relevant personal target, eg improves swimming distance • recognises a medical emergency and knows how to give and gain assistance • finds and analyses information upon which to make an informed decision 22
  21. 21. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Interacting Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3INES1.3 INS1.3 INS2.3 INS3.3Relates well to others Develops positive Makes positive Acts in ways that enhancein work and play relationships with peers contributions in the contribution of selfsituations. and other people. group activities. and others in a range of cooperative situations.• learns to share equipment, • displays cooperation in • participates in the • engages in community material and workspace group activities, development of class rules action, eg fundraising to eg taking turns support others• identifies the people • helps others to achieve and things that are special • uses positive talk to set tasks • identifies factors that to them encourage others influence selection of • works independently friends• observes classroom • listens and responds or in a group to devise and playground rules to others a simple game • uses strategies to resolve conflict, eg negotiation• acknowledges significant • observes rules regarding • develops friendships events, eg birthdays group conduct and support networks • expresses and acts with a range of people appropriately on concern• works happily with • develops friendships for others class peers with peers • displays tolerance in relation to individual • demonstrates actions• uses self-control to deal • interacts with other differences, eg ability that support the rights with anger or excitement students and adults, eg levels, culture and feelings of others, peer support, clubs eg fair play, consideration, Outcomes • discusses personal encouragement, peer • shows concern for the strategies to deal with wellbeing of others, eg tutoring difficult situations sends a get well card, • engages in care for the demonstrates care for • participates in group environment, eg recycling, a child who requires discussions to list the Landcare asthma medication harms relating to tobacco and alcohol use • clarifies opinions and attitudes towards drug use 23
  22. 22. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Moving Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 MOES1.4 MOS1.4 MOS2.4 MOS3.4 Demonstrates a general Demonstrates maturing Displays a focus on Refines and applies awareness of how basic performance of basic move- quality of movement in movement skills movement skills apply in ment and compositional applying movement skills creatively to a play and other introductory skills in a variety of to a variety of familiar variety of challenging movement experiences. predictable situations. and new situations. situations. • maintains stillness of • hops on preferred and • throws overarm • adapts throwing action head and trunk when non-preferred foot proficiently to cater for different types balancing of equipment for distance, • strikes a stationary object, • kicks and strikes accuracy and speed, eg • demonstrates balance eg soccer ball, teeball proficiently for distance netball, frisbee, shotput and high knee lift when sprinting • absorbs force when • performs a simple dance • demonstrates survival jumping and landing from combining locomotor and water skills (25 m swim, • stretches and curls different heights non-locomotor movements deep water entry/exits) the body at levels (high and low) • pushes and glides with • performs a forward roll • transfers sequence of or without aids in water down an incline locomotor and non- • rolls ball to partner locomotor movements • balances on different body • performs bunny hops over • walks, runs, slides at parts, eg balance on one a low bench from the floor to simple different tempos/speeds hand and one knee, apparatus (bench, hoops) individually, with partner, • shows a range of ways toOutcomes • climbs up through, under, enter and move through • varies running patterns or on apparatus to cater for sprinting, over apparatus, eg the water benches • repeats movements to distance running, side form a sequence, eg jump, stepping, dodging and hop, run defensive marking • combines known movements to create a dance with partner or small group 24
  23. 23. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Problem Solving Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3PSES1.5 PSS1.5 PSS2.5 PSS3.5Seeks help as needed Draws on past Uses a range of Suggests, considerswhen faced with experiences to solve problem-solving and selects appropriatesimple problems. familiar problems. strategies. alternatives when resolving problems.• demonstrates procedures • when appropriate, • analyses problem • selects the most for obtaining information, identifies problem situations appropriate solution eg what to do if I miss situations to a given problem the bus • identifies ways to improve • follows basic safety unsafe environments • reflects on outcomes• asks for help when procedures of chosen solution injured or hurt • performs a simple • suggests solutions movement sequence given • formulates and practises• identifies who to ask for to problems particular limitations, eg action plans for assistance when using restricted use of space, emergency situations, new equipment • suggests ways to varied levels and tempo eg lost in bush, a drug- share play equipment related incident• follows advice on how to • initiates problem solving use new equipment • determines a safe way on a group or individual • demonstrates assertive to travel over fixed basis ways to deal with different• recognises when someone equipment types of harassment wants assistance and • uses reach and throw offers this help • determines the techniques to perform • enlists support of local components of a a water rescue community bodies, Outcomes• accepts being told ‘no’ healthy lunch eg write to council for when appropriate • develops a plan to assistance with tree increase shade in the planting playground • devises a plan for the • identifies what needs safest ways to travel to to be done to achieve school, shopping centre, a goal local park • identifies ways that drug • surveys students and use can cause harm, teachers to develop a eg medication, tobacco, healthy canteen menu alcohol and analyses results using a spreadsheet • devises a plan for more active use of the playground • devises strategies to reduce the negative impact of alcohol and tobacco on society 25
  24. 24. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Active Lifestyle Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 ALES1.6 ALS1.6 ALS2.6 ALS3.6 Develops a repertoire of Participates in physical Discusses the relationship Shows how to maintain physical activities in which activity, recognising that between regular and varied and improve the quality they can participate. it can be both enjoyable physical activity and health. of an active lifestyle. and important for health. • takes part in different • engages in a range of • participates in regular • participates in physical types of physical activity, planned activities, eg physical activity and activity programs based eg climbing, jumping, fundamental movement discusses progress on personal goals walking, dancing, skills, favourite simple skipping, running games, movement • keeps a log of activity • compares activities people exploration using a spreadsheet and do to stay fit and why they • makes a personal list of analyses patterns of choose them preferred activities • describes places set aside participation over time. in the community for play • identifies barriers to • explains how physical and considers how they • identifies factors that participation in physical activities affect the body, might use them influence participation activity and suggests ways eg hot, sweaty, puffed in physical activity to modify or overcome • describes how activity, them • describes the things they rest, nutrition and sleep • identifies the activities do to refuel their body, eg are important for lifestyle people participate in • generates personal goals rest, relaxation, nutrition balance to maintain an active based on their lifestyle, eg bushwalking, understanding of what it • compares the physical • describes their feelings sports means to be fit and active activities that they do as aOutcomes and emotions when trying family or group and how something new, eg riding • contributes to physical • devises strategies to these make them feel a bicycle, entering water, activity programs, eg peer achieve personal active balancing leader/tutor, sharing lifestyle goals equipment • identifies physical changes • describes the negative during and after exercise, • describes links between impact of smoking on eg heart racing, breathing nutrition, exercise and participation in physical quickly, feeling hot performance activity • contributes to a class list of activities they like or do not like to play 26
  25. 25. Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE K-6Dance Outcomes and IndicatorsEarly Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3DAES1.7 DAS1.7 DAS2.7 DAS3.7Moves in response Performs simple dance Performs familiar Performs a range ofto various stimuli. sequences incorporating movement patterns in a dance styles and basic movement skills variety of dance situations. sequences confidently. and patterns.• listens to music and • follows and repeats simple • compares and practises • performs steps and moves body parts to beat movement skills and basic movements of dance patterns from known patterns to specific styles dances with increasing• observes and repeats rhythms, eg walk – skill movements that require walk – jump – jump • creates and performs a action of the whole body dance sequence that • modifies dance • imitates dance movements includes movements from performance as a result• plays follow the leader used in different cultures sports, life, culture of practice, peer and self to explore different levels assessment and directions • explores rhythmical • varies a simple sequence patterns using different by applying elements of • remakes known• explores ways the body body parts dance, eg speed, direction dances, eg by varying the can move to portray combinations of various images, eg • performs simple dance • practises and reproduces movement patterns, animals, nature sequences related to a a simple folk or teacher- the elements of dance specific theme, eg devised dance or the music• moves safely when machines, magic sharing confined space • transfers movement • composes own sequences with others • shows movements with patterns from one dance Outcomes for performance using a various parts of the body situation to another, variety of stimuli• replicates simple in response to words, eg adds square dance combinations of skills, eg music movements to a bush • performs own or set Hokey Pokey, Looby Loo dance movement sequences • performs locomotor skills with consistency• moves in response to at different speeds, eg different quality of music, walk fast, slowly, heavily • uses some elements of eg loud, strong, soft dance to create movement sequences • interprets the messages communicated in dance performances 27
  26. 26. Syllabus K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Games and Sports Outcomes and Indicators Early Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 GSES1.8 GSS1.8 GSS2.8 GSS3.8 Demonstrates fundamental Performs fundamental Participates and uses Applies movement skills movement skills while movement skills with equipment in a variety in games and sports that playing with and sharing equipment in minor of games and modified require communication, equipment. games. sports. cooperation, decision making and observation of rules. • moves and stops a ball • participates in a range of • demonstrates fun ways • devises games or refines with hands and feet, eg minor games and of practising skills, eg rules of games that roll, kick and dribble practices that assist skill partner, team require equipment development • shows understanding of • describes how cooperation • participates in games and the language used in • throws a small ball or and encouragement lead sports combining strategy, games by responding to beanbag overarm to a to success in games teamwork, movement skill verbal and nonverbal wall, target or partner, and fair play directions, eg run, hop, using high and low • practises and refines roll, chase, bounce, skip, pathways movement skills in a • analyses a video of a wheel variety of games from a performance and devises • catches a large ball range of cultures practices to improve skill • identifies a variety of travelling along the level games and play equipment ground or through the air • demonstrates efficient with two hands ways of using equipment • describes the roles they • runs, skips and hops with while working play as a team member, equipment, eg rope, large • continuously bounces a cooperatively with others eg captain, defence player,Outcomes balls large ball with one hand goalkeeper, attack player while moving in different • demonstrates a range of • participates in games directions skills in practices and • explains the rationale for where cooperation is modified games, eg particular strategies and important for success • strikes a ball from a tee throwing and catching in rules in individual and with a small bat moving and stationary team games and sports positions, striking or • identifies the most dribbling with hand, foot, • negotiates and uses rules efficient ways of using a stick or bat and scoring systems and variety of games demonstrates basic equipment, eg grip, • explains how their level umpiring skills stance, action of skill can influence their participation in movement • combines a series of skills activities for use in a game, eg run, kick, catch and pass • runs in, skips and runs out of large rope turned by • develops strategies for others effective teamwork • explains the correct use of • identifies people who can specific sports equipment help them improve their game and sport skills 28

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