Material-based Cell Delivery Systems
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  • 1. Material-based Cell Delivery Systems2009António Filipe SousaIstituto Superior Técnico13-07-20095375342737472518522362282881<br />Contents TOC o " 1-3" h z u 1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc234917828 h 31.1 Regenerative Medicine and scaffolds function PAGEREF _Toc234917829 h 31.2. Endothelial Progenitor Cells PAGEREF _Toc234917830 h 41.2.1.Endothelial Progenitor Cells for vasculogenesis PAGEREF _Toc234917831 h 61.3 Biomaterials for neovascularization PAGEREF _Toc234917832 h 72. Material-based deployment enhances efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells PAGEREF _Toc234917833 h 92.1 Characterization of EPC and OEC PAGEREF _Toc234917834 h 92.2 Scaffold PAGEREF _Toc234917835 h 102.3 Cotransplantation of EPC and OEC Enhances Neovascularization in Vivo. PAGEREF _Toc234917836 h 113. Discussion PAGEREF _Toc234917837 h 134. Other applications of tissue engineering and future visions PAGEREF _Toc234917838 h 145. Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc234917839 h 16<br />1 Introduction<br />Probably the first reference to “regeneration” is the story of the Greek Titan, Prometheus. Punished by Zeus, Prometheus was ordered to be chained to a rock, and that an eagle would eat his liver each day. However, Prometheus liver was able to regenerate itself daily, enabling him to survive. The main goal of cells and tissue engineering today and for the future, is I think the development of novel therapies to restore lost, damaged or aging cells and tissues in the human body equalizing the primordial concept of “regeneration”.<br />Tissue engineering is a new filed that is rising in importance in the biomedical engineering. It is an interdisciplinary area between cellular and molecular biology and materials, chemistry and mechanical engineering. The possibility of manipulating and reconstruct a tissue function has tremendous applications in clinical and drug testing studies. Tissue engineering, is likely to play a key role in cell and gene therapies during the next few years in addition to expanding the possibilities of needed transplantations. CITATION 1 l 2070 (Bernhard Palsson, 2003) <br />1.1 Regenerative Medicine and scaffolds function<br />Regenerative MedicineWithout ScaffoldsWith ScaffoldsCell TherapyTissue EngineeringFig. 1 – Classification of regenerative medicine based on the use of scaffold.When a tissue or organ is damaged, not only the cellular functions are affected but also the extracellular matrix (ECM) is affected. A tissue has a given function, and in order to work properly, the interplay between cells and the ECM must be dominant. So, in order to create a neotissue, cells in culture most be provided with an artificial or biological ECM. Cells can only specialize into a limited degree when placed as a suspension on tissue, because they need a template that guides their expansion, specialization and organization. In tissue engineering the substitute of the ECM is called a “scaffold”. The scaffold provides a three dimensional support, in order to cells infiltrate and proliferate into the targeted functional tissue or organ. Cells that are incorporated in the scaffold are then implanted in the body, and hopefully they will grow to specific functions CITATION Yos06 l 2070 (Ikada, 2006). Besides using scaffolds, cell-based therapies are commonly used with only cells infusions that can still support the safety of the cells, but have a high rejection rate by the patient, and will rapidly die once inside the body (Fig.1) CITATION Hof05 l 2070 (Hofmann M, 2005).<br />A biomaterial can be designed to mediate the differentiation and proliferative capacity of the cells in the implant. Some proteins can be adsorbed to the material surface. Using embryonic stem (ES) cells, it is possible to control the differentiation of these cells since intracellularly there are receptor-ligand proteins that will interact with the proteins adsorbed. This will lead to cytoskeletal modulation and finally to gene modulation, proliferation and synthesis CITATION Wen07 l 2070 (Wen Jie Zhang, 2007). <br />Fig.2 - Cells can be isolated from the patient’s body, and expanded in a petridish in laboratory. Once we have enough number of cells, they can be seeded on a polymeric scaffold material, and cultured in vitro in a bioreactor or incubator. When the construct is matured enough, then it can be implanted in the area of defect in patient’s body.-1333527940For this particular work, it is important to study how material-based deployment can possible enhance efficacy endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) for revascularizing of a vascular network. So first, we are going to study what are endothelial progenitor cells, then what kind of absorbable biomaterials that exist and can be used, and finally we will analyze a set of experimental results, so we can understand the application of tissue engineering (Fig.2) in revascularization.<br />1.2. Endothelial Progenitor Cells<br />Stem cells are found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms. The capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types, defines the potency of the stem cells. So this requires stem cells to be either totipotent, pluripotent, that can differentiate into cells from all the embryonic germ layers and multipotent that can differentiate into only a limited range of cell types CITATION Han07 l 2070 (Scholer, 2007) .Other cells, named as progenitor cells, can divide a limited number of times before facing a change in their potency or undergoing differentiation CITATION Ahm09 l 2070 (Ahmed, 2009). Stem cells can be grown and transformed into specialized cells with different characteristics according to their lineage. There are different sources for plastic adult stem cells, such as umbilical cord blood and bone marrow that can be used in medical therapies<br />1720853763645EPC are blood circulating cells derived from bone marrow that have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, these are responsible for the formation of blood vessels.  Endothelial progenitor cells found in adults are thus related to angioblasts, which are the stem cells that form blood vessels during embryogenesis. This process of forming blood vessels is known for vasculogenesis. CITATION Asa97 l 2070 (Asahara T e. a., 1997). Endothelial progenitor cells are thought to participate in pathologic angiogenesis such as that found in retinopathy and tumor growth. Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis are very similar but are different in one aspect: The term angiogenesis refers to the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, so if a monolayer of endothelial cells begin to proliferate to form capillaries, angiogenesis is occurring. As endothelial progenitor cells are originally derived from the bone marrow, it is thought that various cytokines, growth factors, and hormones cause them to be mobilized from the bone marrow and into the peripheral circulation where they ultimately are recruited to regions of angiogenesis (Fig. 3) CITATION Asa99 l 2070 (Asahara T e. a., 1999).<br />Fig. 3 - Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) circulate in adult human peripheral blood and are mobilized from bone marrow by cytokines, growth factors, and ischemic conditions. Vascular injury is repaired by both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis mechanisms. Circulating EPCs contribute to repair of injured blood vessels mainly via a vasculogenesis mechanism. [Adapted from Murasawa, 2004]<br />1.2.1.Endothelial Progenitor Cells for vasculogenesis<br />Cardiovascular pathologies, such as myocardial infarction and ischemic diseases, are the number one cause of death globally. CITATION Kre09 l 2070 (Krenning, 2009.). After an ischemic damage, it is mounted a local inflammatory response that is important for the clearance of cell debris and to preserve the tissue integrity. CITATION van07 l 2070 (van Amerongen, 2007) So the preservation of local vasculature, or even induction of vascularization might decrease the lesion size, prevent cell apoptosis, and might inhibit organ failure. Though, EPC are being used in clinical trials today, for the induction of neovascularization. <br />Table 1. Clinical trials and animal models for cardiovascular diseases. 1206536830<br />15240136525<br />Fig.4 - Mechanisms of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. (a) Sprouting angiogenesis originates from the pre-existing vasculature (i) and encompasses the secretion of matrix metalloproteases that breakdown the vascular basement membrane (ii) and allow migration of endothelial cells (ECs, yellow) (iii). Proliferation and subsequent migration of newly-formed ECs results in the formation of a solid endothelial cord (iv). Lumen formation and stabilization are the final processes of sprouting angiogenesis (v). (b) Vasculogenesis begins with the formation of a primary vascular plexus by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (i,ii). Matrix deposition (iii) and lumen formation (iv) by EPCs result in the formation of immature capillaries.Adult neovascularization, is normally regarded to be a consequence of angiogenesis, rather than vasculogenesis. Along with angiogenesis, it occurs an increase in vasopermeability, leading to the extravasation of plasma proteins that function as a temporary scaffold for migrating endothelial cells (EC). The endothelium segregates some matrix metalloproteases, that break the vascular basement membrane allowing EC to migrate (Fig. 4.a) CITATION Ris97 l 2070 (Risau, 1997). In the other hand, Physiological EPC-induced neovascularization is initiated by hypoxia (Fig. 4.b). Resuming, EPC-driven neovascularization starts with the mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow, to the circulating blood in response to a stress pr damage-related signals (e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], stromal cell-derived factor 1 [SDF-1] and monocyte chemotatic protein [MCP-1]. Then migration of EPC occurs through the bloodstream and finally extravasation of EPC through the endothelium. New vessels are then formed, once the cells migrate to the site of neovascularization CITATION Juj08 l 2070 (Jujo, 2008).<br />1.3 Biomaterials for neovascularization<br />As described above, bioartificial implants containing cells have a large number of clinical applications in treatment of diseases CITATION Ung05 l 2070 (Unger RE, 2005). During the past five years the potential of EPC for the treatment of ischemic diseases has been studied, in which a patient’s own cells have been isolated, and reinfused. Typically, more than 90% of the transplanted cells in this manner will rapidly die, and there is no control of the cells once they are inside the body CITATION Hof051 l 2070 (Hofmann M, 2005.). Besides these studies supporting the safety of these cells, they indicate that simple infusions may have som limitations in the treatment success. An alternative is the use of sophisticated material carriers that promote tissue formation by cells by using the material as template. The success of biomaterials, requires a balance between providing proper immune protection, and minimizing mass transport resistances for oxygen and nutrients. Growth supplements such as endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) have been used to stimulate endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival CITATION Lee03 l 2070 (Lee KY, 2003). In order to obtain a successful vascularization it is required the appropriate delivery of substances. Alginate gels have proven to be appropriate materials in controlling the VEGF release, and also are biocompatible once inside the body CITATION Pet98 l 2070 (Peters MC, 1998). <br />Alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, being formed by α-L-guluronic and β-D-mannuronic acid residues. <br />For the current work it was used to fabricate the scaffolds as it had been used as a delivery vehicle in the past. Besides this, and in order to have control over cell adhesion, proliferation and cell fate after transplantation, it was covalently coupled peptides containing arginine-glycineaspartic acid (RGD) amino sequence to the alginate. The polymer used is normally non-adhesive, RGD is an ubiquitous cell-binding domain found in many extracellular matrix molecules, conferring a specific mechanism for integrin-mediated cell adhesion CITATION Shi03 l 2070 (Shin H, 2003). It was also used several forms of VEGF as a component of the material system since it is important in the vascular growth and formation. VEGF121 and VEGF165 were the two isoforms most obtainedand the differ in the presence of an heparan sulfate binding site, with the result that VEGF121 is a very high defusable protein in contrast to VEGF165, which bonds moderately to extracellular matrix (Carmeliet, 2000)<br />-1047752162810Fig.5 - Origin and fate of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Schematic overview of the proposed lineage, cell surface markers and differentiation of EPCs. CD14+ EPCs originate from the myeloid cell lineage and coexpress marker proteins from the myeloid cell and endothelial cell (EC) lineages. CD34+ progenitor cells originate directly from hematopoietic stem cells and exclusively express markers from the EC lineage.Nowadays it have been studied a variety of cells such as, cardiac stem cells, natural killer cells, bone marrow cells, dendritic cells, and EPC, in clinical revascularization trials. EPC are isolated and purified according to the expression of CD34 and VEGF-2, extracellular markers, that are found in hematopoietic cells population contributing for revascularization of damaged tissue CITATION Ing04 l 2070 (Ingram DA, 2004). Another kind of cells can be isolated from mononuclear cells, this cells are named outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) and can also have applications in this area. The interesting of these cells is also that they maintain a high proliferative potential and also present some endothelial cell markers, including CD31 and VEGFR-2 (Fig.5) CITATION Ing04 l 2070 (Ingram DA, 2004). For this work, it was studied the capacity of the releasing biomaterial system for supporting these two types of cells (EPC and OEC), in order to reverse severe hindlimb ischemia. <br />2. Material-based deployment enhances efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells<br />2.1 Characterization of EPC and OEC<br />For this work it was studied both EPC and OEC for their potential utility in relieving ischemia, contributing to angiogenesis. These two types of cells differ in their morphology, EPC are round shaped cells that form cord-like structures, OEC have cobblestone-like morphology, similarly to human microvascular endothelial cells and expressing high telomerase activity (Fig.6 ).<br />-50800281305<br />-25400508000<br />Fig.6. On the left, Telomerase activity of cultured EPCs, OECs, and ECs (passage 6). Values represent mean and standard deviation. On the right, Photomicrographs of cultured EPCs and OECs isolated from human umbilical cord blood.<br />FACS analysis, confirmed that EPC were monocyte/macrophage lineage cells and OEC were vascular endothelial lineage cells. OEC expressed endothelial cell surface antigens including CD31, CD144 but were negative for CD34. EPC also expressed CD31, CD144, VEGFR-2. CD14, which is a monocyte (macrophage cell surface antigen, was only expressed in EPC. The role of both kinds of cells was studied by the in vitro cell sprouting assay. Cells were carried in a bead, and then it was studied the formation of capillary-like extensions. As shown in the (Fig.7), coculture of EPC, OEC and EC resulted in high sprouting of cells, and contrasted with the absence of sprouts when EPC were cultured alone. It was also studied the protein expression values, and both in OEC and EPC it was observed high levels of angiogenic factors, FGF-, IL-12 and IP-10.<br />-19685-325755<br />Fig.7 - The cell types were cultured alone or in various combinations to examine their ability to participate or effect sprout formation (model of early angiogenesis) in vitro. ECs alone form sprouts (arrows) when immobilized on microcarrier beads that are placed into fibrin gels (Upper Left). Culture of EPCs alone led to no sprouting (Upper Center), and OECs alone exhibited significant migration off beads (arrows) (Upper Right). Combining ECs and OECs significantly increased sprout formation, and increased lumen formation (areas delineated by yellow dashed lines) in the sprouts (Lower Left). Coculture of EPCs, OECs, and ECs led to significant sprouting, and sprouts exhibited lumens (Lower Right). Culture of EPCs and OECs on top of gels containing carrier beads with adherent ECs led to significant migration of the ECs toward the EPCs and OECs (Lower Center). Inset demonstrates cells on the top of the gel, with the bead on a different focal plane (indicating that cells in the main image were not OECs or EPCs on top of gels).<br />2.2 Scaffold<br />40563802562860Next it was studied the capacity of the scaffolds to maintain cell viability, proliferation and outward migration. This study was performed firstly in vitro (Fig.8). To do so, the scaffolds containing the cells were embembed in collagen gel, and it was quantified the migration of cells through that gel. After 72h of cell feeding, very few OEC migrated out of the alginate scaffolds that did not contained RGD coupled. Coupling the scaffold with RGD but not VEGF, led to an increase of the mobilization of cells. And inclusion of specifically, VEGF121 led to even higher cell migration out of scaffold. 60% of the cells that migrated out from scaffolds presenting VEGF121 were viable (Fig.8).<br />-22860145415<br />Fig.8 – On the left, Phase-contrast micrographs of OECs that have migrated out from scaffolds that contain no VEGF (blank), VEGF121, or VEGF165 and populated the surrounding tissue mimic (collagen gel) after 72 h. On the right, Cell migration assays. Diagram of the approach used to investigate the cell migration out of scaffolds.<br />2.3 Cotransplantation of EPC and OEC Enhances Neovascularization in Vivo.<br />Cotransplantation of EPC and OEC was done next to investigate to known whether these two types of cell populations could together in vivo reproduce neovascularization. It was used a bolus infusion of EPC and OEC as a control test. In this case limbs with no necrosis (Fig.9). Animals treated with a bolus injection of both cell types demonstrated a marginal recovery of regional blood flow (Fig.10). The use of both EPC and OEC together with scaffolds containing VEGF121 induced a 2-fold increase in vessel density, comparing to the control test. Animals treated with scaffolds delivering cells and VEGF121 showed a marked increase in blood flow over time (Fig.10). The necrosis of toes and foot was decreased when using a cotransplantation of OEC and EPC, and 30% of the mice used in this test revealed normal limbs after 6 weeks (Fig.9). Finally, a histologic analysis revealed that animals transplanted with scaffolds with only EPC showed significant levels of adipose tissue, while animals that took the transplantation of EPC and OEC revelealed normal tissue organization. whereas animals treated with codelivery of EPCs and OECs by using implantable scaffolds revealed normal tissue organization.<br />91440205740<br />Fig.9 - Limbs with no treatment (blank scaffold), demonstrated precocious and rapid limb necrosis (_3 days) (left-most column), and no perfusion images were obtained. For other conditions, hindlimbs were maintained over time, and perfusion images could be obtained. In all of these conditions, scaffolds presenting RGD ligands and VEGF121 were used. The normal baseline (before) perfusion was immediately reduced after unilateral femoral artery ligation (after), and subsequent recovery was tracked as a function of time postsurgery.<br />139065-185420<br />Fig.10 - Quantification of hindlimb perfusion for the conditions, including bolus injection of EPC and OEC (inverted filled triangle), EPC transplantation with scaffolds (open square), OEC transplantation with scaffolds (open triangle), and EPC and OEC combined transplantation on scaffolds (filled circle) in SCID mice.<br />3. Discussion<br />After this work it is notable the application of EPC in the treatment of ischemia and more broadly in regenerative medicine. These EPC are delivered by using an appropriate material that provides cell support and stabilization. Observing the results obtained, it is possible to say that this approach has many advantages in the treatment of ischemic murine hindlimb musculature.<br />The polysaccharide used, alginate by itself does not mediate cell adhesion, so it was covalently binded with other proteins (RGD and VEGF), by doing so it was obtained a material that supported cells and at the same time allowed them to migrate outwards the desired area of the problem. So, the major demonstration of this work is that, coupling of an appropriate density of adhesion ligands to the polymer chains dramatically increased OEC outward migration.<br />Cotransplantation of both EPC and OEC showed an increased neovascularization of ischemic muscle tissue. The system used to deliver these cells makes possible therapeutic angiogenesis, reversal of ischemia, and prevention of necrosis and autoamputation. The results found here show that the success of these therapies can be increased by controlling the delivery of cells in a manner that facilitates the integration of EPC and OEC with the native cells populations.<br />This approach can be use to treat cardiac infarction, and other situations in which neovascularization is lacking More broadly, this may provide a core technology for the entire field of regenerative medicine, because of the need to create new vascular beds in most situations of regeneration and tissue engineering CITATION Joh07 l 2070 (Johnson PC, 2007).<br />A more specific analysis, allows us to observe that OEC interact directly with EC, supporting new blood vessels formation. Also, OEC and EPC secrete many angiogenic factors, and likely this will increase EC migration when OEC and EPC are cocultured. This finding, together with the finding that transplantation of OEC alon increased the density of cessels in ischemic tissue, suggests that OEC are also important for promoting host angiogenesis.<br />There are currently, many groups doing research in this area of cell delivery systems. This approach may be broadly used to solve some of the problems associated with current vascular cell-based therapies. Certainly, progenitor cells have lots of potential and their fate inside the body and success treatment of ischemic tissue can be controlled by the use of specifically designed delivery biomaterials. <br />4. Other applications of tissue engineering and future visions<br />Some molecules and drugs, have been introduced in the human body through conventional delivery systems consisting in oral, intravenous and other ways. However, conventional molecule delivery systems rely on the body to transport drugs, so it is a passive system. Lately, nanotechnologies have been used for the creation of smart nanomaterials, that can automatically deliver molecules to the desired area, as for example, the central nervous system. Some of the example materials are:<br />2275840688975● Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), that consist of inorganic spheres with 10nm diameter coated either with organic or inorganic coatings, this to improve biocompatibility and add functional groups. This can be a novel approach for the local treatment of arthritis. As so it is possible to use poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA microparticles co-encapsulating the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone acetate and SPION as intra-articular drug delivery systems. Using this technology, the drug is gradually released, avoiding the formation of crystals in the joint. Moreover, due to the magnetic nature of SPIONs, the microparticles could be retained in the joint with an external magnet, thus reducing their clearance from the joint (Fig. 11). <br />● ES cells are being used for the tissue engineering of blood vessels since cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in western countries and often requires vascular reconstruction. To date, tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) could be successfully constructed in vitro, and are being used to repair vascular defects in animal models. Must because of the complete study not only of how cells differentiate and proliferate but also, how these cells will interact with the biomaterial that supports cell growth, migration, differentiation and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins.<br />Fig.12 - Main components of a bone repair system.2234565595630● In the last years, it has been directed many attention for the development of bone substitutes based on osteoinductive growth factors incorporated in an optimal delivery system. Ideally, this system should be biocompatible, biodegradable, and should preserve the growth factors active and prevent the excessive diffusion of the same growth factors from the site of application.<br />5. Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmed, S. (2009). The Culture of Neural Stem Cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry , 106.1-6.Asahara T, e. a. (1999). Bone marrow origin of endothelial progenitor cells responsible for postnatal vasculogenesis in physiological and pathological neovascularization. Circulation Research , 85 (6): 221–8.Asahara T, e. a. (1997). Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis. Science , 275:964-7.Bernhard Palsson, J. A. (2003). Tissue engineering. CRC Press.Carmeliet, P. (2000). Mechanisms of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Nat Med , 6:389–395.Hofmann M, e. a. (2005.). Monitoring of bone marrow cell homing into the infarcted. Circulation. , 111:2198–2202.Hofmann M, e. a. (2005). Monotoring of bone marrow cell homing into the infarcted human myocardium. Circulation , 111:2198-2202.Ikada, Y. (2006). Tissue Engineering: Fundamentals and Applications. Ingram DA, e. a. (2004). Identification of a novel hierarchy of endothelial progenitor cells using human peripheral and umbilical cord blood. Blood , 104:2752–2760.Johnson PC, M. A. (2007). Strategic directions in tissue engineering. Tissue Eng , 13:2827–2837.Jujo, K. e. (2008). Endothelial progenitor cells in neovascularization of infarcted myocardium. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol , 45, 530–544.Krenning, G. (2009.). Endothelial progenitor cell-based neovascularization: implications for therapy. Cell Press. , Volume 15, Issue 4, 180-189.Lee KY, P. M. (2003). Comparison of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on angiogenesis in SCID mice. J Control Rel , 87(1–3):49–56.Peters MC, I. B. (1998). Release from alginate enhances the biological activity of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biomater Sci Polymer , 9:1267–78.Risau, W. (1997). Mechanisms of angiogenesis. Nature , 386, 671–674.Scholer, H. R. (2007). the Potencial of Stem Cells: An Inventory. Humanbiotechbology as Social Challenge , pp. 28. ISBN 0754657558.Shin H, J. S. (2003). Biomimetic materials for tissue engineering. Biomaterials , 24:4353–4364.Unger RE, H. Q. (2005). Growth of human cells on polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber membranes. Biomaterials , 26(14):1877–84.van Amerongen, M. e. (2007). Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts contribute functionally to scar formation after myocardial infarction. J. Pathol. , 214, 377–386.Wen Jie Zhang, W. L. (2007). Tissue engineering of blood vessel. J. Cell. Mol. Med. , Vol 11, pp. 945-957.<br />