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A multi-disciplinary model for non-profit orgs

A multi-disciplinary model for non-profit orgs

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  • Recent notions of 'new pedagogy' and 'the knowledge society' reflect a contextual and conceptual shift that places fresh demands and new dilemmas upon university teaching, curriculum development and program design. In particular, the question of how we conceptualize knowledge within the growing number of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary fields continues to challenge our epistemological and pedagogical understandings.The Enso (Japanese for 'circle') is a Zen symbol of the absolute, the true nature of existence and enlightenment. It is a symbol that combines the visible and the hidden, the simple and the profound, the empty and the full. As an expression of infinity, it has links to the western lemniscate, and may be painted so that there is a slight opening somewhere in the circle, showing that the Enso is not contained in itself, but that it opens out to infinity. The enso, a simple circle drawn with a single, broad brushstroke, is the zen symbol of infinity. It represents the infinite void, the 'no-thing,' the perfect meditative state, and Satori (enlightenment.)
  • GMAD started as a rotating weekly forum at the houses of friends and colleagues then evolved into the organization as it is known today. By virtue of the mission, GMAD is working to improve quality of life within the New York City black gay community by effectively fight the triple threat of AIDS, homophobia and racism through education, advocacy, health and wellness and social support. It was incorporated as a 501 (c ) (3) in 1990 and moved into a larger office space in Harlem in 2001 after spending several years in Chelsea and the West Village.
  • Recognizing that still there are variances within the subculture of the gay community of color, GMAD continues to provide targeted services in the form of drop-in groups, age and need appropriate activities and counseling. The organization offers a drop-in center for seniors, YMSM's, health and wellness counseling, prevention education, street outreach and HIV testing. GMAD is also actively planning more aggressive prevention initiatives with the use of a mobile testing unit. Additionally, GMAD is actively planning more inclusive programming that will embrace both transgender individuals and lesbians. True to its mission, GMAD remains the voice of the LGBT community, championing its rights and challenging wrongs.
  • The Ecological Model and Risk/Protective Factors (adapted from World Report on Violence and Health (Jewkes, Sen, Garcia-Moreno, 2002)
  • The ecological model of public health is “a model of health that emphasizes the linkages and relationships among multiple factors (or determinants) affecting health.
  • National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a searchable online registry of mental health and substance abuse interventions that have been reviewed and rated by independent reviewers
  •  The efficient for-profit business model is seen as a well-oiled machine that turns out thousands of widgets per day, takes them to market, and makes a profit.  In the nonprofit sector, the bottom line can be a wide variety of outcomes that are not necessarily related to business-like values or measurements of profit.  Applying business values and methodology to the nonprofit sector might have some benefit to some nonprofits, but it probably does not to most.


  • 1. The A.S.S.U.M.E.Model { An integrated trans-disciplinary model for the delivery of human social services. New pedagogies in the knowledge society.
  • 2. Vaughn E. Taylor- Akutagawa Deputy Executive Director Gay Men of African Descent, Inc.Presenter
  • 3. In 1986, Gay Men of AfricanDescent (GMAD) wasconceptualized in New YorkCity by The Reverend CharlesAngel, who embarked on amission to empower the blackgay man.
  • 4. As the nation’s oldest organization dedicated to serving the needsof Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex withmen, GMAD is committed to fighting HIV/AIDS in communitiesof color in New York City.
  • 5. • GMAD’s mission is to empower gay men of African-descent through education, advocacy, health and wellness promotion and social support.Our Mission
  • 6.  This done by being a F.R.I.E.N.D., which stands for:  Flexibility in daily interactions;  Respect for every individual;  Integrity through communication;  Empathy and compassion;  Networking and cooperation;  Dependability in professional performance. This is the cornerstone of GMAD’s relationship with the city, its communities, neighborhoods and constituents. Operations
  • 7.  Recent notions of new pedagogy and the knowledge society reflect a contextual and conceptual shift that places fresh demands and new dilemmas upon teaching, curriculum development and program design. In particular, the question of how we conceptualize knowledge within the growing number of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary fields continues to challenge our epistemological and pedagogical understandings. Stakeholders, participants and colleagues expect members of staff to demonstrate transdisciplinary understandings, diversity of experience and problem-solving dispositions. Members of staff can expect to find themselves in areas that require immediate application of a range of profession-oriented attributes, and an independent approach to complex professional demands. Praxis
  • 8. Ecological ModelIndividual Relationship Community SocietalInfluences: attitudes and Influences: Influences: general Influences:belief s that support association with tolerance of v iolence; lack inequalities based onv iolence; impulsiv e and aggressiv e peers; f amily of institutional support f rom gender, race, andanti-social behav ior; env ironment that is police or judicial sy stem; sexual orientation,childhood history of abuse emotionally pov erty ; lack of religious or culturalor witnessing v iolence; unsupportiv e, phy sically employ ment opportunities; belief s, economicalcohol and drug use v iolent or strongly weak community sanctions and social policies patriarchal against perpetrators
  • 9. Socio-ecological model The socio-ecological model recognizes the interwoven relationship that exists between the individual and their environment. While individuals are responsible for instituting and maintaining the lifestyle changes necessary to reduce risk and improve health, individual behavior is determined to a large extent by social environment, e.g. community norms and values, regulations, and policies. Barriers to healthy behaviors are shared among the community as a whole. As these barriers are lowered or removed, behavior change becomes more achievable and sustainable. It becomes easier to "push the ball up the hill." The most effective approach leading to healthy behaviors is a combination of the efforts at all levels--individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy. Taken from Jane Moore, Ph.D., RD Manager of Oregon Department of Human Services-Health Services, Used with permission.
  • 10. • (n.) a cluster of epidemics that act additively to predict other epidemics• (adj.) of or pertaining to such a cluster*• *from Singer, 1994
  • 11. Syndemics – synergy of plaguesMISAVAH  Mental Illness  Substance Abuse  Violence  AIDS  HomelessnessMISAVAH Syndemic
  • 12. GMAD’s programs targeting Black GayMen/MSM or Gay Men of Color• ILI ▫ Recruitment/program • CLI promotion ▫ Community Mobilization ▫ HIV/STI CTR, PCRS ▫ Youth Development ▫ Ind. Psychotherapy • SLI ▫ CLEAR-CRCS ▫ Advocacy ▫ EIS/case-finding ▫ Rallies ▫ Linkage to Care • Staff Development ▫ Self-management ▫ Syndemics• IDG ▫ Syndromic Case Mgmt. ▫ Group Psychotherapy ▫ Strength-based Case Mgmt. ▫ Manual guided interventions ▫ Ecological Models ▫ Treatment Education ▫ MISAVAH Syndemic• Supplemental Food Pantry orientation• Drop-In Ctr. ▫ ACT Model
  • 13. The HIV Prevention Effective Behavioral orHome Grown Intervention(s) ImplementedBy the OrganizationEffective Behavioral Home Grown Interventions Interventions  Healthy Minds Healthy Relationships  Brothas Gonna Work It Out D’Up  Strengths-based case Mpowerment management RESPECT  Building Healthy Safety Counts Relationships 3MV CTR/RT Seeking Safety (NREPP) HHRP (Holistic Health Recovery Project) Matrix Model
  • 14.  Nonprofits must meet different standards and outcomes than business — but that does not mean they are less efficient or effective. Nonprofits are different from business. Their bottom- line, decision-making, operations and structure often do not lend themselves to business standards. But nonprofits are very effective for the kinds of outcomes they must achieve. Nonprofits often include multiple players in decision- making. In addition to a primary drive to fulfill a mission, nonprofits usually involve multiple players in various decision-making processes — board members, clients, staff, volunteers, government agencies, other non- profits and local businessesNFP business management
  • 15.  Nonprofits must meet complex reporting standards set by funding sources and government. Nonprofits receiving government grants are constantly monitored and audited and lose contracts if they do not achieve the outcomes identified by the government funding agency. Foundations, too, require regular program and financial reporting, and funding can be withdrawn if nonprofits do not meet the criteria of funders. These financial and accountability measures dictated by government and by funders help to ensure that nonprofit organizations are not wasteful.NFP Bus. Mgmt.
  • 16. 1. In the most basic sense, a business model is the method of doing business by which a company can sustain itself -- that is, generate revenue or in the NFP case deliver services.2. The business model spells-out how a company delivers a service(s) by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain. What is a business model?
  • 17. Revenue Mix Cost Effective Programs Mission Business Model Infrastructure & Expenses Capital StructureStandard Business Model
  • 18. 1. The viability of the community model is based on user loyalty.2. Users have a high investment in both time and emotion.3. The Internet is inherently suited to community business models and today this is one of the more fertile areas of development, as seen in rise of social networking. Community Model
  • 19. 1. Public Broadcasting -- user-supported model used by not-for-profit radio and television broadcasting extended to the web. A community of users support the site through voluntary donations. [The Classical Station (]2. Social Networking Services -- sites that provide individuals with the ability to connect to other individuals along a defined common interest (professional, hobby, romance). Social networking services can provide opportunities for contextual advertising and subscriptions for premium services. [Flickr,Friendster, Orkut]
  • 20. 3. Open Source -- software developed collaboratively by aglobal community of programmers who share code openly.Instead of licensing code for a fee, open source relies onrevenue generated from related services like systemsintegration, product support, tutorials and userdocumentation. [Red Hat]4. Open Content -- openly accessible content developedcollaboratively by a global community of contributors whowork voluntarily. [Wikipedia]Community models
  • 21.  A praxis that connects multiple disciplines.ASSUME
  • 22.  A = assess S = set S = setting U = understand M = meaning/motivation E = empower/educateThe definition of ASSUME
  • 23.  Although little distinction is sometimes made between multi- , inter- and trans-disciplinary inquiry many would argue that there is a significant difference - particularly for older members of staff. Transdisciplinary approaches involve multiple disciplines and the space between the disciplines with the possibility of new perspectives beyond those disciplines. Where multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary inquiry may focus on the contribution of disciplines to an inquiry transdisciplinary inquiry tends to focus on the inquiry or issue itself. (The Transdisciplinary Evolution of Learning - PDF)) A transdisciplinary model
  • 24.  Disciplinary: Epistemologies, assumptions, knowledge, skills, met hods within the boundary of a discipline. eg. Physics; History; Psychology Multidisciplinary: Using the knowledge/understanding of more than one discipline. eg Physics and History; Biology and Architecture Interdisciplinary: Using the epistemologies/methods of one discipline within another. eg. Biochemistry; Ecophilosophy; Astrophysics Transdisciplinary: Focus on an issue such as pollution or hunger both within and beyond discipline boundaries with the possibility of new perspectives. Transdisciplinary (2)
  • 25.  Transdisciplinarity complements disciplinary approaches. The transdisciplinary vision goes beyond the exact sciences and demands dialogue with the humanities and the social sciences, as well as with art, literature, poetry and spiritual experience. The recognition of the existence of different levels of reality governed by different types of logic is inherent in the transdisciplinary attitude. The transdisciplinary attitude involves an acceptance of the unknown, the unexpected and the unforeseeable.  (10/5/11) Trans D integration
  • 26.  Science – Ecological model commonly known as a Syndemic orientation We implement the MISAVAH Syndemic.  MISAVAH = Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, Violence and AIDS. The ASSUME model provides as good a service as possible within available resources.Community Services
  • 27. Policy and Procedures
  • 28.  Because victims have diverse and multiple needs, its unlikely that any single agency can provide everything thats needed. Some clients need services from several agencies. If services are not well coordinated, clients may have difficulty negotiating the complex service network, "fall between the cracks," fail to receive the help they need, and/or be subjected to unnecessary delays, frustration, trauma, and intrusion into their lives. On the other hand, when services are well coordinated, it reduces the need for multiple interviews, which, in turn, cuts down on trauma and inconvenience for clients and reduces wasteful overlap and duplication.P and P
  • 29. The following tools and techniques can help agencies work together: Protocols define the roles and relationships among agencies. They typically include guidelines for referring cases to one another, clarify each team members responsibilities for assessing and investigating reports; define the circumstances in which joint investigations should be initiated; establish timelines; and provide for the sharing of information and client confidentiality. Internal and External referral processes that clearly define role(s) and responsibilities. Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) are informal contracts that commit agencies to following established protocols or agreements. They ensure that the agreed upon protocols are fully understood, endorsed by the agencies leadership, and that they will be passed on to new staff. Collaborative investigations. When it is likely that a client may need to be assessed or receive services from more than one agency or program, joint investigations may reduce delays and reduce the need for multiple interviews. P and P (2)
  • 30.  Multidisciplinary teams are groups of professionals from diverse disciplines who come together to provide comprehensive assessment and consultation in cases. While their primary purpose is typically to help team members resolve difficult cases, teams may fulfill a variety of additional functions. They can promote coordination between agencies; provide a "checks and balances" mechanism to ensure that the interests and rights of all concerned parties are addressed; and identify service gaps and breakdowns in coordination or communication between agencies or individuals. They also enhance the professional skills and knowledge of individual team members by providing a forum for learning more about the strategies, resources, and approaches used by various disciplines.Practical application
  • 31. Multidisciplinary… Interdisciplinary… Transdisciplinary…Adapted from Patricia L. Rosenfield: Potential of Transdisciplinary Research, Social Science Medicine. 35:11,1992Cross-Disciplinary Team Approaches
  • 32. InterdisciplinaryMultidisciplinary • Team works jointly but still• Team members work parallel from discipline-specific to each other to address perspectives common problems • New insights to address• Results usually brought problems result from shared together at the end staff conferencing• Doesn’t ensure disciplines • Improvement over the actually work together multidisciplinary approachMultidisciplinary versusInterdisciplinary Approaches
  • 33. • Teams work jointly to address common problems by using a shared conceptual framework drawing from discipline- specific theories, concepts and approaches• Transcends separate disciplinary approaches• “Outside the box” thinking• Whole person orientation• (W) holistic assessments and responses – particularly inclusive/cognizant of cultural and race implications.• Teaming allows specialists, practitioners, and families to work together to teach skills in natural contexts where there is more opportunity for frequent practice Transdisciplinary Approach
  • 34. Questions?
  • 35.  Vaughn E. Taylor-Akutagawa 718-222-6300 x 112 vtaylor@gmad.orgContact me