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Tropical architecture 2
 

Tropical architecture 2

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presentation not mine. credits to the owner

presentation not mine. credits to the owner

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    Tropical architecture 2 Tropical architecture 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Arch. Alpher E. De Vera, Ma.Ed.,uap.
    • CLIMATE DESIGN  If A CENTRAL PURPOSE of planning is to create for any person or group of persons an environment suited to their needs, then climate must be a first consideration.  Once a site has been chosen, two new considerations suggest themselves.  How do we best respond to the climatic givens in terms of site and structural design, and by what means can we modify the effects of climate to improve the situation?
    • Physical Characteristics  Perhaps the most obvious facts of climate are the annual, seasonal, and daily ranges of temperature. These will vary with changing conditions of latitude, longitude, altitude, exposure, vegetat ion, and proximity to such weather modifiers as the Gulf Stream, water bodies, ice masses, or desert.
    • Physical Characteristics  The amount of precipitation in the form of dew, rainfall, frost, or snow is to be recorded, as well as seasonal variations in humidity.  The duration of sunlight in hours per day is of planning and design significance, as are the angles of incidence at prescribed times of day and year and the intensity of solar radiation.
    • Physical Characteristics  The direction and velocity of the winds and the date and path of violent storms are to be charted. The availability quantity and quality of potable water are to be noted, together with the depths at which it occurs.
    • Physical Characteristics  The geologic structure is to be described, together with soil types and depths and the existing vegetation and wildlife.
    • Physical Characteristics  Finally, the working together of all the physical elements as an ecological system is described to complete the story of regional climate.
    • Social Characteristics  The physical well—being and attitudes of people are directly affected by climate, and these in turn prescribe the planning needs.
    • Social Characteristics  It is well, therefore, in the study of climatic regions to note behavioral reactions and patterns of community organization that are unique and attributable to the climate or the weather.  The special foods and dishes, the manner of dress, and the traditional customs are indicative. And so it is with the favored types of recreation, the level of education, and cultural pursuits. Economic factors such as agricultural yields and the production of goods are to be noted.
    • Social Characteristics  In short, what one eats, drinks, believes, and is, is climate—induced and characteristic of the region.
    • Climatic Response  There is little to be done about the world climate except to adjust to it.  The most direct form of adjustment is to move to that region which has a climate best suited to one’s needs or desires. Such migrations or attempted migrations are the basis of much of human history.
    • Climatic Response  The alternative approach, barring admission to a climatological Shangri-La, is to make the best of existing conditions wherever one may be.  In broad terms, the climatic regions of the earth are four: the cold, the cool temperate, the warm-humid, and the hot-dry.
    • It is proposed that within each region there is, for a given climatological condition, a logical planning-design response.
    • Warm Humid Regions            Condition Temperatures high and relatively constant. High humidity. Torrential rainfall. Storm winds of typhoon and hurricane force. Breeze often constant in the daylight hours. Vegetative covers from sparse to luxuriant and sometimes jungle like. The sun’s heat is enervating. Sky glare and sea glare can be distressing. Climatic conditions breed insects in profusion. Fungi are a persistent problem.
    • Community:  Spacing of habitations in the dispersed “hunter”     tradition. Adjustment of community patterns to channels or areas of air movement. Avoidance of floodplains and drainage ways. Disturbed areas are subject to heavy erosion. Location of settlements in the lee of protective land masses and forest and above the level of storm-driven tides, Alignment of streets and placement of gathering places to capture all possible air currents.
    • Community:  Avoidance of natural growth insofar as feasible.     Disturbance of the ground-cover subjects soils to erosion. Use of existing tree masses and promontories to provide a sunscreen to public ways and places. Supplementary planting of shade trees is often desirable, Planned location of settlements with the arc of the sun to the rear not seaward, of the building sites. Location of settlements upwind of insect breeding areas. Admittance of sun and breeze to building areas to reduce fungi and mildew.
    • Site  Design of site spaces to provide     shade, ventilation, and the cooling effects of foliage and water Provision for air circulation and evaporation. Protection against driving rains and adequate runoff capacity Location of critical-use areas and routes in unexposed places, above the reach of tides and flooding. Maximization, by exposure, channeling, and funneling, of the favorable effects of the breeze.
    • Site  Use of lush foliage masses and specimen plants     as backdrop and enframement and for the interest of form, foliage, or floral display. Planning of outdoor activity areas for use in the cooler morning and evening hours. Heat-of-theday gathering places should be roofed or treeshaded. Reduction or elimination of glare by plan location and well-placed tree plantings. Elevation of use areas and walkways by deck and platform construction to open them to the breeze and reduce annoyance by insects. Use of stone, concrete, metals, and treated wood only in contact with the ground.
    • Building  Induction of cooling by all feasible     means, including the use of open building plans, high ceilings, broad overhangs, louvered openings, and air conditioning of local areas. Provision of air circulation: periodic exposure to sunlight and artificial drying where required. Architectural use of the colonnade, arcade, pavilion, covered passageway, and veranda: orientation of entranceways and windows away from the path of the storm track. Design of wind-resistant structures or lighter temporary and expendable shelters. Design of rooms, corridors, balconies, and patios as an interconnected system of breezeways.
    • Building  Utilization, indoors and out, of indigenous plant     materials for the cooling effect of their foliage. Provision of shade, shade, shade. Positioning of viewing points away from the glare and provision of well-designed screening. Elevation of structures above the ground, facing into the breeze, and insect proofing of critical points and areas. Provision of open, well-ventilated storage areas: use of fungus resistant materials and drying devices as needed.
    • Hot-Dry(Desert-like)Region           Intense heat in the daytime. Often intense cod at night. Expanses are vast. Sunlight and glare are penetrating. Drying winds are prevalent and often raise devastating dust storms. Annual rainfall is minimal; Vegetation is sparse to nonexistent except along watercourses. Spring rains come as a cloudburst with rapid runoff and heavy erosion. Water supply is extremely limited. Limited agricultural productivity necessitates the importation of food and other goods. Irrigation is a fact of life.
    • Community  Creation of cool and refreshing islands of use     within the parched surroundings. Provision of opportunities for group activity Chill evenings in the desert, as on the tundra, suggest the need. Adaptation of “outpost,” “fort,” and “ranch” plan patterns. Within the dispersed compounds the planning of compact spaces with narrow passageways and colonnades to provide relief from the sun. Location of homesteads and trade centers in areas of established ground covers: use of shelterbelt tree plantations.
    • Community  Protection of all possible natural growth     surrounding the development. Avoidance of flood-prone areas. Those who have experienced desert freshets will keep well out of their way. Minimization of irrigation requirements by compact planning and multiple use of planted and seeded spaces. Location of settlements and community centers close to transportation and distribution nodes. Coordination of land use and traffic patterns with existing and projected irrigation canal routes and reservoir locations.
    • Site  Amelioration of heat and glare by orientation     away from the sun, by shading, by screening, and by the cast-shadow patterns of well-placed building components. Adoption of the corral-compound (herder) arrangement of homesteads and neighborhood clusters, Recognition of the automobile as the crucial means of daily transport and a dominant siteplanning factor Screening of use areas and paths of movement from the direct blast of the sun, Protection of outdoor activity spaces from exposure.
    • Site  Preservation of native plant materials as self     sustaining and handsome components of the desert landscape. Avoidance of arroyos and floodplains as development routes and sites. Limitation in the size of parks, gardens, and seeded areas. Use of tubbed and container grown plants, drip irrigation, and hydroponic gardening. Incorporation of irrigation canals, ponds, and structures as attractive site features,
    • Building  Architectural use of thick walls, high ceilings, wide roof     overhangs, limited fenestration, light-reflective colors, and a precise design response to the angles and arcs of the sun. Exclusion of the chill night air by insulation, reduction of heat loss, and use of localized radiant heat. The open fireplace is a desert tradition for good reason. Low ranch-type spreads are a logical architectural expression of the hot—dry climate and desert topography. Provision of cool, compact, and dim interior spaces in contrast to the stifling heat and brilliance of the great outdoors. Sealing of all buildings against dust and wind. Airtight openings and skillful architectural detailing are required.
    • Building  Grouping of rooms or structures around planted     and irrigated courts and patios. Provision of spring rainfall catchments and storage. Water from roofs, courts, and paved areas can be directed to cisterns. Recycling of wastewater is prescribed. The type of use will determine the degree of treatment and purification required. The provision of food and fodder storage is an important consideration in desert building design. Adaptation of irrigation to interior courts and garden spaces. The evaporation of moisture from paved surfaces, fountains, spray heads, mulches, or foliage provides welcome relief from the heat.
    • Planning Consideration  Clearly, architectural or landscape planning for the well—being of a cultural group demands an understanding not only of the physical nature of the region and site but of the people as well.  Then, given a specific location within the region and a well—defined program of needs, the two—dimensional plan forms can be developed to achieve a pattern of appropriate, functional, and agreeable relationships.  Sometimes the most important consideration in site selection or planning is a realization of the need and benefits of protecting the natural environment.  Native Americans well understood that to preserve the integrity of their hunting grounds their nomadic villages must be widely dispersed and clustered.
    • Planning Consideration  Microclimatology is the study of climatic conditions within a limited area. It is sometimes referred to as the “science of small—scale weather” It may be inferred that the purpose of the scientific study is to discover facts and principles which may be applied to improve the human condition.  Whatever the climate or weather, when it comes to planning an agreeable living environment there are many microclimatic principles that can be applied to advantage. Among them are these:
    • Microclimatic Principles  Eliminate the extremes of heat, cold, humidity, air movement, and exposure. This can be achieved by intelligent site selection, plan layout, building orientation, and the creation of climate— responsive spaces.  Provide direct structural protection against the discomfort of solar radiation, precipitation, wind, storm, and cold.  Respond to the seasons. Each presents its problems; each provides its opportunities for adaptation and enjoyment.  Adjust community, site, and building plans to the movement of the sun. The design of living areas, indoors and out, should ensure that the favored type and amount of light are received at the favored time.
    • Microclimatic Principles  Use the sun’s radiation and solar panels to provide supplementary heat and energy for cooling.  Consider the wind also as a time tested source of energy.  Utilize the evaporation of moisture as a primary method of cooling. Air moving across any moist surface, be it masonry, fabric, or foliage, is thereby made cooler.  Maximize the beneficial effects of adjacent water bodies. These temper the atmosphere of the warmer or cooler adjacent lands.
    • Microclimatic Principles  Introduce water. The presence of water in any form, from film to waterfall, has a cooling effect, both physically and psychologically.  Preserve the existing vegetative cover. It ameliorates climatic problems in many ways.:  It shades the ground surface.  It retains the cooling moisture of precipitation.  It protects the soils and environs from the freezing     winds. It cools and refreshes heated air by evaporation. It provides sunscreen, shade, and shadow. It helps to prevent rapid runoff and recharge the water— bearing soil strata. It checks the wind.
    • Microclimatic Principles  Install new plantings where needed. They may be utilized for various types of climate control. Windscreens, shade trees, and heat—absorptive ground covers are examples.  Consider the effects of altitude. The higher the altitude and latitude (in the northern hemisphere), the cooler or colder the climate.  Reduce the humidity. Generally speaking, a decrease in the humidity effects an increase in bodily comfort. Dry cold is less chilling than wet cold. Dry heat is less enervating than wet heat. Humidity can be decreased by induced air circulation and the drying effects of the sun.
    • Microclimatic Principles  Avoid undrained air catchments areas and frost pockets.  Avoid winter winds, floods, and the paths of crippling storms. All can be charted.  Explore and apply all natural forms of healing and cooling before turning to mechanical (energy consuming) devices.
    • Sustainable Design Strategies  Site Planning  Building design should integrate very nicely with the natural environment and make the best use of the existing site conditions.
    • Sustainable Design Strategies  Building Orientation  Buildings should be laid in accordance to the orientation which allow access of solar exposure in terms of the sun path and prevailing wind.  Linear block with least openings is deliberately shielding off all accommodation from the westsided solar exposure
    • Sustainable Design Strategies  The Building Form  The building form is developed with respect to the topographical contours where to minimize the area of cutting soil and in return filling back of soil to the site and to minimize the disturbance of the construction to the existing trees and landscape where digging up of soil and cutting off of tress were minimized.  Natural Ventilation  Openable windows allowed the natural ventilation to reduce the operation period of A/C System during the mild season
    • Sustainable Design Strategies  Natural Lighting  An open corridor around a central courtyard linking all functional areas allows penetration of daylight and shades the functional areas from direct sunlight.  Balcony approach allows natural lighting for major circulations to minimize the general lightings.  Linear shape with depth of maximum 9m for all accommodation to enhance daylight penetration.  Green Spaces  Incorporation of roof garden and landscaped terrace enables the building to blend in with its surrounding natural environment. Native species were used wherever possible.