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Architecture in Vietnam and Laos

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presentation not mine. credits to the owner

presentation not mine. credits to the owner

Published in: Travel, Art & Photos

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  • 1. VIETNAM and LAOS ARCHITECTURE History of Architecture 3 Prepared by: Archt. Clarissa L. Avendaño 1ST sem AY 2012-2013
  • 2. • Socialist Republic of Vietnam • Boundaries: China - north Laos - northwest, Cambodia – southwest South China Sea - east • Became independent from Imperial China in 938 AD. • Colonized by the French in the mid-19th c • Divided by a Communist north and a capitalist south during the Cold War. • HANOI - capital city since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976. http://www.amazone-travel.com/vietnam-e.html
  • 3. Two main cities of Vietnam are both located next to large rivers. 1. Hanoi (north) River. Red 2. Ho Chi Minh City/Saigon (south) delta of the Mekong River. http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/2657?e=berglee_1.0-ch11_s02
  • 4. http://www.friendsofvso.org/sitepages/culture.html http://rol.vn/resourcedetail/1/1125/water-puppetry/ Water Puppet • Vietnamese culture is an amalgamation of many ethnic groups such as the Cham, Khmer, Muong, Hmong and Chinese. • Vietnam's history goes back to the civilization of the Hung kings, about 400 years ago.
  • 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/7971389@N03/495618057/lightbox/ Old Hindu Temple http://www.hanoitraveltours.com/unique-architecture-one-pillar-pagoda.html One Pillar Pagoda, Hanoi • Vietnam has no state religion. • Main religion is Buddhism, introduced during the Chinese occupation with classic monasteries and pagodas. • Hinduism is the first religion of the Champa kingdom brought from India. The Cham people erected Hindu temples (Bimong) throughout Central Vietnam.
  • 6. Thang Long Citadel of the Ho Dynasty http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/thanglong.html http://unescopostcard.blogspot.com/2011/12/vn1358-citadel-of-ho-dynasty-available.html VIETNAM ‘s UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) inscribed on World Heritage Lists: Cultural 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi (2010) Citadel of the Ho Dynasty (2011) Complex of Hue Monuments (1993) Hoi An Ancient Town (1999) My Son Sanctuary (1999) Natural 1. 2. Ha Long Bay (1994) Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (2003)
  • 7. http://www.vietnamdiscoverytravel.com/bhaya-cruise.html HA LONG BAY • Located in the Gulf of Tonkin, within Quang Ninh Province, northeast of Vietnam • Covers an area 43,400 ha. with over 1600 islands and islets. • Seascape of limestone pillars/ mature Karst landforms http://hasslefreevietnam.com/halong-bay-one-day.html
  • 8. HOI AN ANCIENT TOWN • South-East Asian trading port in Quang Nam Province, which dates back from the 15th - 19th c. • Buildings and street plan reflect the influences, both indigenous (traditional Vietnamese) and foreign (Chinese, Japanese, etc.) French-era building http://www.concierge.com/travelguide/centralvietnam/hotels/42501 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PhoCoHoiAn.jpg Chinese Temple http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Asia/Vietnam/South_Central_Coast/Da_Nang/Hoi_An/photo20 1812.htm
  • 9. HOI AN ANCIENT TOWN • Buildings are aligned along narrow lanes which include religious buildings, such as pagodas, temples, meeting houses; markets, houses and other which relate to the development of a port community. • Architecture almost entirely of wood. • http://www.vietnamonline.com/destination/hoi-an.html Typical house conforms to a corridor plan, the following elements occurring in sequence: house, yard and house. http://www.aprotravel.com/centre-heritage/hoi-an-charming-tours/676-hoi-an-daily-trip-and-around.html
  • 10. HUE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS
  • 11. HUE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS http://www.vietnamwiki.net/Hue-See-Hue_Imperial_city-P78 http://www.vietnam-aloha.com/about-hue-vietnam-what-to-see-eat-and-do.html • Walled city, north side of the Perfume River. • Served as administrative capital of southern Vietnam in the 17th c. and again in the 18th c. • Planned according to ancient oriental philosophy and Vietnamese tradition : – Respect for the physical conditions of the site: – Perfume River as the main axis. – Ngu Binh mountain (Royal Screen). – Relationship between: – 5 cardinal points (centre, west, east, north, south) – 5 natural elements (earth, metal, wood, water, fire) – 5 basic colors (yellow, white, blue, black, red)
  • 12. HUE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS • National capital of united Vietnam in 1802 – 1945 • Four citadels or defended enclosures made up the city 1. Kinh Thanh (Capital City) official administrative buildings 2. Hoang Thanh (Imperial City) royal palaces and shrines http://www.vietnamculturaltravel.com/destinations/world-heritage-sites/the-citadel-of-hue-city/
  • 13. HUE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS • Political, cultural and religious center under the Nguyen dynasty. http://www.vietnamwiki.net/Hue-See-Hue_Imperial_city-P78 3. Tu Cam Thanh (Forbidden Purple City or Inner City) - royal residences, similar to China where only the emperors, concubines, and those close enough to them were granted access. 3. Tran Binh Dai - additional defensive work in the northeast corner of the Capital City, designed to control movement on the river. – Tran Hai Thanh (Coastal Bastion) – 5th fortress constructed a little later to protect the capital against assault from the sea.
  • 14. Hai Ba Trung High School Khai Dinh Tomb Thien Mu Pagoda Tu Duc Tomb http://vietnamheritagetravel.com/blog/3-royal-tombs http://www.flickr.com/photos/40295335@N00/7989950481/ Quoc Học High School http://flickriver.com/photos/nguyenloc_sg/3749015616/ Monuments along the Perfume River: 1. Tombs of several emperors, including Minh Mạng, Khai Dịnh, and Tu Duc. 2. Thien Mụ Pagoda - largest pagoda in Hue and official symbol of the city. French-style buildings along the south bank of the Perfume River: 1. Quoc Học High School - the oldest high school in Vietnam 2. Hai Ba Trung High School
  • 15. MY SON SANCTUARY • • Dates from the 4th -14th c., located in Duy Phú, Quảng Nam province in Central Vietnam, a valley surrounded by two mountain ranges. http://mysonsanctuary.com/107/how-to-get-my-son-sanctuary/ Indian influenced Hindu temple complex, and political capital of the Cham dynasty. http://www.vietnamtravelblog.info/destinations/my-son-sanctuary/
  • 16. MY SON SANCTUARY • Complex of temples and tombs • Tower temples were designed and built to symbolize Mt. Meru, the mythical sacred mountain of the Hindu gods at the center of the universe, symbolically reproduced on earth in the mountainous homeland of the Cham people. • http://www.vir.com.vn/news/travel/my-son-sanctuary Used of fired brick with stone pillars and decorated with sandstone bas-reliefs depicting scenes from Hindu mythology. http://www.mediastorehouse.com/low.php?xp=media&xm=3764363
  • 17. Hanoi Opera House HANOI FRENCH QUARTER • Wide tree-line boulevards and imposing colonial buildings which began in 1983. History Museum blends Asian and European styles http://www.1stophanoi.com/articles/french_quarter http://www.flickr.com/photos/21264033@N00/6349746934/in/photostream/
  • 18. LAOS • Centers on the Mekong River basin and rugged mountain terrain. • Boundaries:  Vietnam - east  Cambodia - south • Lao Kingdom in 1500s was part of the Kingdom of Siam. • Under French Colony • Received independence from France in 1949. http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/2657?e=berglee_1.0-ch11_s02
  • 19. Vat Xieng Thong HISTORIC TOWN OF LUANG PRABANG http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Vat-Xieng-Thong-Luang-Prabang-UNESCO-World-HeritageSite-Laos-Indochina-Southeast-Asia-Asia-Posters_i8738077_.htm Buddhist Temple at Haw Kham (Royal Palace) complex http://www.allposters.com/-sp/National-Museum-Vat-Ho-Pha-Bang-Luang-Prabang-UNESCOWorld-Heritage-Site-Laos-Indochina-Posters_i8739295_.htm • Royal capital in the mountainous region along the Mekong river. • Complex with Buddhist temples, monasteries and National Museum, Vat Ho Pha Bang the village. • Fusion of traditional architecture and Lao urban structures with those built by the European colonial authorities in the 19th and 20th c.
  • 20. THAT – Lao Stupa http://www.worldisround.com/articles/352969/photo9.html That Pathum (Lotus Stupa), LUANG PRABANG • Known as That (watermelon stupa) • Reconstructed large stupa, Sri Lankan style. Wat Phat Luang (Golden lotus bud), Vientiane Makmo • Site of a previous stupa of Khmer origin. squat • Mandala - Terraced Stupa. • Combination of Khmer, Lao and Ceylonese influences.
  • 21. UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 1. The Historic Town of Luang Prabang 2. Wat Phou (Vat Phu) - ancient Hindu temple complex WAT or VAT – Temple Mountain http://www.paksecruise.com/vat-phou-boat/the-visits/vat-phou-ruins/ http://www.smh.com.au/travel/activity/great-outdoors/remains-of-theday-20111012-1lkhp.html
  • 22. REFERENCES: De la Croix, Horst and Richard Tansey. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages. Ancient, Medieval and Non-European Art. 7th ed. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. USA. 1976. Goepper, Roger. Landmarks of the World’s Art. The Oriental World. Mc. Graw-Hill Book Company, New Yorkl – Toronto. 1967. Harris, Cyril M. Historic Architecture Sourcebook. Mac Graw Hil, Inc. USA.1977. Palmes, J.C. Sir Banister Fletcher’s A History of Architecture. 18th ed. The Athlone Press, University of London. London Other Sources: Pictures and data from Internet Sources