VIETNAM and LAOS
History of Architecture 3
Archt. Clarissa L. Avendaño
1ST sem AY 2012-2013
• Socialist Republic of Vietnam
China - north
Laos - northwest,
Cambodia – southwest
South China Sea - east
Imperial China in 938 AD.
• Colonized by the French in the
• Divided by a Communist north
and a capitalist south during the
• HANOI - capital city since the
reunification of North and South
Vietnam in 1976.
Two main cities of
Vietnam are both located
next to large rivers.
1. Hanoi (north) River.
City/Saigon (south) delta of the Mekong
Vietnamese culture is an amalgamation of many ethnic groups
such as the Cham, Khmer, Muong, Hmong and Chinese.
Vietnam's history goes back to the civilization of the Hung
kings, about 400 years ago.
Old Hindu Temple
One Pillar Pagoda, Hanoi
• Vietnam has no state religion.
• Main religion is Buddhism, introduced during the Chinese
occupation with classic monasteries and pagodas.
• Hinduism is the first religion of the Champa kingdom brought
from India. The Cham people erected Hindu temples (Bimong)
throughout Central Vietnam.
Citadel of the Ho Dynasty
VIETNAM ‘s UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization) inscribed on World Heritage Lists:
Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi (2010)
Citadel of the Ho Dynasty (2011)
Complex of Hue Monuments (1993)
Hoi An Ancient Town (1999)
My Son Sanctuary (1999)
Ha Long Bay (1994)
Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (2003)
HA LONG BAY
• Located in the Gulf of
Tonkin, within Quang
Province, northeast of
• Covers an area 43,400
ha. with over 1600
islands and islets.
• Seascape of limestone
pillars/ mature Karst
HOI AN ANCIENT TOWN
South-East Asian trading port
in Quang Nam Province,
which dates back from the
15th - 19th c.
Buildings and street plan
reflect the influences, both
Vietnamese) and foreign
(Chinese, Japanese, etc.)
Buildings are aligned along
narrow lanes which include
religious buildings, such as
pagodas, temples, meeting
houses; markets, houses and
other which relate to the
development of a port
Architecture almost entirely of
Typical house conforms to a
corridor plan, the following
sequence: house, yard and
COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS
• Walled city, north side of
the Perfume River.
• Served as administrative capital
of southern Vietnam in the 17th c.
and again in the 18th c.
• Planned according to ancient
Vietnamese tradition :
– Respect for the physical conditions
of the site:
– Perfume River as the main axis.
– Ngu Binh mountain (Royal
– Relationship between:
(centre, west, east, north, south)
(earth, metal, wood, water, fire)
(yellow, white, blue, black, red)
COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS
National capital of united Vietnam
in 1802 – 1945
enclosures made up the city
1. Kinh Thanh (Capital City) official administrative buildings
2. Hoang Thanh (Imperial City) royal palaces and shrines
• Political, cultural and
religious center under
the Nguyen dynasty.
3. Tu Cam Thanh (Forbidden Purple City or Inner
City) - royal residences, similar to China where only
the emperors, concubines, and those close enough
to them were granted access.
3. Tran Binh Dai - additional defensive
work in the northeast corner of the
Capital City, designed to control
movement on the river.
Tran Hai Thanh (Coastal Bastion) – 5th
fortress constructed a little later to protect
the capital against assault from the sea.
Hai Ba Trung High School
Khai Dinh Tomb
Thien Mu Pagoda
Tu Duc Tomb
Quoc Học High School
Monuments along the Perfume River:
1. Tombs of several emperors, including Minh Mạng, Khai Dịnh, and Tu Duc.
2. Thien Mụ Pagoda - largest pagoda in Hue and official symbol of the city.
French-style buildings along the south bank of the Perfume River:
1. Quoc Học High School - the oldest high school in Vietnam
2. Hai Ba Trung High School
MY SON SANCTUARY
Dates from the 4th -14th
Vietnam, a valley surrounded
by two mountain ranges.
temple complex, and political
capital of the Cham dynasty.
MY SON SANCTUARY
Complex of temples and tombs
Tower temples were designed
and built to symbolize Mt.
Meru, the mythical sacred
mountain of the Hindu gods at
reproduced on earth in the
mountainous homeland of the
Used of fired brick with stone
pillars and decorated with
sandstone bas-reliefs depicting
scenes from Hindu mythology.
Hanoi Opera House
HANOI FRENCH QUARTER
• Wide tree-line boulevards and
imposing colonial buildings which
began in 1983.
History Museum blends Asian and European styles
• Centers on the Mekong
River basin and rugged
Vietnam - east
Cambodia - south
• Lao Kingdom in 1500s
was part of the Kingdom
• Under French Colony
• Received independence
from France in 1949.
Vat Xieng Thong
HISTORIC TOWN OF
Buddhist Temple at Haw Kham (Royal Palace)
mountainous region along
the Mekong river.
• Complex with Buddhist
temples, monasteries and
National Museum, Vat Ho Pha Bang
architecture and Lao urban
structures with those built
by the European colonial
authorities in the 19th and
THAT – Lao Stupa
Stupa), LUANG PRABANG
stupa, Sri Lankan style.
Wat Phat Luang (Golden lotus bud),
Site of a previous stupa of Khmer
Mandala - Terraced Stupa.
Combination of Khmer, Lao and
UNESCO World Heritage Sites:
1. The Historic Town of Luang Prabang
Wat Phou (Vat Phu) - ancient Hindu temple complex
WAT or VAT – Temple Mountain
De la Croix, Horst and Richard Tansey. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages.
Ancient, Medieval and Non-European Art. 7th ed. Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, Inc. USA. 1976.
Goepper, Roger. Landmarks of the World’s Art. The Oriental World. Mc.
Graw-Hill Book Company, New Yorkl – Toronto. 1967.
Harris, Cyril M. Historic Architecture Sourcebook. Mac Graw Hil, Inc.
Palmes, J.C. Sir Banister Fletcher’s A History of Architecture. 18th ed. The
Athlone Press, University of London. London
Pictures and data from Internet Sources