Renaissance art

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  • A revival or rebirth of cultural awareness and learning that took place during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, particularly in Italy, but also in Germany and other European countries. The period was characterized by a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman art and design
  • 1452, the village of Vinci in Tuscany
    Though illegitimate, Leonardo was taken in and raised by his father. A child of unearthly beauty, Leonardo showed precocious genius in math, music and art. His greatest desire was to be apprenticed to a painter, a profession which was looked down upon at the time.
    Eventually, his father was worn down by the boy's undeniable talent, and took him to Florence to study painting, sculpting and engineering under the great Andrea del Verrocchio. Leonardo quickly outstripped his master (though he continued to study with Verrocchio until around 1476) and was admitted to the Florence painters' guild in 1472.
    How to make this brief? Leonardo spent about twenty years (1480s - 1499) in the service of Lodovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan (who frequently neglected to pay Leonardo). His output during this period included two of his best known paintings: The Madonna of the Rocks (1483-85) and the mural The Last Supper (1495-98).
    When Milan was seized by French troops in 1499, Leonardo returned to Florence. It was here that he painted one of the most famous portraits of all time, The Mona Lisa, more correctly known as La Gioconda (1503-06).
    Leonardo spent his later years moving between Florence, Rome and France, working on a variety of projects. He lived long enough to be appreciated and well-paid, a rarity among artists. Throughout it all, he kept prodigious notebooks, in "mirror" writing, to keep track of his ideas, designs, and numerous sketches. Leonardo eventually settled in France, at the invitation of Francis I, an ardent admirer.
  • Leonardo may also be credited with the most famous portrait of all time, that of Lisa, wife of Francesco del Giocondo, and known as the Mona Lisa (Paris, Louvre). An aura of mystery surrounds this painting, which is veiled in a soft light, creating an atmosphere of enchantment. There are no hard lines or contours here (a technique of painting known as sfumato—fumo in Italian means "smoke"), only seamless transitions between light and dark. Perhaps the most striking feature of the painting is the sitter's ambiguous half smile. She looks directly at the viewer, but her arms, torso, and head each twist subtly in a different direction, conveying an arrested sense of movement. Leonardo explores the possibilities of oil paint in the soft folds of the drapery, texture of skin, and contrasting light and dark (chiaroscuro). The deeply receding background, with its winding rivers and rock formations, is an example of Leonardo's personal view of the natural world: one in which everything is liquid, in flux, and filled with movement and energy.
  • Leonardo's Last Supper, on the end wall of the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, is one of the most renowned paintings of the High Renaissance. Recently restored, The Last Supper had already begun to flake during the artist's lifetime due to his failed attempt to paint on the walls in layers (not unlike the technique of tempera on panel), rather than in a true fresco technique. Even in its current state, it is a masterpiece of dramatic narrative and subtle pictorial illusionism.
    Leonardo chose to capture the moment just after Christ tells his apostles that one of them will betray him, and at the institution of the Eucharist. The effect of his statement causes a visible response, in the form of a wave of emotion among the apostles. These reactions are quite specific to each apostle, expressing what Leonardo called the "motions of the mind." Despite the dramatic reaction of the apostles, Leonardo imposes a sense of order on the scene. Christ's head is at the center of the composition, framed by a halo-like architectural opening. His head is also the vanishing point toward which all lines of the perspective projection of the architectural setting converge. The apostles are arranged around him in four groups of three united by their posture and gesture. Judas, who was traditionally placed on the opposite side of the table, is here set apart from the other apostles by his shadowed face.
  • The examples below demonstrate that Leonardo Da Vinci was not the only artist who depicted the Disciple John in such a way within the context of The Last Supper (and it should also be noted that Medieval Christian apocryphal tradition also maintains that the Disciple John was married to Mary Magdalene – as claimed in the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voraigne, when discussing Mary Magdalene’s "journey to Marseilles", for example).
  • Young Michelangelo, motherless by the age of six, fought long and hard with his father for permission to apprentice as an artist. At the age of 12, he began studying under Domenico Ghirlandajo, who was the most fashionable painter in Florence at the time.
    Fashionable, but extremely jealous of Michelangelo's emerging talent. Ghirlandajo passed the lad off to be apprenticed to Bertoldo di Giovanni, the sculptor, and here Michelangelo found the work that became his true passion. His sculpture came to the attention of the most powerful family in Florence, the Medici, and he gained their patronage.
    Michelangelo's output was, quite simply, stunning, in quality, quantity and scale. His most famous statues include the 18-foot David (1501-1504) and the Pietà (1499), but his sculpture encompassed many other pieces including elaborately decorated tombs. He did not consider himself a painter, and (justifiably) complained throughout four straight years of the work, but created one of the greatest masterpieces of all time on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508-1512). Additionally, he painted The Last Judgment (1534-1541) on the altar wall of the same chapel many years later. As an old man, he was tapped by the Pope to complete the half-finished St. Peter's Church in the Vatican. Not all of the plans he drew were utilized but, after his death, architects built the dome still in use today. His poetry was very personal and not as grand as his other works, yet is of great value to those who wish to know Michelangelo.
    Accounts of his life seem to portray Michelangelo as a prickly-tempered, mistrusting and lonely man, lacking in both interpersonal skills and confidence in his physical appearance. Perhaps that is why he created works of such heartbreaking beauty and heroism that they are still held in awe these many centuries later.
  • Michelangelo, while working on what he loves most (sculpture), is summoned to The Vatican by Pope Julius II to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
    Little did he know that his arch rival, Bramante, persuaded the Pope to commission Michelangelo because of Bramante's fear that he (Michelangelo) would eventually weasel his way into the design and construction of the new St. Peter's Cathedral, something that Bramante did NOT want to share with anyone else.
    Bramante came up with the perfect plan: have the Pope hire Michelangelo, who was self-admittedly not at all a fresco painter, to do the frescoes, which were a super long term project. Michelangelo would naturally screw up the ceiling because he wasn't a painter and because his own personality, would eventually sabotage the project anyway. Next, the Pope gets upset, kills Michelangelo, and then Raphael (a personal friend of Bramante) would step up to the plate and finish the frescoes off. What a plan!
    The only problem is that Bramante's plan didn't work. Michelangelo, complaining every step of the way, finished the frescoes in four years, and did them so beautifully, so magnificently, that his reputation was greatly enhanced, both with the public and the Pope. Fifteen years later, Bramante dies, and Michelangelo starts (guess what?....) designing the dome and facade of the new St. Peters.

Transcript

  • 1. Compiled by Anriette van Wyk by utilising the studies of various subject matter experts as source documents.
  • 2. Renaissance Era 1,200 A.D. - 1,700 A.D. • Renaissance means rebirth. • Revival of cultural awareness and learning • Renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman art and design • Emphasis on human beings, their environment, science, and philosophy. • Artwork was done on walls and ceilings of churches, public buildings, and private dwellings.
  • 3. • Renaissance art wanted to show joy in human beauty and life’s pleasures. Renaissance art is more lifelike than in the art of the Middle Ages.
  • 4. Artistic Advancements • Invention of oil paints • Discovery of perspective drawing and painting • Beginning of printmaking
  • 5. Invention of Oil Paint • Tempera paint was made by mixing pigment powder with egg yolks or gum VERY RESTRICTIVE. • Oil paint was invented by mixing pigments with linseed oil • Oil paint was easily blended, long lasting, slow drying, many different colors
  • 6. Renaissance Terms • Quattrocento: – Century beginning in 1400 • Humanist: – scholars who studied classical texts • Vernacular: – common, everyday language
  • 7. Three Major Periods I. Early Renaissance II. Italian Renaissance III. Northern Renaissance
  • 8. Early Renaissance • Florence - early 1400s • Patron - a person who financially supports an artist • Major Players: • Masaccio • Donatello* • Botticelli*
  • 9. Masaccio (1401-1428) • Christ Descending from the Cross • Used the technique of perspective, which had been developed by Brunelleschi, to give the appearance of distance.
  • 10. Donatello di Niccolo Bardi (1386-1466) • Donatello is known for his sculpture. • Acquired great fame in his lifetime and was called to many Italian cities to share his gift of sculpture
  • 11. David
  • 12. David, 1425 A.D. • First free-standing nude sculpture in a 1000 years • Church was finally less restrictive • Depicts David slaying the Goliath • The sculpture of David became a symbol for Florence
  • 13. The condottiere Gattamelata in Padua by Donatello
  • 14. Botticelli (bought tee Chel lee) -His nudes epitomized the Renaissance Birth of Venus -Rebirth of Classical mythology
  • 15. Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1482, Tempera on Canvas
  • 16. Venus – Roman Goddess of Love and Beauty Zephyrus – God of Wind with his lover, Chloris Pomona – Nymph greeting Venus with a robe • Painting inspired by a poem by Angelo Poliziano, an Italian Humanist • Commissioned by the Medici for the Medici family, a powerful wealthy Italian family • From a series of paintings based on Classical themes Botticelli, Birth of Venus
  • 17. Primavera
  • 18. The Annunciation
  • 19. Italian Renaissance • 16th Century, artistic leadership spread from Florence to Rome and Venice • There was a focus on technical mastery including: composition, ideal proportions, and perspective • Major Players: – – – – Da Vinci* Michelangelo* Raphael* Titian
  • 20. Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519 • Trained in Florence, Italy as a painter and sculptor not a scholar • Was a genius both scientifically and artistically • Was not interested in books and what scholars had to say-he was interested in his own explorations and ideas • Always had to prove everything • Struggle to work for commission and finish work • Did drawings and sculptures on his own terms.
  • 21. Leonardo Da Vinci • Renaissance Man • Stressed the intellectual aspects of art and creativity • Didn’t like the solemnity of most portrait paintings so he hired musicians and jesters to amuse his subjects • Most important contribution might be his notebooks
  • 22. “Mona Lisa” • Most famous portrait of all time • Painting is the wife, Lisa, of Francesco del Giocondo • Painting has no hard lines or contours, technique called sfumato • Painting leaves us something to guess • Most striking is her ambiguous half smile
  • 23. First portrait in which a woman looked straight into the viewer. Portrait suggests a history, personality, mood, and feeling. First recognized for its background.
  • 24. The Last Supper
  • 25. “The Last Supper” 1498
  • 26. • Painting demonstrates one point perspective • Jesus' head is the vanishing point • Leonardo would spend a full day just looking at the painting-studying
  • 27. • Located on end wall of the refectory of Santa Maria delle in Millan • One of the most renowned paintings of the Renaissance • Painting depicts the scene Jesus and the apostles at the last supper, when Jesus tells the apostles that one of them will betray him
  • 28. • Leonardo painted himself • Controversial Mary Magdalene
  • 29. The problem with frescos
  • 30. His notebooks… Machine gun flight flight canon Designs for: canals, central heating, printing press, telescope, portable bombs, theory of circulation 100 years before Harvey, studies of fetus in womb so accurate that they could be used today to teach embryology
  • 31. • Was a pioneer in the study of human anatomy • Dissected over thirty bodies • Almost 2,500 drawings and studies of his ideas left in notebooks • Most of his notes and drawings were kept-people knew of the importance of them and the genius of Leonardo
  • 32. • Leonardo was left handed • He took all of his notes from right to left • Need a mirror to read his notes
  • 33. Inventor • Created many drawings of machines and different items of functions • Examples of war machines: armored car, ladder for besieging walls, rock thrower
  • 34. Different architectural designs
  • 35. Drawings of Flying Machines
  • 36. • • • • • Pulleys Drilling machines Furnace designs Pile driver Fans
  • 37. Michelangelo Buonarroti • He was one of the greatest artists of all time. Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a “Renaissance Man” of many talents. He was a great sculptor, a painter, and an architect.
  • 38. Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) • Trained in Florence, Italy • Dissected humans and drew the human body in many different positions • Influenced by Greek and Roman Sculptures • Sculpture was his true love, he hated to paint
  • 39. • Michelangelo was a prickly-tempered, mistrusting and lonely man, lacking in both interpersonal skills and confidence in his physical appearance. • Was often hated by other artists because of his supreme talent and he often told you about how good he was • His conceit and arrogance cost him many friends and found himself working alone • Nobody could argue his brilliance and geniuses
  • 40. Michelangelo • Patron = Lorenzo de’Medici at the age of 15 as a sculptor • Believed that creativity was divinely inspired • Lived a life of solitude – never apprenticed anyone • Like Da Vinci, he dissected corpses to study anatomy • Later in life focused on architecture improving several structures for popes and civic leaders
  • 41. The statue of “David” • Stands over 14’ tall carved of marble • Three long years to complete the sculpture
  • 42. The Statue of “David” • • • • “A civic hero, he was a warning...whoever governed Florence should govern justly and defend it bravely. Eyes watchful...the neck of a bull...hands of a killer...the body, a reservoir of energy. He stands poised to strike." -Michelangelo Combined beauty with powerful meaning Statue stood Palazzo Vecchio, as a symbol of our Republic Statue took 40 men 5 days to move it in place
  • 43. Sistine Chapel How it began: • • • Michelangelo, while working on what he loves most (sculpture), is summoned to The Vatican by Pope Julius II to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Bramante, persuaded the Pope to commission Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Bramnate did not want Michelangelo involved in the construction of the St. Peters Cathedral • • • Bramante knew that Michelangelo was a selfproclaimed “terrible painter” Hoping he would “screw” up the paintings and the Pope would have him killed and Raphael (his friend) would take the paintings over. Plan did not succeed
  • 44. Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel “Genius is Internal Patience” • Commissioned by Julius II • Began creating drawings and studies in 1508 • Him and a team of artist starting painting in the fall of 1508 • 1509, Michelangelo fired all of his assistants and removed all paintings and took the job over himself • Kept his work hidden to all except the Pope • He painted high on scaffolding on his back
  • 45. "After four tortured years, more than 400 over life-sized figures, I felt as old and as weary as Jeremiah. I was only 37, yet friends did not recognize the old man I had become." -Michelangelo
  • 46. “The Creation of Adam and Eve”
  • 47. David The Pieta
  • 48. When Michelangelo did a statue of Moses, he included veins and muscles in the arms and legs. He also did the same in David’s sculpture.
  • 49. Pieta
  • 50. Moses from the tomb of Julius II - St. Peter of the Chains Rome, Italy
  • 51. Marble quarries of Tuscany
  • 52. Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) • Raphael was strictly a painter • Raphael was well liked with an easy going attitude • Had a tough artistic reputation to live up with Leonardo (31 years older) and Michelangelo (8 years older) • Heavily influenced by both • Had a short career
  • 53. Raphael • Most popular by the people who lived at the time • Decorated rooms in the Vatican • Star of the Papal Court and with the ladies… • He combined the strengths of Da Vinci and Michelangelo
  • 54. Raphael (1483-1520) Raphael was a favorite painter of Pope Leo X. Notice realistic forms and expressions even in a painting with a religious theme.
  • 55. Raphael Notice realistic facial features and expressions in this portrait.
  • 56. School of Athens, 1510-1512
  • 57. Sistine Madonna
  • 58. Deposition
  • 59. Titian (TISH un) • Father of Modern Painting • First to really use oil on canvas as his main medium • Used strong colors • Venetian (different from Florence and Rome in that they were fascinated with color, texture and mood)
  • 60. Assumption of Mary Bacchus and Ariadne
  • 61. Northern Renaissance • • • • This is the Renaissance north of Italy Netherlands, Belgium, Holland, and Germany Lacked Roman ruins, inspiration was nature Lacked Classical sculpture, painted reality as they saw it instead of ideal proportions • Used perspective by making objects in the back appear “hazy” suggesting depth.
  • 62. Hans Holbein • One of the greatest portraitists ever • His patron was Erasmus • Enjoyed symbolic knickknacks (typical of this movement)
  • 63. The French Ambassadors
  • 64. It is an anamorphic image of a human skull. An anamorphosis is an image that is distorted in such a way that it only assumes the proportions of a recognizable image when viewed from a certain angle, or by reflection in curved surface. The image of the skull in The Ambassadors is only visible as a skull when viewed from below and to one side of the painting. It has been suggested that it was meant to be displayed above a staircase, so that those climbing the stairs would be startled by the apparition of the skull as they glanced upward at the painting. You can see a photographic restoration of the skull image as seen from that angle here.
  • 65. Erasmus von Rotterdam King Henry VIII
  • 66. Dürer (DEWR er) • -”Leonardo of the North” • Believed art should be based on scientific observation • Raised the status of artist from craftsman to near prince • First to do many self-portraits • Famous for his woodcuts • First to use printmaking as a major medium for art
  • 67. Self-Portrait
  • 68. Erasmus von Rotterdam Wing of a Blue Jay
  • 69. Saint Jerome
  • 70. Albrecht Durer(Germany) • Artists like Durer helped spread Renaissance ideas to Northern Europe. Durer traveled France to work for Francis I. When he returned to his home in Germany, he brought with him Renaissance techniques and ideas.
  • 71. Hans Holbein (Germany) • Known for painting portraits, including Henry VIII of England.
  • 72. Jan van Eyck (Flanders) • Italian merchant and his wife living in Flanders • Symbolism in the painting: • Candle in the chandelier represents Jesus • Fruit on the windowsill represents the innocence of humanity
  • 73. Jan Van Eyck • Painted microscopic details in brilliant color • -Portrait painting = had sitter look at painter (1st)
  • 74. The Arnolofini Marriage
  • 75. Bruegal (BROY gull) • Flemish painter of peasant life • -satiric edge • -Elevated genre painting (scenes of everyday life) to the stature of “high art”
  • 76. Hunters in the Snow or Return of the Hunters
  • 77. Peasant’s Dance
  • 78. The Peasant Wedding
  • 79. Resources: • • • • • Boyer-Switala, J. (2011). Renaissance Art. [Online], Available: http://www.slideshare.net/jboyerswitala/renaissance-art-9085448 Accessed: 8 March 2014 Coon, I. (2012). Art history. [Online], available: http://www.slideshare.net/waukeestudent/art-history-14489743 Accessed: 8 March 2014 Dale, A. (2013). Early Renaissance Art in Italy. [Online], available: http://www.slideshare.net/loveart2/early-renaissance-in-italy-19241166? qid=48890e77-ddc1-4c33-8712-91473f1508cc&v=qf1&b=&from_search=11 Accessed: 8 March 2014 David, J. (2010). Renaissance. [Online], available: http://www.slideshare.net/Daviddrake/renaissance-5709486 Accessed: 8 March 2014 MrRed. (2009). Renaissance Art. [Online], available: http://www.slideshare.net/MrRed/renaissance-art-2674528 Accessed: 8 March 2014