MAPPING HUMAN BEHAVIOUR FOR
IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCES
JON DODD
CEO and Co-Founder
2
WHERE I CAME FROM...
Escaped from academic neuroscience
 Face perception
 Attractiveness
 Shampoo bottles
 Car shape...
3
5
ESCAPED...
Started user (customer) experience
consultancy Bunnyfoot in 1999
In fact this is a lie...
 We were a usabili...
Hopefully throwing some light on
how we get it to do what we want
Your customer
Today we are going to be looking
inside th...
Most of us humans arrogantly
suppose decisions are rational
and conscious
The cortex (and some
other parts) is where
consc...
But most of our behaviour
including ‘complex’ behaviour is
non-conscious (sub-conscious)
The ‘older’ parts of
the brain – ...
9
THE BUNNYFOOT HIERARCHY OF CUSTOMER ACTION (HCA)
IT’S A USEFUL WAY OF FRAMING SOME OF WHAT WE WILL COVER
10
CREATING PROFITABLE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE WITH HCA
Emotional affect principles (e.g. Norman, Kano)
Intrinsic motivation, ...
11
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER - UCD
12
CAN DO – USABILTY & PERCEPTION
13
NORMAN’S 6 7 DESIGN PRINCIPLES
Visibility Affordance Signifiers Mapping
Constraints Feedback Consistency
MappingControl...
14
USABILITY ‘HEURISTICS’
1. Visibility of System Status
- Let users know where they are and
what is going on
2. Match to ...
15
What I want to talk about (quickly) is
perception
16
17
GESTALT GROUPING PRINCIPLES DETERMINE HOW WE PERCEIVE
OBJECTS AND ELEMENTS
Its amazing how many designers seem to forge...
18
VISUAL PATHWAYS – REASONABLY WELL UNDERSTOOD
19
FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES HAVE BEEN KNOWN FOR SOME TIME
20
How many black dots are there?
21
How many legs does the elephant have?
22
23
24
25
CONTEXT IS EVERYTHING
26
27
AND EVERYTHING IS RELATIVE
28
PREATTENTIVE ENCODING
Because of how the visual system works (effectively bottom up filtering of attributes of
the visu...
29
SOME ARE BETTER THAN OTHERS AT QUANTITATIVE DATA
Colour Hue
Intensity
no
YES - but limited
Position 2D position YES
For...
30
SPATIAL SCALE
We filter visual images at different spatial scales
High spatial frequencies (detail) can interrupt low
s...
31
CENTRAL v PERIPHERAL VISIONFACES ARE SPECIAL
32
GREAT SOURCES FOR MORE
33
INFO VIS PORN
In fact any of his books
34
PERSUASION PRINCIPLES – WILL DO
35
WHY I LIKE IT…
It is based on science and validated through experiments
• Social psychology, behavioural economics
• Yo...
36
IT IS NOT PARTICULARLY NEW…
37
IT IS NOT NECESSARILY EASY
38
39
IT HAS A STRONG RECENT HISTORY
Mostly to do with cognitive biases.
Daniel Kahneman
(prospect theory – Nobel Prize)
Dan ...
40
A NUMBER OF AUTHORS HAVE WRITTEN ‘POPULARLY’ ON THE SUBJECT
41
CIALDINI’S 6 PERSUASION PRINCIPLES
Reciprocity Scarcity Authority
Commitment Social proof Likability
Yes! 50 Secrets fr...
42
LOVES TO DO
EMOTION, AROUSAL, ATTENTION
43
IT’S A BIT MORE THAN THIS
44
EMOTION IS IMPORTANT
People forget what you say,
but they remember how you made
them feel”“
45
EMOTION IS IMPORTANT
“Emotional campaigns are
more than twice as effective
Les Binet
46
EMOTION IS UNIVERSAL
The best and most beautiful things in the
world cannot be seen or even touched.
They must be felt ...
47
48
EMOTION IS UNIVERSAL
49
THE AESTHETIC-USABILITY EFFECT, AND SO MUCH MORE
“Attractive things make people feel good,
which in turn makes them thi...
50
THINK BACK
Think back to the first time you saw and used an iPhone
Think about
 where you were
 who showed you
 what...
51
NORMAN’S 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF DESIGN TO OBSERVE
Visceral Behavioural Reflective
Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate)...
52
THERE ARE LOTS OF OTHER SOURCES AND THEORIES
Kano
Maslow Fogg
53
BUT HOW CAN YOU ASSESS IT? OR MEASURE IT?
Subjective Objective
Verbal report
Questionnaires
Pic from emotional
pictures...
54
FACIAL BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
Base emotions Cognition ‘Emognition’
 Fear
 Happiness
 Sadness
 Anger
 Disgust
 Confus...
55
Eyes and eyelids (such as
blinking or tightening)
Facial muscle contractions
HOW WE CODE FOR FBR
Wrinkles that appear o...
58
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER - UCD
59
competitive spontaneous
methodical humanistic
fast
slow
emotional
logical
60
competitive spontaneous
methodical humanistic
fast
slow
Nicola ‘head girl’
Hooper family
(her novice)
Mrs (+ Dr) Miller...
61
competitive spontaneous
methodical humanistic
fast
slow
emotional
Nicola ‘head girl’
Hooper family
(her novice)
Mrs (+ ...
62
BARTLE MMORPG PLAYER MODEL
|
63 | | 21 October 2009 | Usability and information architecture
64
65
TAKE HOME
Use the rules of perception, interaction/usability,
persuasion and emotion to inform and form customer
models...
66
@jonbunnyfoot
jon@bunnyfoot.com
0845 644 0650
THANKS
Mapping human behaviour with immersive expereiences by Jon Dodd
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Mapping human behaviour with immersive expereiences by Jon Dodd

1,164 views

Published on

How do we develop products, services and websites that provide customers with a rich, immersive and satisfying experience? What are the little peculiar human behaviours that we need to be aware of and tap into?

Jon holds a DPhil. in Visual and Computational Neuroscience from Oxford University. As an academic he researched (amongst other things) how you and your brain judge attractiveness, discern the shapes of shampoo bottles, and make decisions when shown visual illusions (he can also tell you a thing or two about how faces indicate age, gender and trustworthiness and why caricatures work so well).

In 1999 he co-founded Bunnyfoot. The premise was (and still is) to help people create great experiences by applying the brainy bits from science and psychology.

Published in: Technology

Mapping human behaviour with immersive expereiences by Jon Dodd

  1. 1. MAPPING HUMAN BEHAVIOUR FOR IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCES JON DODD CEO and Co-Founder
  2. 2. 2 WHERE I CAME FROM... Escaped from academic neuroscience  Face perception  Attractiveness  Shampoo bottles  Car shapes  Trust...  Decisions
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 5 ESCAPED... Started user (customer) experience consultancy Bunnyfoot in 1999 In fact this is a lie...  We were a usability and accessibility consultancy  Then a user centred design consultancy  Then a UX consultancy  Now a joined up customer experience consultancy
  5. 5. Hopefully throwing some light on how we get it to do what we want Your customer Today we are going to be looking inside this a bit
  6. 6. Most of us humans arrogantly suppose decisions are rational and conscious The cortex (and some other parts) is where conscious thought is thought to occur
  7. 7. But most of our behaviour including ‘complex’ behaviour is non-conscious (sub-conscious) The ‘older’ parts of the brain – the brain stem and mid-brain work ceaselessly to regulate us and control us
  8. 8. 9 THE BUNNYFOOT HIERARCHY OF CUSTOMER ACTION (HCA) IT’S A USEFUL WAY OF FRAMING SOME OF WHAT WE WILL COVER
  9. 9. 10 CREATING PROFITABLE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE WITH HCA Emotional affect principles (e.g. Norman, Kano) Intrinsic motivation, avoiding visceral -ves, causing arousal, fun, surprise... Research/test behavioural responses Apply the rules e.g. MVT, analytics, User test (usability, eyetracking, emotion...) Design principles (e.g. Norman) Usability principles (e.g. Schiederman, Nielsen, Molich ) Principles of perception (visual, auditory…) Attractive product/price/service Attractive tools and services Market research Improve (& repeat) BUILD IN PERSUASION & EMOTION WITH THE SAME UCD METHODS & ETHOS THAT ARE USED TO DELIVER USABLE DESIGN OF DESIRABLE PRODUCTS & SERVICES Persuasion and Trust principles from the fields of behavioural economics and sociology (e.g. Cialdini, Fogg)
  10. 10. 11 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER - UCD
  11. 11. 12 CAN DO – USABILTY & PERCEPTION
  12. 12. 13 NORMAN’S 6 7 DESIGN PRINCIPLES Visibility Affordance Signifiers Mapping Constraints Feedback Consistency MappingControls or information easy to locate & see Physical form dictates or directs function Visual form directs function Logical and clear correspondence of control to effect Minimise options to direct action / remove error Action confirmed clearly and immediately Aesthetically & functionally, internally and externally Don Norman, Book:’ the design of everyday things’ 88 (new edition soon)
  13. 13. 14 USABILITY ‘HEURISTICS’ 1. Visibility of System Status - Let users know where they are and what is going on 2. Match to the real world - Use familiar working methods, language and terms 3. User control and freedom - Let users control what they do and how they do it 4. Consistency and standards - Be consistent, adopt appropriate standards 5. Error Prevention - Prevent errors with maintenance, monitoring, design 6. Recognition not Recall - easy to learn - don’t rely on user memory – don’t make me think 7. Flexibility and efficiency of use - Make it quick and easy to use – efficient for all types of users (e.g. experts v novices) 8. Aesthetic and minimalist - Design should be as aesthetic and minimalist, and clear as possible 9. Assist users to recognise, diagnose & recover from errors - clear notification, no blame, support fix 10. Help and documentation - contextual, supportive, directive Nielsen & Molich (1993)
  14. 14. 15 What I want to talk about (quickly) is perception
  15. 15. 16
  16. 16. 17 GESTALT GROUPING PRINCIPLES DETERMINE HOW WE PERCEIVE OBJECTS AND ELEMENTS Its amazing how many designers seem to forget any of this
  17. 17. 18 VISUAL PATHWAYS – REASONABLY WELL UNDERSTOOD
  18. 18. 19 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES HAVE BEEN KNOWN FOR SOME TIME
  19. 19. 20 How many black dots are there?
  20. 20. 21 How many legs does the elephant have?
  21. 21. 22
  22. 22. 23
  23. 23. 24
  24. 24. 25 CONTEXT IS EVERYTHING
  25. 25. 26
  26. 26. 27 AND EVERYTHING IS RELATIVE
  27. 27. 28 PREATTENTIVE ENCODING Because of how the visual system works (effectively bottom up filtering of attributes of the visual scene) some properties are easier and quicker to perceive than others We can (and should) make use of this ‘pre-attentive’ processing for presenting information – it is particularly useful for things like data, graphs, dashboards etc. Colin Ware: Information Visualisation Splits 17 pre-attentive attributes organised into 4 groups • Colour • Position • Form • Motion
  28. 28. 29 SOME ARE BETTER THAN OTHERS AT QUANTITATIVE DATA Colour Hue Intensity no YES - but limited Position 2D position YES Form Orientation Size Shape Line width Line length Added marks Curvature Enclosure no YES – but limited no YES – but limited YES No Not really No Motion Flicker YES, but limited Quantitative?
  29. 29. 30 SPATIAL SCALE We filter visual images at different spatial scales High spatial frequencies (detail) can interrupt low spatial frequencies (big picture) Consider this when designing to initially grab attention (orientate) – and then have people focus on detail (discriminate) ...imagine a supermarket shelf
  30. 30. 31 CENTRAL v PERIPHERAL VISIONFACES ARE SPECIAL
  31. 31. 32 GREAT SOURCES FOR MORE
  32. 32. 33 INFO VIS PORN In fact any of his books
  33. 33. 34 PERSUASION PRINCIPLES – WILL DO
  34. 34. 35 WHY I LIKE IT… It is based on science and validated through experiments • Social psychology, behavioural economics • You can validate it, measure it There are established rules • Some seem obvious – but it is worth reminding ourselves • Some will surprise you • The majority of today is about learning these There are interesting subtleties • It is not a brainless exercise It can be tactical, but better if it is strategic • Today we will mainly be looking at tactical implementations ...but a whole persuasive experience can be ‘architected’
  35. 35. 36 IT IS NOT PARTICULARLY NEW…
  36. 36. 37 IT IS NOT NECESSARILY EASY
  37. 37. 38
  38. 38. 39 IT HAS A STRONG RECENT HISTORY Mostly to do with cognitive biases. Daniel Kahneman (prospect theory – Nobel Prize) Dan Ariely (predictably irrational) B. J. Fogg (persuasive technology) Robert Cialdini (persuasion principles)
  39. 39. 40 A NUMBER OF AUTHORS HAVE WRITTEN ‘POPULARLY’ ON THE SUBJECT
  40. 40. 41 CIALDINI’S 6 PERSUASION PRINCIPLES Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Commitment Social proof Likability Yes! 50 Secrets from the Science of Persuasion, Robert Cialdini, Steve J. Martin and Noah Goldstein, Profile books, 2007 Influence: Science and Practice, Robert Cialdini, Pearson, 2008
  41. 41. 42 LOVES TO DO EMOTION, AROUSAL, ATTENTION
  42. 42. 43 IT’S A BIT MORE THAN THIS
  43. 43. 44 EMOTION IS IMPORTANT People forget what you say, but they remember how you made them feel”“
  44. 44. 45 EMOTION IS IMPORTANT “Emotional campaigns are more than twice as effective Les Binet
  45. 45. 46 EMOTION IS UNIVERSAL The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart. Helen Keller “
  46. 46. 47
  47. 47. 48 EMOTION IS UNIVERSAL
  48. 48. 49 THE AESTHETIC-USABILITY EFFECT, AND SO MUCH MORE “Attractive things make people feel good, which in turn makes them think more creatively… …making it easier for people to find solutions to the problems they encounter. Don Norman
  49. 49. 50 THINK BACK Think back to the first time you saw and used an iPhone Think about  where you were  who showed you  what you did  what you thought  what you felt
  50. 50. 51 NORMAN’S 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF DESIGN TO OBSERVE Visceral Behavioural Reflective Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things, Donald Norman, Basic Books, 2005 Initial impact or appearance How it feels to use What it make you think about + others think - of you
  51. 51. 52 THERE ARE LOTS OF OTHER SOURCES AND THEORIES Kano Maslow Fogg
  52. 52. 53 BUT HOW CAN YOU ASSESS IT? OR MEASURE IT? Subjective Objective Verbal report Questionnaires Pic from emotional pictures (faces) ECG? fMRI etc… Big white coat effect + not practical Pupil dilation (via eyetracking) Doesn’t work well – methodological issues Facial behavioural response There could be something in this… Fundamental problems because of self report but can be useful In the end it’s a mix of methods that works
  53. 53. 54 FACIAL BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE Base emotions Cognition ‘Emognition’  Fear  Happiness  Sadness  Anger  Disgust  Confusion  Concentration  Doubt  Intrigue  Consideration  Amusement  Surprise  Guilt  Empathy  Anxiety  Frustration  Embarrassment CODES FOR 17 STATES
  54. 54. 55 Eyes and eyelids (such as blinking or tightening) Facial muscle contractions HOW WE CODE FOR FBR Wrinkles that appear or disappear Location and shape of eyebrows White exposed in eyes and pupil placement /dilation Changes in the chin Nostrils (such as flaring) Cheeks twitching Lip movements
  55. 55. 58 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER - UCD
  56. 56. 59 competitive spontaneous methodical humanistic fast slow emotional logical
  57. 57. 60 competitive spontaneous methodical humanistic fast slow Nicola ‘head girl’ Hooper family (her novice) Mrs (+ Dr) Miller John novice Ada m acco m Tom ‘bread & butter’ emotional logical
  58. 58. 61 competitive spontaneous methodical humanistic fast slow emotional Nicola ‘head girl’ Hooper family (her novice) Mrs (+ Dr) Miller John novice Ada m acco m Tom ‘bread & butter’ oBasic search oAdvanced search oPictures: mountains/landscape oPictures: Action skiing oFeature icons oFeature listings oLong descriptions oFunctional descriptions of resorts o Customer reviews oOnline booking oPictures: accommodation oResort map oPiste map oExpert help by phone oDescriptions with ‘personality’ oSnow report oSnow history oSnow forecast oFaceted search oScoped sections: family, luxury oDeals list oRefine search oEmail enquiry oInteractive map oEvocative descriptions of resorts oBest deal: buy now oWeb cam oAutomatic shotlisting/compare oFunctional description of accom oEvocative descriptions of accom oVote on facebook oDetailed booking form oResort finder ochecklist oSample menus oLong term chalet avaibility oExpert summary of the prev season oAccom on map oSaved searches oSnowboard filter logical
  59. 59. 62 BARTLE MMORPG PLAYER MODEL |
  60. 60. 63 | | 21 October 2009 | Usability and information architecture
  61. 61. 64
  62. 62. 65 TAKE HOME Use the rules of perception, interaction/usability, persuasion and emotion to inform and form customer models and interaction Ideally incorporate strategically within an iterative user centred design methodology
  63. 63. 66 @jonbunnyfoot jon@bunnyfoot.com 0845 644 0650 THANKS

×