House keeping laundry process sak

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House keeping laundry process sak

  1. 1. In particular fulfillment of project work for final year on LAUNDRY PROCESS Which is based on housekeeping
  2. 2. L A U N D R Y In any residential establishment, a lot of dirty linen accumulates in the various units and departments. It is essential to ensure a continuous supply of linen, which is well laundered, so that operations can be carried out smoothly and efficiently. Linen is an expensive item, so how it will be laundered requires serious consideration. People involved in handling linen should have some knowledge of the process. Moreover, the Housekeeper and Linen keeper should have a good rapport with the Laundry Manager. Although it is essential that good quality linen be purchased, the life of the linen depends on the care of linen in use and the treatment it gets at the laundry.
  3. 3. - careful handling of linen articles while laundering. - correct processing and use of a suitable laundry agent. - while materials are kept white, excessive bleach is not used. - proper counting and records maintained to avoid shortages of linen. - speedy operations to meet with operational requirements. - sound policies regarding damages or loss. A commercial or off-premises laundry refers to laundering activities performed outside the establishment i.e. given on a contract basis to specialists in the field. In a rare circumstance, the laundry is contracted and on-premises. An on-site or on premises laundry, however, refers to laundering activities carried on within the establishment by staff employed by the hotel. A good laundry facility ensures the following:
  4. 4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AN ON-PREMISES LAUNDRY : • Time taken for laundering is reduced because transportation is eliminated. • Linen is readily available especially in the case of emergency requirements. • Control over the wash process and the laundry agents used making the wear and tear on linen comparatively much lesser. • Pilferage is reduced. • The ‘par’ stock required is reduced. • Revenue is earned from guest laundry. Advantages :
  5. 5. • Cost of equipment and its maintenance is fairly high. • Related expenses like printing of forms, employee taxes, water taxes, energy costs and insurance are high. • More staff who are technically qualified and adequate space is required. • Must be justified by an adequate amount of linen. 1. Removal of dirt and stains from the linen articles 2. Restoring linen articles to their original appearance as far as possible. Disadvantages : PRINCIPLES OF LAUNDERING :
  6. 6. FLOW PROCESS CHART LAUNDERING :
  7. 7. Collection & Transportation : Collection of linen may be done in the Linen Room, if the laundry is off-site but is usually in the laundry itself, if the laundry is on-premises. During collection, all accessories that cannot be washed such as metal items; epaulettes, etc. should be removed at the time of collection. Certain linen items are collected separately. For example, kitchen uniforms or dusters are separately collected, as are butchery aprons and dusters, because they have a specific type of soil. Likewise, in a hospital, linen from the surgical ward would be collected separately. The linen is usually packaged in canvas bags lined with polyvinyl. Eyelets on the rim of the bag facilitate passing a nylon cord through, which can be tightened in order to shut the opening of the bag. In some cases elasticized net bags called ‘skips’ are used to collect linen. Carrying the linen in canvas bags or skips is one means of transportation.
  8. 8. Trolleys are most popular for transportation and the collapsible wire cart can be used to transport clean as well as soiled linen. Whatever the type of trolley, the soiled linen should not hang over the edge of the trolley, as it looks unsightly. If planned at the construction stage, an in-built chute is used for transporting linen from the floor pantries. It is preferable to put linen into canvas bags before dropping it down the chute so that wear and tear is reduced. However, this is rarely done, so it must be ensured that the flooring at the base of the chute should be easy to clean. The best collection system will vary from one operation to another but the increase of soil must be eliminated in order to prevent incurring unnecessary expenses.
  9. 9. On arrival, linen must be dealt with as quickly as possible. There must be a separate section for guest laundry that is usually handled by the most experienced staff. Processing linen for laundering as quickly as possible is necessary: - to ensure that linen items are available as and when required. - to avoid transfer of stains and prevent stains from becoming permanent. - so that it does not provide a breeding ground for bacteria and pests. - to prevent the formation of mildew on damp articles particularly bath linen. - to avoid the possibility of linen getting misplaced or lost. Arrival :
  10. 10. In hospitals, the infection risk necessitates the need for using gloves when sorting out linen. Gloves may also be used when handling hotel linen. Sorting is carried out according to the type of fabric and item, color as well as the degree and type of soil. Sorting is done to separate those articles that need dry cleaning from those that will go through the normal wash process. Those that need mending or stain removal will be separated so that they can be dealt with accordingly. Also, different articles take a different wash process in terms of temperature of water, type of laundering agent, length of wash cycle, whether hydro- extraction should be done and if so, the length of the hydro- extraction cycle. It takes less effort to pre-sort linen than to post-sort washed linen which is 50% heavier in weight due to water retention. Post- sorting is often essential in healthcare processes. Sorting :
  11. 11. Marking : Marking may be temporary (guest laundry) or permanent (monogramming of hotel linen). It is the temporary marking that is carried out at this stage. Most good establishments have a marking machine that attaches a heat sealed tape in an inconspicuous place. The tag has scope for six characters and is intended to indicate the initials of the guest as well as the room number. It provides a clear identification and correct billing, and although it does not come off in the normal wash process, it can be peeled off if so desired. Weighing : Is carried out to conform to the capacity of the washing machine. (Overloading) There is no or low centrifugal action because the linen articles are too tightly packed in the drum. Resultantly, there is inadequate friction and the deeply imbedded soil is not removed so the wash process is ineffective.
  12. 12. Certain synthetics develop creases as a result of overloading that are difficult to get rid of in the subsequent ironing process. Repeated overloading can cause the machine to breakdown. (Under loading)In this case, there is centrifugal action but inadequate friction because the linen articles are too far apart There is a good deal of wastage in terms of time, labor, laundry agents, water and power. Many modern machines have sensors that can gauge not only the load but also the length of cycle, temperature of water, water level, the type and amount of laundry agent and when it will be dispensed in the wash cycle. This is highly beneficial in the conservation of water and energy as well as reducing wear and tear on the linen articles.
  13. 13. Is often done manually or with a certain degree of automation. Where handling is taboo, a fully automated system exists. Shovel type cranes are used for lifting and depositing linen, thereby providing complete automation by eliminating the need for handling by operators. Alternatively, weighed linen in bags is transported along a track and directed to the opening of the washer extractor with the help of a nylon cord . A lock in the lower half of the bag is released, dropping the soiled linen into the washer extractor. Machines that tilt, provide ease in both loading as well as unloading. Machines may be top loading, front loading or side loading. Washing : This process is designed to perform three basic functions: 1. removal of soil 2. suspension of soil 3. discharge of the soil from the machine to the drain Loading :
  14. 14. 1.Length of cycle : If the cycle is too short, the linen will not be cleaned. If the cycle is too long, there will be unnecessary wear and tear and the clothes may actually become dirtier as a result of redeposit ion of soil. 2.Temperature of water: If the temperature of water is too high, it is likely to damage the linen. If the temperature is inadequate, the chemicals will not work effectively. 3.Water level : Incorrect ‘dip’ levels can alter the concentration of the laundry agents rendering them ineffective. In case of a gentle action the water level is usually higher forming a protective envelope to the delicate linen. In the wash process, the following factors must be considered :
  15. 15. This is also a crucial factor that affects the quality of wash Deciding which laundry agent should be used is dependent on the nature of the fabric being washed. Too little detergent will result in an incomplete cleaning process. And too much may remain as a residue after the rinse cycle is complete. It is important that the laundry agent is introduced into the wash cycle at the appropriate time if it is to have the required action. 4.Type and amount of detergent and when it will be dispensed in the wash cycle: 5.Mechanical action: This refers to the centrifugal action brought about by the movement of the drum that causes friction between the linen articles and is radically affected by overloading or under loading as well as the speed of the drum. Modern machinery often operates on sensors, which are capable of gauging each of these requirements for a specific load.
  16. 16. Rinsing : Once the wash cycle is completed, rinsing becomes essential. Rinsing is carried out at least twice and the purpose of this stage is to: 1. remove residue of laundry agents, which might show as patches on the linen after ironing or irritate the skin. 2. remove suspended dirt, which remains in the carry over liquor in the load at the end of the wash. 3. lower the temperature of the wash load by using a cold water rinse or alternatively reducing the temperature of water in consecutive rinses. A running rinse with an open drain is more effective but a larger volume of water is utilized.
  17. 17. Hydro-extraction : Is the removal of excess moisture through centrifugal action and is equivalent to wringing in hand washing .The absorbency of the fabric affects the length of the cycle (6 to 8 mines.) and the residue of moisture (10% to 30 %) Draining must precede hydro-extraction and hydro-extraction must precede tumbledrying. Some articles cannot be hydro-extracted so there is a pumping action to draw out the water from the linen load. Too short an extraction time will increase the drying time and may hinder the proper operation of finishing equipment. The most efficient extraction for cottons takes place at temperatures higher than 38º C but lower than 55º C so that they are not too hot to handle. Polyesters and blends should be extracted at a temperature below 38º C to prevent wrinkling. The compact mass of hydro-extracted clothes is referred to as ‘cheese’.
  18. 18. Unloading : Transferring washed linen from the hydro- extractor to the Tumble Dryer is a difficult task because of the added weight of moisture. Articles may be manually removed and put into trolleys. Tilting and dumping machines reduce the physical effort of manual unloading. A laundry cart can be positioned under the door and a pushbutton operated to rotate the cylinder and empty its contents. Alternatively, the machine can unload onto a conveyor belt that will transport the linen to the next set of operations. Tumble Drying : This process is capable of rendering the linen completely dry by blowing hot air ranging between 40º C to 60º C onto the articles as they are slowly circulated in the rotating drum. For articles that are susceptible to damage by heat,
  19. 19. there is the option of simply airing by circulating air at room temperature. To avoid wrinkles and the risk of spontaneous combustion, many dryers have a cool-down cycle at predetermined intervals. The process of tumble-drying creates a good deal of wear and tear on the fabric as particles of lint come off the fabric in the drying process. The time taken is approx. 30 mines. depending on whether the article is to be completely or partially dried. Finishing : For those articles that require a pressed finish, ironing and pressing are usual, but there are also other finishing equipment. Articles like blankets, towels, candlewick bedspreads, hosiery, etc. that do not require a pressed finish are only tumble-dried.
  20. 20. Can be done by machine but in most cases is carried out completely manually or at least the finishing folds are done manually. The use of a folding stand helps minimize this otherwise very labour-intensive operation. Manual folding makes it possible to achieve the desired fold as well as ensure quality control. Employees in this area are the one ones who ‘reject’ stained linen and are a good source for ascertaining what types and quantities of stains commonly occur. This is an important stage in the processing of laundered linen as it can be the ‘bottleneck’ in an otherwise efficient laundry operation. Correct folding is important to the appearance of the article and makes it convenient to store and use. Folding :
  21. 21. Transfer : Airing : This is essential prior to storage, especially if the articles are to be stored in closed shelves. It ensures that any moisture that is likely to cause mildew will be got rid of. Storage : :Should be properly done in a well–designed storage space. Linen should be allowed a rest period to recuperate before it is used again. The life span of linen is greatly increased if proper rotation of stock is carried out, thereby ensuring a ‘rest period’ between uses. As a general rule, at any given time, approximately 50% of the total linen inventory should be on the shelves, 25% in use and 25% in processing. The storage area must be isolated from the soiled linen and kept clean The linen is issued to the unit/department for use. Since transfer of clean linen is usually done by linen trolleys, it is important to keep the trolleys clean.
  22. 22. The linen is utilized for the necessary function intended and the cycle begins all over again. THE WASHING MACHINE Use :
  23. 23. - the essential parts of the washing machine are shown in the above diagram. - the machine may be top loading (lesser capacity), front loading or side loading (for large loads in industrial laundering). - the machine rotates for 15 seconds in one direction, stops and reverses direction for 15 seconds. This prevents the ‘roping’ of linen in the drum. - the speed of rotation of the drum depends on the diameter and ranges between 40 to 60 r.p.m. - centrifugal action of the drum causes friction between the clothes thereby suspending dirt. - the water level is referred to as ‘dip’. - the temperature of water ranges from 30º C to 95º C - machines operate on manual switches, dial settings, computerized cards or on computer panels.
  24. 24. - modern machinery have sensors that can gauge the length of cycle, level and temperature of water, amount of laundry agent and when it should be added in the wash cycle as well as the type of drum action, for a specific wash load. - industrial machinery have a control panel which displays the stage in the wash cycle in progress, the time remaining for the completion of the cycle, the temperature of water and the chemical in use. - machines which carry out washing as well as hydro-extraction are called washer Extractors.
  25. 25. HYDRO-EXTRACTOR : THE WASH CYCLE : Flush Suds Bleach Rinse Sour & Soft Extract Modern hydro-extractors work on the centrifugal action and the procedure is usually part of the wash cycle. The drum rotates at high speed (at least ten times the wash speed) and the clothes are pressed against the sides of the drum and water passes out through the perforations and out through the open drain. A complete wash cycle is composed of various stages and the time taken is approx. 40 to 50 minutes. It has been proven that quick wash cycles using large volume of water broken down into the following sequence is most effective.
  26. 26. ADDITIONAL STAGES IN THE WASH CYCLE : There are four factors that are as basic to laundry operations as they are to any other good cleaning operation. These are essential where there is a specific type of soiled or the articles are heavily soiled. -- Soak -- Break -- Carryover Suds (Intermediate Rinse) -- Intermediate Extract -- Starch (Sizing)
  27. 27. TUNNEL WASHERS : These are also called batch washers or continuous washers and are in effect a series of inter-connected washers. Each ‘bath’ is in a different cylinder and the load moves from one cylinder to the next. Computerized systems automatically adjust the time, temperature and chemicals to be used, so that each batch receives the required treatment. Machines may be top transfer or bottom transfer. Tunnel washers have distinct advantages in that they are timesaving, thereby reducing staff requirement. There are also significant energy and water savings. Tunnel washers can also be hooked up to an extractor and subsequently with conveyors to the dryer.
  28. 28. Dryers are machines that dry laundry by tumbling it slowly in a perforated drum exposed to hot air ranging from 40ºC to 60ºC in low capacity dryers and going right up to 85ºC in an industrial dryer. There are programmes for delicate articles with low or no heat. Dryers may operate on gas, electricity or steam. For speedy drying and less wrinkling the volume of the dryer should be 25% more than the washer- extractor. Most dryers have a microprocessor computer control system. Although suitable drying times are usually recommended for specific fabrics, some dryers have sensors hooked onto their microprocessors so that they can gauge the moisture in the load and cut the dryer off automatically the moment the laundry is dry. This is a major preventive factor against spontaneous combustion, as hot air blowing on ‘bone dry’ fabrics can easily set it on fire. TUMBLE DRYER :
  29. 29. Furthermore, the dryer may have a post-drying cool down cycle that also reduces the fire hazard as well as prevents the formation of wrinkles in no iron fabrics. The process creates a great deal of wear and tear on the fabric as particles of lint come off in the drying process. A lint screen traps the lint particles and must be cleaned regularly. Lint build-up restricts air-flow and reduces the rate of moisture removal, thereby increasing energy consumption and costs. The length of the cycle is dependent on the absorbency of the fabric, the residue of moisture and whether the fabric is to be completely dried (approximately 40 mines.) Modern dryers are equipped with high tech features such as signal lights, self-cleaning lint screens, reverse cylinder drums as well as energy-saving devices like extra insulation and heat re claimers
  30. 30. Is used for flatwork i.e. items like sheets, pillowcases, tablecloths, serviettes, apr ons, sari, etc. The items are passed through heated rollers for ironing. FINISHING EQUIPMENT : For those articles that require a pressed finish there are many finishing equipment. Some of the more frequently used equipment are listed below. Flatwork Ironer / Roller Iron / Calendar : Is for shaped articles (usually clothing) like shirts, trousers, etc. They are special presses to perform specific functions and operation can be on electricity or steam. Press : Is a chamber where low-crease garments are suspended on hangers and steam or hot air is circulated through the cabinet. Cabinet Dryer or Drying Room :
  31. 31. Clothes are hung on conveyor belts that pass through a tunnel. Hot air blowing in the tunnel, renders the articles completely dry by the time they exit. It is a fully automated process that also transfers the linen to the next area of activity. Puffer or Suzie : For coats and articles that do not crease heavily. The articles are put onto a dummy that is inflated with steam to remove creases and then with hot air to remove the moisture created by the steam. Tunnel Dryer : LOCATION AND PLANNING OF AN ON- PREMISES LAUNDRY : When planning an on-premises laundry it must be located far from guestrooms so that guests are not disturbed. It is essential that the laundry be located near the linen room for convenience and reducing transportation time.
  32. 32. Ideally, the area should have an outside wall since equipment need to be vented to the outside. With few exceptions, the laundry is located in the basement because laundry equipment is very heavy and the vibrations of the equipment are better absorbed. Such a location makes it imperative to have a proper ventilation system. In circumstances where the laundry is located at an upper floor, usually as a result of expansion, the floor may have to be structurally re-enforced. Wherever the laundry is located, the walls of the room should be durable and moisture resistant; ceilings should be at least ten feet high, must resist moisture and absorb sound. A cement floor with easily cleanable floor drains and no spots where water can pool is vital. The ideal size for a hotel laundry is difficult to determine.
  33. 33. The types and amounts of linen used, the average number of guests per day, whether the hotel has one or more restaurants, whether there is a health club and/or swimming pool, the types and capacities of laundry equipment, whether employee uniforms are laundered at the hotel, whether there are guest laundry facilities offered, are a few examples of the variables that must be considered not only when determining the required area but also when planning the layout. Laundry employee schedules must also be taken into consideration at the planning stage. To run smoothly, a laundry needs to be well designed and have the right equipment. properly installed. Such laundries have an advantage of low maintenance costs. In an existing laundry operation, it is necessary to observe for signs that indicate that the laundry may need to be redesigned.
  34. 34. These may include too many last-minute rush jobs, piles of unprocessed linen, persistent linen shortages, excessive overtime among laundry workers and overcrowding of the laundry workspace. The basic design factors that need to be thought out when designing or redesigning an on-premises laundry include location, size, equipment layout, utilities and labor Each lodging operation is unique, therefore it is impossible to provide specific information on equipment selection. Criteria that are applicable to the selection of all cleaning equipment must be considered. Ease of operation is important and though most machines have microprocessors that simplify procedures, it should be easy to train operators particularly where there is a likelihood of a high staff turnover. The versatility of equipment is important especially in a washer extractor.
  35. 35. It should be able to dispense a variety of chemical formulas and have different cycles to deal with different laundry items and soiling conditions Regarding durability ,the equipment must be well-constructed from robust materials with life-extending features such as heavy duty motors and a load distribution speed. This is crucial, since they will be handled by many operators. It is advisable to select a well established manufacturer who specializes in laundry equipment and will provide a warranty, servicing and spare parts back-up and training in operation and maintenance. A factor that is frequently overlooked is how the equipment will be brought into the building. Machines may work on gas, electricity or steam and should be connected to a common master switch that can be switched off in case of emergencies. In any case, fire-fighting equipment must be installed in this area.
  36. 36. LAYOUT OF A LAUNDRY : When planning the layout of a laundry, consider the work flow and wherever possible ensure that the plan does not hinder the smooth flow of operations. To reduce turnaround time between loads, ease of loading and unloading equipment must be ensured – area for accumulating and sorting linen should be located close to the washer extractor; dryers should be adjacent to the washer extractor, to save time and employee effort; hinges of the washer extractors and the dryers are adjustable and can be placed on the right or left side of the door, so the proper choice must be made in accordance with the laundry layout in order to avoid employees having to walk around the open door to get from one machine to the next; the folding area should be located near the area where laundered linen is stored.
  37. 37. - entrances and exits - support columns and beams - space between adjacent machines and adequate space between the back of the machine and the wall which is essential to facilitate servicing and repair. - power points for electrical supply and the required voltage. (gas and steam supply in many other parts of the world) - water supply lines with adequate pressure (10 gallons per Kg of linen approx.) and preventing the occurrence of ‘water hammer’ - hot water supply lines must utilize heavy duty heating equipment which in recent times is being substituted by the use of solar energy. - water softening - also the removal of iron, manganese and sculpture to eliminate staining and enhance the action of the detergent. When positioning laundry equipment, the following must be considered:
  38. 38. - drain locations and proper drainage system that will keep up with the rapid discharge rate of modern equipment. This is best met by a drain trough and the normal floor drain is also installed to deal with overflows. - a separate section to deal with guest laundry/valet service. - local code for restrictions/ permit requirements. - energy and water conservation as well as safety factors also affect decisions regarding the selection of equipment. - area must accommodate the total number of staff working at the busiest times (approx.1 staff for 40Kg of laundry) - the size of the property and the type of services offered are major considerations for planning.
  39. 39. As technology strives to automate every face of hotel operations, computerized laundry systems have been around for quite a while. The hotel cannot sell a single room or a cover in the restaurant without the use of textile products. With the realization of the potential benefits of cleaning up the laundry operations, more and more streamlining processes are being introduced. Apart from exploring the options of localized laundry operations that service multiple properties, outsourcing laundry services, water reclamation and heat recovery systems to reduce hotel energy consumption, some hotels are experimenting with Windows- based laundry software and ozone washing.
  40. 40. LAUNDRY AGENTS : Water by itself is ineffective as a cleaning agent, due to a phenomenon known as ‘surface tension’. It will remove water-soluble dirt, but has little effect on oils and grease. The addition of a detergent reduces the surface tension, allowing the water to penetrate, wetting the garment thoroughly so that soil is more accessible. Suspending Agent : The role of the suspending agent in cleaning is to hold the dirt in suspension and prevent it from red positing onto the surface of the article. It plays a crucial role in the laundry agent due to the amount of time that the clothes rotate in the machine while the dirt is in suspension. The suspending agent is carboxyl methyl cellulose.
  41. 41. These act along with the suspending agent to hold dirt in suspension. They assist by holding a greater amount of dirt in suspension thereby reducing the likelihood of redeposit ion. They also have the additional ability to dissolve lime salts that are responsible for temporary hardness in water. Sodium polyphosphates act as sequestering agents. Sequestering Agent : Alkali Alkalis used in the wash process include 1. Washing Soda 2. Sodium Phosphate 3. Sodium Hydroxide 4. Sodium Met silicate The role of the alkali in the wash process OTHER LAUNDERING AGENTS
  42. 42. Bleaches : These are used on white articles only. They remove coloring matter by their oxidizing or reducing action. If not in liquid form, they should be dissolved in hot water in order to ensure that no powder residue remains in the washing machine which may affect later loads. The bleaches commonly used in the laundry process are sodium perforate and sodium hypochlorite. Antichlor : These are agents used to neutralize the chlorine bleach and are essential particularly in the case of polyesters. The use of chlorinated bleaches has a tendency to leave yellow deposits. Sour : This is used only in industrial laundering in the final rinse, to neutralize any alkaline soap residues that may be present.
  43. 43. It brings the pH of the linen articles to a level between 5 and 6.5, which is agreeable to the human skin. and also gets rid of yellow or brown deposits caused by residue alkali. Acetic acid is used as the sour. In cases where there is a high iron content in the water, Oxalic acid is used which serves a dual purpose, by also getting rid of the reddish, iron deposits. If starch is being used, sour should be added 2 minutes before the starch to achieve a pH of 5.0 to 5.5. If a sizing agent is being used, the ideal pH is 7.0 to 8.0 so sour is generally not used. LAUNDRY PROCEDURES for different fabrics : LAUNDERING OF COTTONS The process of laundering cotton fabrics is dependent on the texture of the fabrics, fastness of color and the finish appropriate to its use.
  44. 44. Sorting is a major stage according to - fine ,delicate cotton (mulmul, muslin) - white and light fast colors - dark, fast colors - non-fast colors A further classification into coarse articles, bed linen and personal articles and table linen. This sorting will be responsible for deciding - the temperature of water in the main wash - the need for disinfection/sterilization - the detergent used - the speed of rotation of the drum - the length of the wash cycle - the use of bleach and optical brighteners - the need to starch - hydro-extraction
  45. 45. Silk should be washed frequently as perspiration damages the fabric. Never soak articles as it weakens the fabric nor should they be subjected to high heat (wash temperature approx. 30º C). The detergent should have a good surfactant and should not depend on mechanical action for cleaning. No harsh chemicals should be used. The final rinse of silk articles should be carried out with a little vinegar in it. (1 stun /10 liters water) in order to preserve luster. Silk is too delicate to be hydro-extracted. Silk should never be sundried as this damages the fabric and causes yellowing of the fabric. Ironing is on medium heat as silk scorches easily. The article must be evenly dampened and water should never be sprinkled on the fabric as it leaves watermarks. LAUNDERING OF SILK :
  46. 46. Ensure that the articles are completely dry so that creases do not reappear on the portion which is damp. Ironing is carried out on the reverse in order to preserve luster and air all silk garments after ironing. Silk is usually dry- cleaned. In the laundering of wool, the articles must be shaken out to remove the dust particles that are held in the loosely constructed weave. Hand-knitted garments are very susceptible to felting and stretching. Mark the outline of the article prior to washing and arrange it in its original size and shape after laundering and dry flat. In the laundering of wool, the following should be avoided: - application of friction - fluctuating and high temperatures - use of strong laundry agents LAUNDERING OF WOOL :
  47. 47. - wringing tightly and hydro-extraction - hanging the fabric when wet - prolonged soaking as it makes the fabric weak The capacity of the machine, may have to be disregarded due to the bulkiness of the article The movement of the drum should be gentle and a scrubbing brush should never be used . The wash cycle should be short and water temperature (not more than 35º C). The rinse cycle should be thorough and borax is added to the final rinse water to prevent matting. No hydro-extraction is permitted but there is instead a pumping action for the removal of moisture. Usually ironing is not required, but wherever necessary, iron when the article is completely dry, using a low temperature and ironing on the reverse of the article. It is very essential to air to fabric after ironing.
  48. 48. These are manufactured so that they shed dirt quickly in the wash. However if they become heavily soiled, (especially collars and cuffs and sari borders) they become difficult to clean, so it is better to wash them after every use. Soaking the garments before laundering is beneficial as it loosens the dirt. Care must be taken when loading the machine as overloading results in creases which may be difficult to remove later. The application of friction should avoid the use of a scrubbing brush and should be restricted to heavily soiled parts only. The wash cycle is short and carried out at a low temperature (30º C) Rinsing should be carried out in water at room temperature. The hydro- extraction cycle is also short as synthetic articles have a low absorbency. Iron on low heat but quickly as if there is a prolonged contact it is likely to scorch the fabric. LAUNDERING OF SYNTHETICS :

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