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Media Regulations- PROTECTING UNDER 18s & HARMAND OFFENCE
Balance - a situation in Accuracy - the which different quality or state of being correct or precise Glossary elements are equal or in the correct proportions:Objectivity - A proposition is generally considered Impartiality -to be objectively true when its truth conditions are treating all rivals ormet and are "mind-independent"—that is, not met disputants equallyby the judgment of a conscious entity or subject. Access - the right or Representation - the action of opportunity to use or speaking or acting on behalf of benefit from something someone or the state of being so represented Privacy - a state in whichBias - a concentration on or one is not observed orconcern in one particular area disturbed by other peopleor subject Opinion - a view or judgement Subjectivity - based on or formed about something, not influenced by personal necessarily based on fact or feelings, tastes, or opinions: knowledge
Watershed.• In television, the term watershed means the time period in a television schedule during which programs with adult content can air.• a television watershed also serves as a dividing line – it divides the time between where content for families and/or children has to be aired, and where content aimed towards an adult audience can be aired Examples of adult content include, but are not limited to, graphic violence, horror, strong language, nudity, sexual intercourse or reference, drug use, and/or suggestive themes. In most countries, the same set of rules also apply to commercial advertisements
Interviews• Many interviews in documentaries rely on who they’re interviewing and also what the matter is and timing of the interview.• Many interviewees have a biased opinion on the subject matter. They hardly ever argue for both sides of the story. They almost try and persuade the audience to be on the same side as they are, and with supporting evidence and archive footage, there is more reason to support their ideas on the topic.. It is sometime difficult to book a specific interview as the interviewee may not feel comfortable talking about the subject matter etc.
Issues facing producers of factual programming..
Under 18’sUnder 18s must be protectedfrom potentially harmful andoffensive material. One of themain ways of achieving this is through the appropriate Anything unsuitable for any viewers must be scheduling of programmes. shown at nine pm or later. Nothing unsuitable for children should, in general, be shown before 9pm or after 5.30 am. there should then be a gradual transition to more adult material, generally, the more adult in nature a programme is, the later in the schedule it should appear.
The main way in which under 18s may be protectedfrom potentially harmful and offensive material isthrough the appropriate scheduling of programming.In practice this means that, as a general rule, themore adult in nature the content is, the later it shouldbe broadcast, with the 9pm watershed being thecrucial point in time before which material unsuitablefor children should not generally be broadcast.parents are expected to take full increasingresponsibility for their children’s viewing. Parents may need to take into account that by their children viewing a programme that is showing from 9pm onwards that this could have a huge impact on their physical, mental, and moral development.
Balance• Equality of information in certain subjects such as political content in the mass media. Also balance can be biased in describing a perceived issue as being more balanced between opposing viewpoints than the evidence actually supports. Journalists may present evidence and arguments out of proportion to the actual evidence for each side, or may even actually suppress information.An example of this would be ‘I’m a celebrity get me out of here’and also ‘Big brother’.
ObjectivityGetting main point across being open minded about the point being made about the subject at hand It refers to the prevailing ideology of news gathering and reporting that emphasizes eyewitness accounts of events, corroboration of facts with multiple sources and balance of viewpoints.
Subjectivitykeeping your personal views/feelings out of the issues as this can lead to more of an one sided view on the matter at hand and become more biased.An example of this would be the most recent documentary presented byTrevor McDonald. In this documentary his personal views aren’t allowed to be shown as it will make the programme biased and will mislead theaudience which due to Ofcom is not what they are intending them to do.
OpinionGiving a balanced view this is a subjective belief, orinterpretation of facts. An opinion may be supported by anargument, although people may oppose certain Opinionsfrom the same set of facts. An example of an opinion beingput across a video sequence would be the ‘ 9/11 inside jobtheory’. In this documentary some Americans believe thatthe 9/11 was planned and caused by the US government.This documentary is a great example of a persuasivelanguage as it can convince the audience what to believewhether it is right or not.
Interview Before any factual programme is made it should be well organised and planned. If any interviews need to be filmed inorder to back up a point in a documentary the interviewer must be able to plan and arrange a meeting in advance so it fits around the clients timetable. An example of this would be thefast food documentary ‘SUPERSIZE ME’. In this documentary the interview with the doctor was essential (to back up theory) so therefore it had to be planned way in advance so that it didn’t interfere with the interviewees timetable. If this is not scheduled properly then the argument being put across will be less persuasive as there is no information from professionals to back up the theory put forward.
Harmful or offensive material includes strong language, violence, sexual behaviour etc.. Its inclusion must be justified editorially and by Strong Language the context i.e. taking into consideration the editorial content of the programme, itsscheduling, the audience’s likely expectations,any warning should and must be given before hand to raise awareness to the viewer Viewers should be clearly forewarned of any potentially harmful or offensive material so they can make their own informed choices about what they and their children watch. This usually requires clear on-air pre-transmission warnings.
Programmes must be true and accurate. It is the responsibility of programme-makers Truth and Accuracy and broadcasters to ensure that viewers are not misled, therefore when I finally finish my production I will make sure that the audience are not misled by anything that is filmed or said throughout my sequence. An example of a misled factual programme would be ‘Big Brother’. In this particular factual programmes the Programmes should not condone or audience are misled as they believe they glamorise violent, dangerous or are watching ‘real’ people’s lives on TV, but seriously anti-social behaviour, actually, all the footage has been editedespecially where it is likely to encourage and fixed to a certain extent where they others to copy such behaviour are not seeing everything that was originally filmed. This is done purposely by the publishers to entertain the audience.
Any discriminatory treatment or language e.g. on grounds of age, disability, gender, race, religion, beliefs Programmes including exorcism, and sexuality must be justified by the the occult and the paranormal context. Nothing transmitted should be will require careful handling purposely intended to stir up racial hatred or, taking into account the circumstances, be likely to do so. Programmes should show respect for human dignity. In news and factual programmes, showing people in distress and in sensitive situations requires clear editorial justification.Representation Similarly, in entertainment programmes, careful consideration must be given to humour based on the plight or misfortune of individuals.
As far as the programme scheduling goes, the rules apply to all;including trailers and promotion advertisements.Depending on the context of the sequence will determine when theclip will be shown on TV and when it is most appropriate. The transition of the more ‘adult’ like programmes begin by the adverts. The adverts gives an insight to the audience especially if children are watching too. The advertisements builds up to the programme as if it’s an introduction, this is called a gradual transition. If it is not picked up on then almost always a ‘flag up’ will have been given, to give and inform the viewers about what they should expect from this up coming programme.
Expectations of channelsAll TV channels are there to represent itself but sometimes, hardly ever, a miss understanding may occur. Many TV channels have given a reputation for themselves! Examples of these are: BBC1 and MTV. You would expect to see factual programmes on BBC1 with appropriate medialanguage used, whereas, MTV have a reputation for there reality TV shows and the use of bad language. However both these TV channels are aimed at different audiences!
Secret Filming Producers must set out inBefore any secret filming is writing their justification forundertaken, covert filming/there are detailed guidelines you recording. It must satisfy themust provisions of Section 8.13 of the Code. Individuals must not normally be filmed or recorded secretly for inclusion in a programme unless approved by the broadcaster in advance.
Reconstructions• All reconstructions must be fair and accurate.• If there is a risk that viewers might be misled, reconstructions should be labelled as such to avoid confusion.• Where there is risk of causing distress by reconstructing actual events, appropriate parties should be informed.
Payments• Do not make payments to sources or contributors without reference to and the approval of the broadcaster.• You must seek advice from the programme lawyer before making or promising to make any payment to a convicted or confessed criminal.• You must not make any payment or promise to make any payment to any witness or defendant involved in any kind of legal proceedings without the consent of the commissioning editor and programme lawyer. Where criminal proceedings are likely and foreseeable, again never pay or promise to pay a potential witnesses without first consulting with your commissioning editor and taking advice from the programme lawyer.
Dealing with Contributors• If advertising for contributors, the wording of adverts should be approved by the commissioning editor and programme lawyer.• Contributors should take part in programmes on the basis of their informed consent.• Consent should normally be in the form of a signed release form, although consent on camera may be satisfactory.• Any set-ups or use of deception must be justified by the public interest and this must always be agreed in advance by the broadcaster, unless it is intended to seek consent of those filmed before broadcast.• Letters to key prospective contributors should be approved by the commissioning editor and programme lawyer before being sent.• Any approach to seek a response (right of reply) in relation to significant allegations or criticisms must be discussed and approved in advance by the programme lawyer.• Any conditions placed on interviews by contributors must be agreed by the programme lawyer before programme-makers accept. Programme-makers cannot agree to give contributors previews of programmes without the consent of the commissioning editor. Editorial control must never be ceded.
- Any attempt to seek an interview without prior arrangementi.e. a ‘doorstep, mustbe discussed and approved by the programme lawyer inadvance. - Programme-makers must comply with the rules onpayments.Interviews must be fairly edited.- Individuals in distress should not be put under pressure to agree to be interviewed or otherwise take part in a programme.- If filming with the police or other authorities, seek advice fromthe programme lawyer. - If a source seeks an absolute guarantee of anonymity seekimmediate advice from your programme lawyer.
Fairness and privacy• We must avoid the unfair treatment of individuals and organisations in programmes.• If the programme you are making involves criticising or making any damaging allegation about any living individual or organisation, seek advice from your programme lawyer.• Any significant infringement of privacy of an individual or organisation, in the making or broadcast of a programme, must be warranted by the public interest
CriminalityProgrammes involving criminals or aboutcriminality require special care and are likely tobe legally contentious
Impartiality• Impartial -The quality of being able to present freedom from bias or favouritism; disinterestedness; equitableness; fairness; as, impartiality of judgment, of treatment within a factual programme.An example of Impartial TV would be the most recent factual programme onPanorama ‘Jimmy Savile’ – What the BBC knew. I personally feel that thisprogramme could be seen as being fair and unfair. I think it was fair as itallowed the public to finally know the truth about this serious important matter. Itgave the public several facts and addressed the main issue with this nationaltragedy. On the other hand, I feel this is unfair as I feel that the majority of thepublic would believe all the information provided from the BBC.
Potentially Offensive Material• Material with the potential to cause offence e.g. strong language, violence, sexual violence, explicit sexual portrayal etc. must always be justifiable by the context.• Advice should be given from the legal & compliance department at an early stage.• The commissioning editor, on the advice of the programme lawyer, will ensure that an on- air warning is given to viewers, where appropriate
Commercial References- Programmes should not give undueprominence to commercial products or services.Product placement is prohibited.- Where programmes contain viewer competitions and/or premium rate telephone lines for viewers to call, seek advice from the programme lawyer.- Sponsored programmes must not contain promotional references to the sponsor, its activities or products or services.- Advertisements or clips from advertisements used within programmes will require strong editorial justification.- Always seek advice from your programme lawyer.
Aileen. Aileen directed by Nick Broomfield.This documentary is a well known successful factual documentary, it is hugely successful for the way the documentary is exposed to everyone and also the content in which filmed. Through the use of the codes and conventions, Nick Broomfield stuck to a strict schedule by onlyshowing the documentary after 9:30pm to 5:30am. This is ideal as it protects the viewers from harmful, offensive material. By adding in the certificate of 16A it also informs the audience that the content that will be shown throughout the documentary is only suitable for 16yr olds and over. If anyone decides to ignore the certificate given and is disturbed by the footage shown it is only their fault as they were warned and decided to purposely ignore all the information they would have benefitted from. They watched the programme at their own risk. All the information that was shown on the documentary is all factual based, it is important that the audience are not miss led. In the documentary Aileen, many aspects where watched closely to make sure the audience weren’t mislead by anything shown on TV. The documentary follows: Objectivity; Accuracy; Representation; Biased opinion; Opinion ; Subjectivity; Privacy; Balance; Access and Impartiality very closely and lives up to the subtexts of these things.
My 9 minute Documentary… My nine minute documentary will be suitable for people under the Under 18’s age of 18 however it would be only be shown from 9pm and after. There is a possibility that strong may be used throughout my Strong Language documentary. But because it will be shown after 9pm it shouldnt matter as much, but if young children are going to be watching it will therefore be the parents responsibilities about what their children hear and see.Truth and Accuracy My documentary is going to be very truthful. We cannot promise that nothing will be set up purely for the audiences entertainment but it will be a reality factual documentary.
We intentionally will not be using the technique of secret Secret filming filming in our documentary however we can not promise anything. Secret film maybe set up for the viewers entertainment. My peers and myself will not be reconstructing an Reconstruction original ghost story. The footage that we film we not be acted out. Payments We will not be getting paid for a class 9 minute documentary. Every advertisement that is released about our nineDealing with contributors minute documentary will have to be approved by the contributors before it is out in the public eye.
If our programme is uncomfortable for someFairness and Privacy audience members to watch then it would be best to seek advice from the programme adviser..Criminality There will be no criminal based material throughout our 9 minute factual programme. - We’re dealing with the superstition of ghostPotential Offence Material occurring in the Henley college basement. - This could potentially offend any non religious groups of people and also