Studio news readers• A news reader is someone who .. reads the news on a TV or radio broadcast.• Their image must be just right as thousands of people will be watching. Their speech and grammar must also be at a high standard.• All their information has to be at least 110% accurate. The audience cannot be misled into believing something that is harmful or untrue.• Their role is to provide the audience with all the up to date news stories that cover the country.• An example of a studio news reader = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eh_Kb5z6S1U
Field Reporters• A field reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. Reporters gather their information in a variety of ways, including tips, press releases, sources (individuals with newsworthy information) and witnessing events. They perform research through interviews, public records, and other sources.• The information-gathering part of the job is sometimes called "reporting" as distinct from the production part of the job, such as writing articles. Reporters generally split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interview people.• An example of this could be at a sporting match, or if an incident has just happened and they need an on set location interview there. You would see this sometimes if the weather is bad ( snowing)
Modes of Address to viewerPoint of view Directness Formalitytextual context: the conventions of the genre and of a specific syntagmatic structure;• social context (e.g. the presence or absence of the producer of the text, the scale and socialcomposition of the audience, institutional and economic factors); and• technological constraints (features of the medium employed). textual context: the conventions of the genre and of a specific syntagmatic structure;• social context (e.g. the presence or absence of the producer of the text, the scale and socialcomposition of the audience, institutional and economic factors); and• technological constraints (features of the medium employed).
Interviewing• A somewhat formal discussion between a hirer and an applicant or candidate, typically in person, in which information is exchanged, with the intention of establishing the applicant’s suitability for a position.• An example of an interview http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1MGi12RspA• Interviews show the realism of the story and how people have been effected by situations.
Witnesses and Experts• Witnesses and Experts are almost on Tv programmes everyday.• They are there to provide truthful and factual information.• The expert is there to explain it all in more depth and giving supporting evidence.• While the Witness may have experienced whatever the ‘subject matter’ is.
Actuality Footage• uses footage of real events, places, and things in news bulletins - by doing so the viewer becomes more engaged and gets a feeling of being there and seeing it first hand. War footage, riot footage etc... are examples of actuality footage
Realism• Documentaries, are regarded as high-status programmes that represent ‘truth’ when are shown.• It is an approach to the ‘real’ rather than a product of the imaginary• Based on real life event or occurrence• Shaped or created by an individual• Audience are positioned to feel a particular way.
Language used to shape realism through documentariesPlacing the audience in the action :- Un even hand held camera work- Film makers presence- Location shooting- Natural lighting- Interviews with witnesses
Techniques that allow the audience to be ‘objective’- Archive footage- Voice over- Expert testimonial- Material shaped into a narrative
Dramatisation• the reconstruction of an event, novel, story in a form suitable for dramatic presentation - So in the from of a documentary they may dramatize an event to make it more sellable to the audience. Although the story is true, the producer will have spiced it up to make it watchable and interesting.
Impact it has on the audience (news)• The news has always been a huge consistent part of the media industry and as a rule most viewers and listeners are informed with huge regularity (mostly daily)• News broadcasts from television studios, has a visual impact directly to the audience, video footage of incidents give the audience a powerful connection and believability to the story. The audience rely on the truthful accuracy of these news stories and so interviews, witnesses and experts add greater validity.
...• When listening to the news e.g. Car, the relaying information is brief yet factual and allows a listening audience to digest the information easier.• The use of audio interviews also lends a truthful adaptation of the event.
Impact on the audience (documentaries)• Documentaries display a much more detailed and informative delivery as they are solely focused on the specific subject.• Documentaries can have varying impacts on an audience. Interviews can offer and varying point of view on the subject and this adds to the dramatic effect.• Documentaries can occasionally be prone to hyperbole which again gives more of a dramatic vibe.