Title Theeffectiveness of student directed multimodal texts in improving the attitude towards reading of a Year 2 student with Autism.
Statement of the Issue Alex has been diagnosed to be on the spectrum of Autism. He goes to extension for numeracy, however, has enormous anxiety in regards to literacy. He has a very poor attitude to reading and consequently will/does not do his set readers for homework. Both his teacher and his parents would like to see a shift in this. He has intense interests about a range of science topics and enjoys to ‘google’ to learn facts.
Research Question How effective are student directed multimodal texts in improving the attitude toward reading of a Year 2 student with Autism?
Literature Review – Attitude toReading Debated overtime, whether reading proficiency impacts attitude to reading or whether attitude to reading impacts reading proficiency and literacy skills. Rowell (1972) Investigated factors related to change in attitude toward reading by implementing a corrective reading intervention, proving age, socio-economic status nor sex had any significant correlation to the change in attitude to reading. It is not necessarily the most effective approach to target improving children’s literacy skills in order to improve their attitude to reading. McKenna and Kear (1990) If children are not engaged in the text presented to them, or in reading generally, their skills will not show considerable improvement. Engaging in text they are interested in will foster a far better opportunity for them to learn and strengthen their literacy skills. Smith (1990) Attitude to reading stems from their reading experiences in early childhood. Educational professionals are must foster positive attitude to reading in the early years of schooling. Seitz (2010) Recurring failures to succeed in reading and literacy will cause self-concept issues and consequently complicate a student’s ability to learn. Children are often given readers appropriate to their level which often will cause students to feel upset and disengaged as though they are having to read ‘baby books’. Imperative that students are presented with interesting and cognitively challenging texts either orally or by recording.
Literature Review – Autism Bennetto, Pennington, and Rogers (1996) Poor performance on measures of executive function (EF). EF is a term used by psychologists to refer to cognitive abilities that control and regulate behaviour. Yirmiya, Sigman, Kasari and Mundy (1992) People with Autism often struggle to share and verbalise normal emotional states and may show a range of behaviours alternative to people without Autism. Baron-Cohen’s (1991) People with Autism do not actually understand emotion. Inability to form and establish emotional relationships.
Literature Review – MobileTechnologies Naismith, Lonsdale, Vavoula and Sharples (2004) Provides the sufficient equipment to offer rich multimedia experiences and for location-specific resources. Collaborative learning. Liu, Wang, Liang, Chan, Ko and Yang (2003) Enable teachers and students to utilise computing power at anywhere at anytime. Research and gain information more freely. Howitt, Pegrum and Streipe (2012) Many benefits, including portability and immediacy Enable a new way of learning that can be tapered to suit and motivate individual children.
Intervention Research Alex’s interests with him. Write and design a set of five books – both hard and soft copy over the ten days. The soft copy will be created using a Macbook on Powerpoint and will include information, images and Alex’s voice reading the text. The hard copy will be printed A5 size and bound to make books. At the end of the ten days, Alex will have a box set of five ‘readers’ that he is interested in, as well as a USB containing all five ‘e-books’. Alex will take home the books throughout the ten days once completed and will also be give him a chart to take home where he will place a sticker each time he reads his books.
Participants Me – Preservice Teacher Alex Alex’s Classroom Teacher Alex’s Assistant
Data Collection and Analysis Attitude to reading test (similar to the McKenna and Kear Elementary Attitude to Reading Test)– mark his emotions in a response to a range of questions about how he feels about reading. Attitude test at the end of the ten days similar to the initial test, however, modified to suit the books he has made. Interview/discussion with Alex about his attitude to reading. Observations and anecdotal notes on his engagement with the activity and the texts and willingness to read them. Personal reflection on the data recorded.
Context Year 2 boy with Autism. Elite boys’ school in the western suburbs. Full time assistant. Very argumentative with both staff and students. Has settled in this year more than previous years. Peers are helping him and guiding him with his social skills.
Materials Macbook Internet access for researching Printer Paper USB Binder Box Chart Stickers
Ethical Considerations Consent and information forms – classroom teacher, Alex and Alex’s parents. Alex will be aware that he does not have to continue from any point if he chooses. If photos or work sample are to be taken/used, permission will be sought.
ReferencesBaron-Cohen, S. (1991). Do people with Autism understand what causes emotions? Child Development, 62(2), 385-395. Retrieved from JSTOR.Bennetto, L., Pennington, B., & Rogers, S. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in Autism. Child Development, 67(4), 1816-1835. Retrieved from JSTOR.Howitt, C., Pegrum, M., & Striepe, M. (2012). The impact of iPads on pre-sevrice teachers’ learning: Implications for teaching and learning.Liu, T., Wang, H., Liang, J., Chan., H, Ko, H., & Yang, J. (2003). Wireless and mobile technologies to enhance teaching and learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, (19), 371-382. citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download? doi=10.1.1.108McKenna, M., & Kear, D. (1990) Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, (May), 626-639.Naismith, L., Lonsdale, P., Vavoula, G., & and Sharples, M. (2004). Literature review in mobile technologies and learning. Futurelab Series, (11), 1-44.Rowell, C. (1972-73). An investigation of factors related to change in attitude toward reading. Journal of Reading Behavior, 5(4), 266-272. Retrieved from Sage Journals.Seitz, L. (2010). Student attitudes toward reading: A case study. Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education, 3(2), 31-44. Retrieved from https://journal.buffalostate.edu/index.php/soe/article/view/107/33Smith, M. (1990). A longitudinal investigation of reading attitude development from childhood to adulthood. The Journal of Educational Research. (83)4, 215-219. Retrieved from JSTOR.Yirmiya, N., Sigman, M., Kasari, C., & Mundy, P. (1992). Empathy and cognition in high-functioning children with Autism. Child Development, (63)1, 150-160. Retrieved from JSTOR.