Leveraging Olympic Investments at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Park

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Spring 2013 studio project at the University of Pennsylvania City Planning Program.

Goal: Leverage investments made for the 2008 Olympic Games to create a performative public green space that responds to the environmental, economic, and historical significance of the area.

Instructors: Evan Rose and Stefan Al
Team members: Annie Bidgood, Mercedes Ha, Xinlin Huang, Rachel Watson, Leah Whiteside, Alan Baker Yu, Cory Zimmerman, and Hasan Zuhairy.

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Leveraging Olympic Investments at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Park

  1. 1. Leveraging Investments Fromthe2008 Beijing OlympicsAnnie Bidgood Mercedes Ha Xinlin Huang Rachel Watson Leah Whiteside Alan Baker Yu Cory Zimmerman Hasan Zuhairy
  2. 2. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 REMEMBER THE OPENING CEREMONY? UNPRECEDENTED SPECTACLE,AN “OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENT”
  3. 3. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 WHY DID BEIJING HOST? AN OLYMPICS FOR CHINA
  4. 4. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 BYTHE NUMBERS THE LARGEST GAMES EVER 10,942 athletes Competing in 302 events In 31 sports (All record highs, unlikely to be matched in the future) Across 37 venues
  5. 5. Olympic investments
  6. 6. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 THE BIG SPENDERS HOW DO THE COSTS COMPARE? As a share of GDP 5% 0.5% 0.7% Total investment Per capita $1300 $30 $275 ATHENS BEIJING LONDON $14B $40B $17B 2004 2008 2012 (ALL FIGURES IN 2012 USD)
  7. 7. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS HOW DO THE COSTS BREAK DOWN? Venues + Facilities $4 billion Environmental $10 billion Transportation $27 billion $40 billion total
  8. 8. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS 11 RENOVATED VENUES Cost: $4 billion total
  9. 9. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS 12 NEW VENUES Cost: $4 billion total
  10. 10. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS A CLOSER LOOK ATTHE OLYMPIC GREEN 1½ Kilometer0 Forest Park Olympic Green Bird’s Nest Water Cube 0 1km
  11. 11. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS PLANNED GREENBELT 0 10km Olympic Green Forest Park
  12. 12. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 700,000 Gallons 200,000 Gallons Constructed wetland treats 700,000 gallons of reclaimed greywater per day From Forest Park 200,000 gallons of water is naturally returned to the groundwater supply per year =50,000 Gallons constructed wetland in Olympic Forest Park Collection Treatment Reuse wetland greenhouse exhibition courtyardinfiltration through pervious surfaces 2008: 51% recycled wastewater 2012: 81% recycled wastewater 2015 goal: 100% recycled wastewater OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS WATER RECYCLING IN FOREST PARK
  13. 13. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 Cost: $10 billion OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SUBWAY NETWORK 2001 0 10km
  14. 14. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SUBWAY NETWORK 2001 2008 Cost: $10 billion 0 10km
  15. 15. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SUBWAY NETWORK 2001 2008 2012 Cost: $10 billion 0 10km
  16. 16. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SUBWAY NETWORK 2001 2008 2012 2016 Cost: $10 billion 0 10km
  17. 17. HISTORICAL CONTEXT
  18. 18. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 HISTORICAL CONTEXT Beijing Municipality Shanghai Municipality Hong Kong Special administrative region Guangzhou Sub provincial city 400m iles BEIJING IS ONE OF CHINA’S LARGEST CITIES
  19. 19. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 HISTORICAL CONTEXT Imperial city Ming Dynasty city wall Forbidden City Built 1406-20 THEN: A WALLED CITY Outer city 0 5km
  20. 20. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 HISTORICAL CONTEXT THEN: A WALLED CITY Central Axis Temple of Heaven Bell and Drum Towers 0 5km
  21. 21. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 HISTORICAL CONTEXT THEN: A WALLED CITY Second Ring Road 0 5km
  22. 22. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 9.2 million HISTORICAL CONTEXT TODAY: A SPRAWLING MEGA CITY 1982 Population: Ring + radial roads Subways 0 20km
  23. 23. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 10.8 million HISTORICAL CONTEXT TODAY: A SPRAWLING MEGA CITY 1991 1982 Population: 0 20km Ring + radial roads Subways
  24. 24. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 13.6 million HISTORICAL CONTEXT TODAY: A SPRAWLING MEGA CITY 1991 2001 1982 Population: 0 20km Ring + radial roads Subways
  25. 25. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 2012 20.7 million HISTORICAL CONTEXT TODAY: A SPRAWLING MEGA CITY 1991 2001 1982 Population: 0 20km Ring + radial roads Subways
  26. 26. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 HISTORICAL CONTEXT GROWING TOWARD TIANJIN TIANJIN BEIJING
  27. 27. ECONOMIC CONTEXT
  28. 28. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECONOMIC CONTEXT COMPARED TO PEER CITIES
  29. 29. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECONOMIC CONTEXT COMPARED TO PEER CITIES
  30. 30. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECONOMIC CONTEXT THE ECONOMY IS OUTPACING POPULATION GROWTH Millionsofpeople 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 Population GDP per capita CN¥ 100 000 80 000 60 000 40 000 20 000 2009 20122011201020082007200620052004200320022001
  31. 31. Growing pains
  32. 32. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS ADDING MORE CARS EVERY DAY + 425,000 new cars per year OR + 1,165 new cars per day
  33. 33. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 January 13, 2013: 755 Air Quality Index on a scale of 0 to 500 AIR POLLUTION IS OFF THE CHARTS GROWING PAINS
  34. 34. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CLEAR SKIES PEAKED DURING THE OLYMPICS GROWING PAINS 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 2000 2003 2002 2001 2004 2007 2006 2005 2010 2009 2008 Percent of days with Grade-1 quality air
  35. 35. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS BEIJING IS DRYING UP 0m 12m 24m 2002 2012 3% 20% 38% 39% Urban Environment Domestic Industrial Agriculture Groundwater Table Level Water Usage Tonghui Stormwater Channel Olympic Green Canal
  36. 36. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 INADEQUATE OPEN SPACE GROWING PAINS 0 5km
  37. 37. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 DENSE, ORGANIC CITY FABRIC GROWING PAINS
  38. 38. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS THE STREET HIERARCHY
  39. 39. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS BEIJING IS BUILDING FOR GROWTH
  40. 40. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS BUILDING TALLER AND DENSER SCALE OF BUILDING TYPOLOGY IN BEIJING 100’ 200’ 300’ NORTH || OFFICE SANLITUN VILLAGE MIXED-USE THE LINKED-HYBRID MIXED-USE 400’ 500’ 600’ 700’ 800’ 900’ 1000’ 1100’ CHINA WORLD TRADE CENTER TOWER 3 || OFFICE - HOTEL HUTONG CCTV || OFFICE residential retail + office + art + culture residential + retail office SOUTH || RETAIL
  41. 41. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS HIGHER DENSITYAND LESS OPEN SPACE Courtyard hutong traffic open plaza traffic 35 % open space of 30,400 SF 22 % open space of 30,400 SF interior courtyard
  42. 42. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS BEIJING IS NOTA WALKABLE CITY London Beijing CBD Manhattan Olympic Green (1 square km area)
  43. 43. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS PEDESTRIAN EXPERIENCE ON THE STREET
  44. 44. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS PEDESTRIAN EXPERIENCE ON THE STREET
  45. 45. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS PEDESTRIAN EXPERIENCE ON THE STREET
  46. 46. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GROWING PAINS SUMMARYAirQualityLackofQualityOpenSpace WaterScarcityPoorPublicRealm
  47. 47. Site selection
  48. 48. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 SITE SELECTION OLYMPIC GREEN IS ON THE CULTURALAXIS 0 10km
  49. 49. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 SITE SELECTION OLYMPIC GREEN HAS A CONCENTRATION OF ICONIC VENUES 0 10km
  50. 50. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 SITE SELECTION OLYMPIC GREEN IS CONNECTED TO TRANSIT 0 10km
  51. 51. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 SITE SELECTION FOREST PARK IS THE KEYSTONE OF THE GREENBELT 0 10km
  52. 52. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 SITE SELECTION OLYMPIC GREEN IS THE INTERSECTION OF THE MAJOR INVESTMENTS: 0 10km Cultural Axis Iconic Venues Transit Connections Greenbelt
  53. 53. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 SITE SELECTION National Aquatics Center National Convention Center National Stadium Science & Tech Museum Olympic Observation Tower National Indoor Stadium Olympic Forest ParkOLYMPIC GREEN IS A HIGHLYVISIBLE DESTINATION
  54. 54. Existing conditions
  55. 55. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING CONDITIONS AN ENORMOUS CITY PARK National Mall, Washington DC Central Park, New York City Olympic Green and Forest Park 775 hectares 843 hectares 1,159 hectares
  56. 56. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OLYMPIC GREEN IS NOTVERY “GREEN” EXISTING CONDITIONS 0 500m Accessible Green Space Inaccessible Green Space
  57. 57. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 INCONSISTENT PROGRAMMING EXISTING CONDITIONS Winter Wonderland
  58. 58. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 BUILT FOR OLYMPIC CROWDS EXISTING CONDITIONS 90 meters
  59. 59. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 INSUFFICIENTWATERSHED MANAGEMENT EXISTING CONDITIONS
  60. 60. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 UNFRIENDLY PARK EDGE EXISTING CONDITIONS fence barriers wide bicycle lane Olympic Green
  61. 61. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 BEIJING’S PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT SCHEME EXISTING CONDITIONS Commercial Retail / Mixed Use Cultural 0 500m
  62. 62. Proposals
  63. 63. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 We envision the Olympic Green as... A public, performative green space that takes advantage of and enhances the ecological features of the site.
  64. 64. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 MASTERPLAN 100m WEB
  65. 65. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 MASTERPLAN 100m WEB + ECOLOGY
  66. 66. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 MASTERPLAN WEB + ECOLOGY + REPURPOSED VENUES
  67. 67. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 MASTERPLAN 100m WEB + ECOLOGY + REPURPOSED VENUES + ECOPARK
  68. 68. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 MASTERPLAN 100m WEB + ECOLOGY + REPURPOSED VENUES + ECOPARK + MEGABLOCK
  69. 69. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 DIAGRAM OF PROPOSALS Access Ecological Framework Economy Livability Culture Visibility
  70. 70. Ecological framework
  71. 71. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK EXISTING CANAL MORPHOLOGY
  72. 72. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK WATERSHED AND WATER FLOW MANAGEMENT Existing Watershed Proposed Watershed and Water Flow Water From Mountains Flows to the Bohai Sea Canal as Watershed Perforated Pipes distribute water to southern canal and allows water to seep into groundwater table
  73. 73. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK CANAL PERFORMANCE AND MATERIALITY Existing Canal Wet Meadow Terraced Grass Shoreline Terraced Concrete Boardwalk Extension Water Fluctuation Ecosystem performance material Stormwater Runoff Public Realm Stormwater Runoff Public Realm performance performance performance Dwarfs human scale and does not allow water flow material material
  74. 74. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK PERFORMATIVE LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Community Open Spaces Transitional Landscapes Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater Detention Ponds Constructed Wetland Living Machine Swales Landscapes that generate food and provide education Urban Farm Greenhouse Hydroponics Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species Spaces that are used for recreation and social gatherings Temporary landscapes that clean soil and allow for new lanscapes Playing Fields Plazas Formal Park Exhibition Space Pavilion Recreation and Fitness Nature Parks Demonstration + Research Remediation Fields Multi-Functional Space TYPEPROGRAMRFORMANCE TypeProgramPerformance Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Community Open Spaces Transitional Landscapes Provide a protected habi- tat for biodiverse species Landscapes that gener- ate food and provide education Landscapes that capture and treat storm water + greywater Spaces that are used for recreation and social gatherings Temporary landscapes that clean soil and al- low for new landscapes Nature Parks Demonstration + Research Urban Farm Greenhouse Hydroponics Detention Ponds Infiltration Basin Constructed Wetland Living Machine Swales Playing Fields Formal Park Exhibition Space Pavilion Recreation + Fitness Remediation Fields Multi-Functional Spaces Biodiversity Phasing Contribute to China’s 550 natural reserves Crop Yields 1 deciduous fruit trees yields 50-150 fruits 1 Acre can produce two-three tons of fruit Infiltration Basin Permeability rate of 0.5-3inches per hour and slope of basin floor close to 0% Public Realm A public space re- quires 3m2 -9m2 per person Phytoremediation Removes up to 97% of contaminated soil or groundwater
  75. 75. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK ALLOCATION OF LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Co Sp Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater Detention Ponds Constructed Wetland Living Machine Swales Landscapes that generate food and provide education Urban Farm Greenhouse Hydroponics Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species Spa rec gat Pla Pla For Exh Pav Rec Nature Parks Demonstration + Research TYPEPROGRAMANCE Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Community Open Spaces Transitional Landscapes Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures C S Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater Detention Ponds Constructed Wetland Living Machine Swales Landscapes that generate food and provide education Urban Farm Greenhouse Hydroponics Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species S re g P P F E P R Nature Parks Demonstration + Research TYPEPROGRAMANCE Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater Detention Ponds Constructed Wetland Living Machine Swales Landscapes that generate food and provide education Urban Farm Greenhouse Hydroponics Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species Nature Parks Demonstration + Research TYPEPROGRAMMANCE Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Community Open Spaces Transitional Landscapes Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater Landscapes that generate food and provide education Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species Spaces that are used for recreation and social gatherings Temporary landscapes that clean soil and allow for new lanscapes Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Community Open Spaces Transitional Landscapes Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater Landscapes that generate food and provide education Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species Spaces that are used for recreation and social gatherings Temporary landscapes that clean soil and allow for new lanscapes TYPE
  76. 76. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK PERFORMATIVE TREES + PLANTS LargeTreesMediumTreesSmallTrees Gingko White Poplar London Planetree Chinese Juniper Scholar Tree Persimmon Peach Kaido Crabapple Goldenrain Tree Performance: - Drought tolerant - Salt tolerant - Range of soil types - Air pollutant tolerant - Treats contaminated soils and groundwater
  77. 77. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOSTERING DEVELOPING ECOLOGIES Wetland Woodland 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Initial Propagation Increasing Self Organization Continued Adaptation Mixed Grassland water hyacinth reed cattail ryegrass juniper white poplar ginkgo london plane- tree weeping willow Hummingbird Hawk Moth hummingbird hawk moth Moused-Eared Bat Schrenck’s Bittern Malayan porcupine Pere David Deer Common Duckweed Yulan Magnolia
  78. 78. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK WASTE WATER TREATMENTWETLANDS Surface Water Detritus Soil Plant uptake Plant storage N2 Adsorption Precipitation CO2, CH4 Denitrification Decomposition Organic C Volatilization NH3 Sedimentation Burial (Soil Storage)
  79. 79. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM Surface Flow Wetland Rain Water Grey Water Pretreatment (forebay) Infiltration to ground waterMultiple treatment cells Canal Fully Vegetated Open water Sur- face Treatment Capacity: 40000 gallon per acre
  80. 80. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK BEIJING’S PLAN FOR MUSEUM DISTRICT China Science and Technology Musuem National Art Museum of China China National Arts and Crafts Museum National Center of Chinese Traditional Culture
  81. 81. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK LACKING ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO THE CANAL Road Network
  82. 82. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK VISUAL BARRIER Bird’s NestWater Cube
  83. 83. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK PROPOSING A CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TESTING GROUND
  84. 84. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK SITE APPROACH - VIEW AND MOVEMENT
  85. 85. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 SITE APPROACH - SITING MUSEUMS ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK National Art Museum of China China National Arts and Crafts Museum National Center of Chinese Traditional Culture
  86. 86. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK SITE APPROACH - TREATMENT NEAR WASTE WATER SOURCE
  87. 87. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK SITE APPROACH - FOREBAY LOCATION AND TOPOGRAPHY
  88. 88. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK SITE APPROACH - ACCESSES AND CONNECTIONS
  89. 89. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK PROPOSED MUSEUM DISTRICTAND WETLANDS 100m Peninsular Constructed Wetland Waster Side Pavilion Constructed Wet- land Wetland for Education and Exhibi- tion
  90. 90. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK PENINSULAR CONSTRUCTED WETLAND - PLAN
  91. 91. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK PENINSULA SITE SECTION ForebayConstructed Wetland Sunken PlazaInterior CourtyardRain Garden Axis
  92. 92. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK PENINSULA CONSTRUCTED WETLAND PERSPECTIVE Extending Open Green Space Fostering Emergent EcologiesProviding Sustainable Water Management Reactivating the Public Realm
  93. 93. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 WATERSIDE PAVILION WETLAND - PLAN ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
  94. 94. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK WATERSIDE PAVILION WETLAND - WATER TREATMENT PROCESS Pre-treament forebay Infiltration to ground water Overflow into canal Constructed water treatment wetland
  95. 95. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK WATERSIDE PAVILION WETLAND - BAMBOO WALK Pre-treament forebay Infiltration to ground water Overflow into canal Constructed water treatment wetland
  96. 96. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK WATERSIDE PAVILION WETLAND - BAMBOO WALK Floating treatment plants
  97. 97. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK DESIGN INTENT RECAP 1. Olympic Green becomes more self sustaining so it does not rely heavily on existing infrastructure 2. Creates a model for a more sustainable and resource conscious Beijing Methods 1. Canal becomes connective tissue of the site and the main focus of the ecological framework 2.The Canal is part of a performative landscape system - Responds to water scarcity, air pollution and lack of open space - Ecological Landscapes - Productive Landscapes - Blue + Green Infrastructure - Community Open Space - Transitional Landscapes
  98. 98. Reactivating venues
  99. 99. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 REACTIVATING VENUES
  100. 100. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK IN EXISTING VENUES & ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICT - PERFORMANCE LANDSCAPE SYSTEM ECOlOGICal fRaMEWORK pERfoRMativE lanDSCapE SyStEMS Ecological Landscapes Productive Landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Community Open Spaces Transitional Landscapes Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater Detention Ponds Constructed Wetland Living Machine Swales Landscapes that generate food and provide education Urban Farm Greenhouse Hydroponics Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species Spaces that are used for recreation and social gatherings Temporary land that clean soil an for new lanscap Playing Fields Plazas Formal Park Exhibition Space Pavilion Recreation and Fitness Nature Parks Demonstration + Research Remediation Fie Multi-Functiona TYPEPROGRAME TypeProgramance Ecological landscapes Productive landscapes Blue + Green Infrastructures Community Open Spaces Transitiona landscape provide a procted habitat for biodiverse species landscapes that generate food and provide education landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater spaces that are used for recreation and social gatherings temporary l that clean so low for new nature parks Demonstration + Research urban farm greenhouse hydroponics Detention ponds Infiltration Basin Constructed wetland living Machine Swales playing fields formal park Exhibition Space pavilion Recreation + fitness Remediatio Multi-funct biodiversity phasing Crop yields Infiltration Basin public Realm phytoremed
  101. 101. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE THE NEW NATIONAL BIOME FOR EVERYONE An integrated ecological and global spatial experience. The two most significant and iconic monumental buildings during the Olympics is now recreated to invite visitors to get closer to nature; with- out the need of traveling oversesas to experience other parts of the world. A local to global experience right in the City of Beijing. 0 30m
  102. 102. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 Making use of the exisiting structure & material, it is now a planted landscape which provides integrated spatial functions; 1. Herbs retail 2. Tea house 3. Museum 4. Exhibition space 5. Education center 6. Indoor herbs agricultural farm 7. Research office EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE WATER CUBE - THE ACADEMY OF CHINESE HERBS | LOCAL 1 2 34 56 7 0 30m
  103. 103. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 BIRD NEST - THE NATIONAL BIOME | GLOBAL Bird Nest to The National Biome | Global 1. Flexbile space under structure (Farmer’s market, exhibition space, art jam) 2. A retreat place (bamboo walk) 3. Performance Stage and seating 4. Two biomes (Tropical rain forest, Mediterranean biome) 5. Obersvation deck in TRF biome 6. Event space at the Mediterranean biome EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE 1 2 3 4A4B 5 6 1 0 30m
  104. 104. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK - BLUE INFRASTRUCTURE (N - S) Forest Park Olympic Green
  105. 105. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK - BLUE INFRASTRUCTURE Two branches created for irrigation of plants and filtration Bird nest location Infiltration basin terminus
  106. 106. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK - ECOLOGICAL & PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE Planted vegetation Retention basin Infiltration basin terminus
  107. 107. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK - ECOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE & COMMUNITY SPACE Mediterranean biome with ETFE mate- rial Tropical rainforest biome with ETFE material Infiltration basin terminus
  108. 108. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK - COMMUNITY SPACE Pedestrian pathway to performance stage Performance stage/ Event space Bamboo walk Flexible space
  109. 109. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK - ECOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE, BLUE & GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE & COMMUNITY SPACE An integrated ecological and global open space Ecological landscape Blue & green infrastructure Community open space
  110. 110. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OVERLOOKING EVENT SPACE AND TWO BIOMES EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE
  111. 111. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 OBSERVATION DECK ATTROPICAL RAINFOREST EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE Observation Deck
  112. 112. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 EVENT SPACE AT MEDITERRANEAN BIOME EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE Event Space
  113. 113. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 PROGRAM MATRIX - LOCAL & GLOBAL EXPERIENCES EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE Sandarac Tree Blue Throatwort Widow Iris Rattan Palm Gallery Catasetum Orchid Strangler Fig Baical Skullcap Chinese Snake Gourd Chinese Senna
  114. 114. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 WATER CUBE - EXISTING CONDITIONS EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE Water Cube Plan ETFE Skin Air Pillow Current Water Playground LocationETFE Skin
  115. 115. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 BIRD NEST - EXISTING CONDITIONS 27m - 34m EXISTING VENUES REPURPOSE Two independent structural systems Primary Steel Structure Secondary Steel Structure Concrete Bowl for Seating Steel structure scattered around the perim- eter ETFE Panels at Roof
  116. 116. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 THE NATIONAL BIOME - THE CANAL - THE ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICT CanalBird Nest Entertainment District CROSS SECTION BETWEEN BIOME AND THE ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICT 0 30m
  117. 117. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 NEIGHBOURHOOD CONNECTION Neighbourhood Connection
  118. 118. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 THE ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICT WATER FEATURE SITE DIAGRAM bridging between buildings water buildings
  119. 119. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 THE ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICT THE WETLAND MACHINE - SUBSURFACE FLOW Distribution of filtered water back to the water system in the city RAIN RAIN GREYWATER GREYWATER FILTERED WATER FILTERED WATER pre-treatment tank rainwater cistern green roof
  120. 120. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CULTURAL AXIS SCALE OF DISTANCES 2.8 km 5.6 km 0.2 km 2.5 km 1.7 km Olympic Forest Park National Stadium & Aquatics Center Zhonglou Gulou Forbidden City Mao’s Mausoleum
  121. 121. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CULTURAL AXIS SCALE OF SITES Olympic Green Gulou Olympic Forest Park (~680 hectares) Zhonglou & Gulou Forbidden City (~74 hectares) Tiananmen Square (~44 hectares)
  122. 122. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CULTURAL AXIS THEMATIC PLAN Green Showcase -orchards (productive) -highlight canal -emphasis on performative green landscapes Nature -dense foliage -heavy landscaping Public Space -small plazas -seating/benches -light landscaping Houtan Park, Shanghai
  123. 123. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CULTURAL AXIS SECTION 1: “PUBLIC SPACE” BEFORE: AFTER:
  124. 124. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CULTURAL AXIS DETAIL OF SECTION 1: “PUBLIC SPACE”
  125. 125. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CULTURAL AXIS SECTION 2: “GREEN SHOWCASE” BEFORE: AFTER:
  126. 126. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 CULTURAL AXIS SECTION 3: “NATURE” BEFORE: AFTER:
  127. 127. Green Research district
  128. 128. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT GOVERNMENT-DEFINED ECONOMIC CENTERS Airport Finance Street Zhongguancun Science Park Olympic Park 1 2 3 4 5 CBD Transportation & Logistics Hospitality Convention Center High-Tech Research and Development University links Business & Finance center 1,500 financial institutions Secondary core finance area Media center Consulting & Service industries 12 3 4 5
  129. 129. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT “The building industry should extend green buildings and green construction, and focus on the optimization of the structure...with advanced building techniques, materials, and information technology.” 12th Five-Year Plan, Part III, Chapter 9, Section 1 CHINA’S TARGETED INDUSTRIES
  130. 130. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT “In the energy conservation and environmental protection industry, focus on the development of key technical equipment for efficient energy conservation, advanced environmental protection and resource recycling, products and services.” “...carry out trials of intelligent power grid construction...” 12th Five-Year Plan, Part III, Chapter 10, Section 1 CHINA’S TARGETED INDUSTRIES
  131. 131. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT PROPOSED PROGRAM OF INDUSTRIES Prototype manufacturing Design firms IT service providers Smart grid implementation Construction companies Small-scale manufacturing Eco-friendly products development Implementation firms Craft producers Sales Consulting to other cities BUILDING SYSTEMS DESIGN GREEN HIGH-TECH WATER TREATMENT AND SUPPLY MATERIALS RESEARCH Electronic Product Design Nanotechnology Smart Grid Technology Intelligent Systems Design Agricultural Materials Testing of Building Materials Plastics R&D Cement R&D Water Treatment Research Water Testing Implementation Research Purification Systems
  132. 132. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 20 minutes to Zhonguanncun and universities Central to 2, possibly 3 subway connections Northwest corner Surrounding blocks can accommodate office towers 45 minutes to CBD and Finance Street GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT SITE SELECTION
  133. 133. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT SITE SELECTION Incorporate industries that actively use ecological features of Forest Park and Olympic Park Water recycling in Forest Park one of most important Olympic investments
  134. 134. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT DESIGN CONCEPT 1.Take advantage of the surrounding wetlands and the canal 2.To maintain integrated green public space 3. Exhibit performative building design 4. Bring development into Olympic Green, while keeping a park landscape FOUR GOALS...
  135. 135. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT DESIGN CONCEPT BLOCKS DEFINED BY PATHS RADIATING FROM NATIONAL STADIUM
  136. 136. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT DESIGN CONCEPT BUILDINGS ADDED BETWEEN PATHS AND AROUND CANAL
  137. 137. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT DESIGN CONCEPT COURTYARDS ADDED FOR DAYLIGHTING
  138. 138. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT DESIGN CONCEPT ADJUST TOPOGRAPHY FOR WATER MANAGEMENT & INTEGRATION WITH SURROUNDING PARK
  139. 139. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT DESIGN CONCEPT APPLY PERFORMATIVE ROOFSCAPE
  140. 140. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT DESIGN CONCEPT MAINTAIN ACCESS TO PUBLIC OPEN SPACE
  141. 141. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT LANDSCAPE TYPES 0 100m Blue + Green Infrastructure Ecological Landscape Community Open Space Public Plazas Extended Canal
  142. 142. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT ROOF FEATURES 0 100m Sedum Maintained turf for park Water-absorbent grasses Beds for use by on-site researchers
  143. 143. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT GROUND FEATURES IN PROGRESS 0 100m Wetlands White Poplar Bamboo Local Wildflowers
  144. 144. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT MATERIALS RESEARCH BUILDING DESIGN RESEARCH HIGH-TECH WATER TREATMENT / SUPPLY RESEARCH INDUSTRY SECTORS 0 100m
  145. 145. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT URBAN OFFICE CENTER 0 100m
  146. 146. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT URBAN OFFICE CENTER CONNECTIONS 0 100m
  147. 147. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT CIRCULATION Automobile Pedestrian/Bike
  148. 148. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT
  149. 149. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT
  150. 150. Urban design + Public realm
  151. 151. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM
  152. 152. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM EXISTING CONDITIONS Development ignores Olympic Green assets Long distances between Intersections Missed opportunities at transit stations 0 500m
  153. 153. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM POOR FRONTAGE ON THE PARK Olympic Green Low-density residential development
  154. 154. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM LONG DISTANCES Olympic GreenBlank façades Barriers to entry
  155. 155. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM TALL BUILDINGS CAST LONG SHADOWS
  156. 156. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM MISSED OPPORTUNITIES ATTRANSIT STATIONS Blank façade Auto oriented
  157. 157. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM A BETTER ALTERNATIVE: WANGJING STATION Active streets Pedestrian-friendly Dense development
  158. 158. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM RECOMMENDATION: PERFORMATIVE ZONING 1. Porosity and a complete street network 2. Land use intensity that responds to spatial forces 3. Continuous street frontage 4. Natural sun lighting Also, at least 30% open space will be maintained on all blocks FOUR MAIN COMPONENTS
  159. 159. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM PERFORMATIVE ZONING: COMPLETE STREETS Maximum 180 meters Between intersections Maximum 60 meters between intersections Pedestrian paths 0 500m
  160. 160. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM PERFORMATIVE ZONING: LAND USE RESPONDS TO FORCES high density commercial mixed use on podium medium density residential mixed use low density residential or civic use neighborhood parks and constructed wetlands 0 500m
  161. 161. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM PERFORMATIVE ZONING: CONTINUOUS STREET FRONTAGE good bad
  162. 162. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM PERFORMATIVE ZONING: STREET DEFINITION minor road 15 m parcel 60 m path 8 m major road 38 m major road 38 m path 8 m 1:1 1:11:1
  163. 163. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM PERFORMATIVE ZONING: NATURAL LIGHT minor road 15 m parcel 60 m neighborhood park + pedestrian paths 78m minor road 15 m parcel 60 m 27° 27° 27°
  164. 164. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM RECOMMENDATION: PERFORMATIVE ZONING
  165. 165. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN AND PUBLIC REALM EXISTING CONDITIONS ADJACENTTO OLYMPIC GREEN Olympic Green Low Density Park Frontage Towers in the Park Long Distances between Intersections Lack of Public Open Space Future Line 15 Subway Station
  166. 166. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN AND PUBLIC REALM PERFORMATIVE ZONING REGULATIONS TRANSFORM THE MEGABLOCKTYPOLOGY Olympic Green Future Line 15 Subway Station High Density Park Frontage Low Density Civic fronting Open Space Porosity through Fishbone structure Minor Streets Exposed to Sun
  167. 167. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM A PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF PERFORMATIVE ZONING REGULATIONS Taller buildings may front the Green Path and road network create porosity and visual access to Olympic venues Limited building heights on block interior streets allow sun to penetrate Street canyons with a maximum height-to- width ratio of 1:1 create strong street definition and human scale Interior streets have a maximum width of ten meters Bird’s Nest Convention Center
  168. 168. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM A PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF PERFORMATIVE ZONING REGULATIONS
  169. 169. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 We envision the Olympic Green as... A public, performative green space that takes advantage of and enhances the ecological features of the site. Conclusions
  170. 170. BEIJING LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS SPRING 2013 IN CONCLUSION Water Scarcity Air Pollution Lack of Open Space Poor Public Realm Subway Natural Environment Olympic Green Combat environmental issues by fostering green industry Recreate Olympic Green as a model of sustainability Improve water management and open space provision through venue repurposing Enhance the public realm through performative zoning BYTARGETING THESE PERVASIVE ISSUES: AND BY LEVERAGING THESE OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS: OUR PROPOSALS WILL: Venues
  171. 171. Thank you. WE WELCOME YOUR COMMENTS

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