Unit 8 grammar notes

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Unit 8 grammar notes

  1. 1. Unit 8 Grammar Notes Pages 123-125
  2. 2. 1. • Quantifiers state the number or amount of something. • Quantifiers can be single words or phrases.
  3. 3. 1. • Quantifiers state the number or amount of something: I bought a dozen tulips. • Quantifiers can be single words or phrases. There’s some money in my account.
  4. 4. 1. • Quantifiers are used with both nouns and pronouns.
  5. 5. 1. • A lot of people vacation in the summer. • Most of us are going on the trip.
  6. 6. 1. • Quantifiers are often used alone if the noun or pronoun has just been mentioned, as in a question.
  7. 7. 1. A: Have you made many friends here? B: Yes, I’ve made a lot.
  8. 8. 2. Quantifiers are used with different types of nouns:
  9. 9. 2. Kind of noun Some of the Quantifiers Used For Example: Singular count nouns one, each, every I took each item back to the store. We were able to solve every problem. Plural count nouns Two, both, a couple of, a dozen, several, few, many, a great many, a number of We visited a couple of countries. We bought a few souvenirs.
  10. 10. 2. Kind of noun Some of the Quantifiers Used For Example: Non-count nouns a little, little, much, a great deal of, a great amount of I only make a little money at that job. She earns a great deal of money. Both plural count nouns and non- count nouns no, any, some, enough, a lot of, lots of, plenty of, most, all She has no plans to travel. We took no cash on the trip.
  11. 11. 3. Use a few and few with count nouns. Use a little and little with non- count nouns.
  12. 12. 3. Kind of noun Quantifiers Used For Example: Count nouns a few, few Mary has a few investments. She has few debts. Non-count nouns a little, little She has saved a little money. She carries little cash in her purse.
  13. 13. 3. Note the difference between a few and a little and few and little.
  14. 14. 3. A few and a little are used to give the statement a positive sense. A few and a little mean “some— not a great number or amount but enough to be satisfactory.”
  15. 15. 3. For example: I have a few good friends. (= I have some good friends, enough to satisfy me.) We have a little food at home. (= We have some food, enough to satisfy.)
  16. 16. 3. Few and little are used to give the statement a negative sense. Few and little mean “hardly any” or “not much at all” or “not enough to be satisfactory.”
  17. 17. 3. For example: Jerry has few friends. (= not enough to be satisfactory.) Mary has little self confidence. (= not enough to be satisfactory.)
  18. 18. 3. NOTE (crazy English): If you add the word only to a few or a little, the positive sense disappears! I have only a few friends (= I would like to have more friends.) I have only a little money (I would like to have more money.)
  19. 19. 3. Be careful! In comparisons, use fewer with count nouns and less with non-count nouns. Use more with both count and non- count nouns.
  20. 20. 3. Kind of noun Quantifier used for a comparison For Example: Non-count nouns less or more I earn less money than I used to, but I have more free time. Count nouns fewer or more I have fewer problems than I used to, and I have more friends.
  21. 21. 4. Use many and much for questions or negative statements. Use many with with count nouns and much with non-count nouns. Do not use many or much for affirmative statements.
  22. 22. 4. Kind of noun Quantifier used for questions or negative statements. For Example: Non-count nouns much Did they spend much money? She doesn’t watch much TV, Count nouns many How many classes are you taking this semester? He doesn’t have many friends.
  23. 23. 4. Use a lot of/lots of for affirmative statements. Use a lot of/lots of for both count and plural non-count nouns. Lots of is informal. Use it in conversation, but not in formal writing.
  24. 24. 4. Kind of noun Quantifiers used for affirmative statements For Example: Non-count nouns a lot of, lots of They spent a lot of money. She watches lots of TV. Plural count nouns a lot of, lots of I’m taking a lot of units this semester. He has lots of friends.
  25. 25. 4. Kind of noun Quantifiers used for yes/no questions For Example: Non-count nouns a lot of, lots of much Did they spend a lot of money? Did they spend lots of money? Did they spend much money? Plural count nouns a lot of, lots of many Are you taking a lot of units this semester? Are you taking lots of units? Are you taking many units?
  26. 26. 4. Kind of noun Quantifiers used for negative statements For Example: Non-count nouns a lot of, lots of much I don’t have a lot of money I don’t have lots of money. I don’t have much money. Plural count nouns a lot of, lots of many He is not working a lot of hours this semester. He is not working lots of hours. He is not working many hours.
  27. 27. 4. Kind of noun Quantifiers used for affirmative statements For Example: Non-count nouns a lot of, lots of They spent a lot of money. She watches lots of TV. Plural count nouns a lot of, lots of I’m taking a lot of units this semester. He has lots of friends.
  28. 28. 4. Use number of with count nouns and amount of with non-count nouns: The number of students attending college has increased. The amount of stress in people’s lives seems to be increasing.
  29. 29. 5. With non-count or plural count nouns: Use some for affirmative statements. Use any with negative statements. Use some or any for questions.
  30. 30. 5. some and any: Kind of sentence Non-count nouns Plural count nouns Affirmative statement He borrowed some money from me. She made some purchases at Target. Negative statement He didn’t have any money. She didn’t buy any clothes. Question Did he borrow some money from you? OR Did he borrow any money from you? Will there be any students in the classroom at noon today? Will there be some students in the classroom at noon today?
  31. 31. 5. Be careful! In English, we do not use two negatives in one simple sentence: Correct: Jack didn’t understand anything. ** (Not correct): Jack didn’t understand nothing.
  32. 32. 6. Many quantifiers appear in phrases with the preposition of. Use of + the or another determiner when you are specifying particular places, persons, things or groups.
  33. 33. 6. For example: Most of the EU countries are using the euro. We saw many of her films. (We saw many of Meryl Streep’s films.)
  34. 34. 6. We generally use quantifiers without of when we have no particular person, place, thing, or group in mind.
  35. 35. 6. For example: Most people don’t understand the economy. Most restaurants take credit cards. A few restaurants don’t take credit cards.
  36. 36. 6. Compare: Most of the people that I know don’t understand the economy. Most restaurants in the U.S. take credit cards. A few restaurants in the Bay Area don’t take credit cards.
  37. 37. 6. Be careful! Quantifiers with of can be used only with plural nouns and non-count nouns: Most of the coins were very old. Most of the gold was pure. ** Most of the coin was very old.
  38. 38. 6. Note: With most of the + plural count noun, use a plural verb: Most of the guests have arrived.
  39. 39. 6. Note: With many of the + plural count noun, use a plural verb: Many of the guests were late.
  40. 40. 6. Note: With most of the + non-count noun, use a singular verb: Most of the food has been eaten.
  41. 41. 6. Note: “Most of” = almost all (@90%) “Many of” = a bit more than “some of” (maybe @60%)

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