Unit 6 grammar notes 6

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Unit 6 grammar notes 6

  1. 1. Pages 94-95
  2. 2. 1. Nouns name persons, places and things. There are two types of nouns: proper nouns and common nouns.
  3. 3. 1. Proper nouns name particular persons, places or things. They are usually unique and are capitalized in writing.
  4. 4. 1. For example: • Dr. Brand • Ichiro Suzuki • Sao Paulo • China • the Empire State Building • Harrod’s
  5. 5. 1. Common nouns refer to people, places or things, but are not the names of particular individuals.
  6. 6. 1. For example: • scientist • athlete • city • country • department store
  7. 7. 2. There are two types of common nouns: count nouns and non-count nouns.
  8. 8. 2. Count nouns refer to things that you can count separately. They may be singular or plural.
  9. 9. 2. For example: one woman, eight planets. I’d like a sandwich. Some vegetables are tasty. That’s an interesting question.
  10. 10. 2. Non-count nouns refer to things that you cannot count separately. They usually have no plural form. Do not use “a” or “an” before a non-count noun.
  11. 11. 2. For example: • You should avoid cholesterol • Let me give you some advice. • Come in out of the rain.
  12. 12. 2. The words “a” and “an” really mean “one.” That is why you cannot use them with non- count nouns.
  13. 13. 2. We never say: **You should avoid a cholesterol. **Let me give you an advice. **Come in out of a rain.
  14. 14. 2. We normally use a singular verb with a non-count noun. We use a singular pronoun to refer to the noun.
  15. 15. 2. For example: • Rice feeds millions. • It feeds millions.
  16. 16. 3. Notice the following common categories and examples of non-count nouns:
  17. 17. 3. Abstractions For example: • luck • energy • honesty • love
  18. 18. 3. Diseases For example: • AIDS • cancer • influenza = flu • malaria
  19. 19. 3. Food and Drink: For example: • bread • coffee • fish • meat • tea • water
  20. 20. 3. Natural phenomena: For example: • electricity • heat • lightning • rain • sun
  21. 21. 3. Particles: For example: • dust • pepper • salt • sand • sugar
  22. 22. 3. Other frequently used non-count nouns: • equipment • furniture • money • news • traffic
  23. 23. 4. Many nouns have both count and non-count meanings:
  24. 24. 4. Non-Count Count Experience is a great teacher. College was a wonderful experience. We eat fish twice a week. My son caught a fish yesterday. I caught two fish yesterday. I want to be a professor of history. I read a history of the Civil War. Is space really the final frontier? There’s an empty space in that row. People say talk is cheap. We had a good talk last night.
  25. 25. 4. Other nouns that can be both count and non-count: • cuisine • film • rain • reading • work
  26. 26. 5. We can make certain non- count nouns into countable nouns by adding a phrase that gives them a form, a limit, or a container.
  27. 27. 5. Non-Count Noun Made Countable furniture a piece of furniture lightning a flash of lightning a bolt of lightning meat a piece of meat rice, sand a grain of rice, a grain of sand tennis a game of tennis water, rain a drop of water, a drop of rain equipment a piece of equipment
  28. 28. 5. NOTE: All of these non-count nouns are commonly used with some or any.
  29. 29. 5. With an affirmative statement, use some: I will have some time this afternoon. He has some money in the bank.
  30. 30. 5. With a negative statement, use any: I won’t have any time this afternoon. He doesn’t have any money in the bank.
  31. 31. 5. With a question, you can use any or some. Will you have some time this afternoon? Will you have any time this afternoon? Does he have some money in the bank? Does he have any money in the bank?
  32. 32. 5. NOTE: Plural count nouns are also used with some or any.
  33. 33. 5. With an affirmative statement, use some: I have some extra papers. There are some groceries in the trunk of the car.
  34. 34. 5. With a negative statement, use any: There aren’t any papers left. He didn’t buy any groceries.
  35. 35. 5. With a question, you can use any or some. Are there some more papers? Are there any more papers? Did he buy some groceries? Did he buy any groceries?
  36. 36. 5. BUT Do not use any or some with a singular count noun! **Do you see any cloud in the sky? Correct: Do you see any clouds in the sky? Or Do you see a cloud in the sky?
  37. 37. 6. We can use many non-count nouns in a countable sense with a/an to mean kind of or type of or variety of.
  38. 38. 6. For example: In Italy, I tasted a new pasta (= a new kind of pasta). That shop sells many different teas (= different kinds of tea). Many tasty cheeses (=kinds of cheese) are produced in France.
  39. 39. 6. Drinks are usually non-count liquids, but you can use the noun as a count noun to mean cups, glasses or cans of the liquid:
  40. 40. 6. For example: I drank a soda (= a can of soda). Please bring us two coffees (= two cups of coffee). Please bring us two orange juices (= two glasses of orange juice)
  41. 41. 7.
  42. 42. 7. A few non-count nouns end in - s: • news: Is there any news about the tornado? • mathematics: Mathematics is required for college transfer.
  43. 43. 7. A few count nouns have irregular plurals because they come from Latin or Greek: • criterion/criteria • stimulus/stimuli • phenomenon/phenomena
  44. 44. 7. A few count nouns have irregular plurals because they come from Latin or Greek: • criterion/criteria • stimulus/stimuli • phenomenon/phenomena
  45. 45. 7. For example: • Thunder is an atmospheric phenomenon. • Thunder and lightning are atmospheric phenomena.
  46. 46. 7. The count nouns people and police are plural, not singular. They take a plural verb: • People are funny. • The police are coming.
  47. 47. 7. The singular of people is person. • He’s an energetic person. The singular of police is usually police officer. • She’s a police officer.
  48. 48. 7. Fish is a crazy example!
  49. 49. 7. A fish swimming in the water is a singular count noun.
  50. 50. 7. There is a very pretty fish in the fish tank.
  51. 51. 7. This count noun has an irregular plural: one fish, many fish
  52. 52. 7. There are a lot of pretty fish in the fish tank.
  53. 53. 7. But when you eat fish, it is a non-count noun! The fish looks very good.

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