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Unit 16 grammar notes

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  • 1. Unit 16 Grammar Notes: Gerunds Pages 274-275
  • 2. 1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb. To form a gerund, add –ing to the base form of a verb.
  • 3. 1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb. To form a gerund, add –ing to the base form of a verb.
  • 4. 1. For example: Cooking is my hobby. I like eating, too.
  • 5. 1. Gerunds and gerund phrases perform the same functions as nouns. Function Example They act as subjects. Talking with friends is enjoyable. They act as objects. I love getting together with friends. They act as complements (phrases that describe or explain the subject or object of a sentence) Our favorite activity is playing cards. (subject complement) She has trouble making friends. (object complement)
  • 6. 1. Add not before a gerund to make a negative statement.
  • 7. 1. For example: Not calling her was a big mistake.
  • 8. 2. Many verbs and verb phrases in English have gerunds as objects. Common examples are avoid, consider, enjoy and mind.
  • 9. 2. For example: I enjoy meeting new people. You should avoid working late.
  • 10. 2. We often use go + gerund to talk about recreational activities: go skiing, go swimming, go hiking, go shopping, etc.
  • 11. 2. For example: We go skiing every weekend in the winter.
  • 12. 3. Gerunds act as objects of prepositions. .
  • 13. 3. For example: I made friends by joining a club.
  • 14. 3. Many preposition combinations are followed by gerunds: a. verb + preposition They insisted on giving us a present. b. Adjective + preposition She’s good at making friends.
  • 15. 3. Be Careful! The word to can be a preposition or part of an infinitive. to as a preposition: He will adjust to working hard. to as part of an infinitive: He tries to work hard.
  • 16. 4. In writing and formal speaking, use a possessive noun or pronoun before a gerund to show possession. .
  • 17. 4. For example: Pete’s dominating every conversation bothers me. His dominating every conversation bothers me.
  • 18. 4. Usage note: In conversation, native speakers often use a name or an object pronoun instead of a possessive in this kind of sentence.
  • 19. 4. For example: Pete dominating every conversation bothers me. Him dominating every conversation bothers me.
  • 20. 5. Gerunds can occur in simple or past form. We can use a simple gerund (without a past participle) to a make a generalization.
  • 21. 5. For example: Making friends is a natural thing to do.
  • 22. 5. We can use a past gerund (having + past participle) to show an action that occurred before the action of the main verb in the sentence.
  • 23. 5. For example: Having met Jane in my first week of college helped me throughout my college career.
  • 24. 5. Note: We use a past gerund to emphasize the difference in time between the two actions. The simple gerund is also correct in many situations.
  • 25. 5. For example: Having gone to college is one of the best things I’ve ever done. or Going to college is one of the best things I’ve ever done.
  • 26. 5. Gerunds can occur in passive form. In the present, use being + past participle. In the past, use having been + past participle.
  • 27. 5. For example: She hates being ignored. She is still angry at having been ignored.
  • 28. 5. Be careful! Many words in English end in –ing Do not confuse gerunds with verbs used in the progressive form or with present participles used as adjectives in adverb phrases.
  • 29. 5. For example: I’ve been making friends at work. (progressive verb form) Mary is enrolled in a cooking class. (adjective) Walking on the beach, I wondered why she was angry at me. (adverb phrase)