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Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
Unit 13 grammar notes upload
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Unit 13 grammar notes upload

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  • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1025758/Mamma-Mia-Meryl-Streep-does-mid-air-splits-nearly-60-scenes-new-movie.html
  • http://www.newsclik.com/2014/05/29/johnny-depp-desperate-playing-houdini/johnny-depp-movies/
  • http://masspictures.net/george-clooney/
  • http://simoneandthesilversurfer.wordpress.com/2012/08/
  • http://www.listal.com/list/historical-movies-aliceinwinter
  • Transcript

    • 1. UNIT 13 GRAMMAR NOTES Pages 215-216
    • 2. 1. The relative pronouns who(m), that, which and whose after a noun can be used as objects of prepositions in adjective clauses. For example: • Bill is the man to whom I spoke. • That’s the film to which he referred.
    • 3. 1. Sentences with the preposition at the beginning of the clause are formal; sentences with the preposition at the end of the clause are informal. For example: • She’s the director to whom I wrote. • She’s the director whom I wrote to.
    • 4. 1. NOTE: A preposition can come at the beginning of the clause before who(m), which and whose. It cannot come at the beginning of a clause with that. For example: • It is the studio for which he works. (= It is the studio which he works for.) **It is the studio for that he works. BUT “The studio that he works for” is OK.
    • 5. 1. We can omit the relative pronouns who(m), what and which after a preposition. When we do this, the preposition moves to the end of the clause For example: • He has a daughter he’s estranged from. • That’s the screenwriter I read about.
    • 6. 1. BE CAREFUL! Whose cannot be omitted. For example: • He’s the director whose films I go to. **He’s the director films I go to.
    • 7. 1. Remember that there are two types of adjective clauses: identifying (=essential) adjective clauses and non-identifying (= non-essential) adjective clauses. For example: • The film to which I’m referring is Avatar. • Avatar, to which I’m referring, is exciting.
    • 8. 2. Some adjective clauses have the pattern quantifier + of + relative pronoun. For example: • The film has many stars, few of whom I recognized. • He made eight films, all of which I like.
    • 9. 2. Quantifiers occur only in clauses with whom, which and whose. These clauses may refer to people or things. These clauses or formal.
    • 10. 2. If a clause with a quantifier occurs within the main clause, it is enclosed with commas. If it occurs after the main clause, a comma precedes it. For example: • Her books, most of which I’ve read, are popular. • I like her books, most of which I’ve read.
    • 11. 3. Some adjective clauses have the pattern noun + of which. For example: • Musicals, an example of which is Mama Mia, are still popular.
    • 12. 3. Mama Mia, in which you can hear a lot of the songs by the 1970’s Swedish pop group ABBA, was made in 2008 and stars Meryl Streep. If you are getting tired of grammar, go to the ABBA Gold Album at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xtAyEE_qAr4 and listen for awhile.
    • 13. 3. Mama Mia, in which you can hear a lot of the songs by the 1970’s Swedish pop group ABBA, was made in 2008 and stars Meryl Streep. However, these clauses refer only to things and not people: **Actors, an example of which is Johnny Depp, earn a lot of money.
    • 14. (HOWEVER, JOHNNY DEPP IS AN EXAMPLE OF AN ACTOR WHO EARNS A LOT OF MONEY.)
    • 15. 3. If a clause with a noun + of which occurs within the main clause, it is enclosed with commas. If it occurs after the main clause, a comma precedes it For example: • Strikes, occurrences of which may delay filming, are uncommon. • She has reviewed films, an example of which is Shrek.
    • 16. 4. We sometimes shorten adjective clauses to adjective phrases with the same meaning. For example: • Anyone who is interested in cinema should see this film. (adjective clause) • Anyone interested in cinema should see this film. (adjective phrase)
    • 17. 4. Remember that a clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. A phrase is a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb.
    • 18. 5. We sometimes shorten adjective clauses to adjective phrases with the same meaning. For example: • Anyone who is interested in cinema should see this film. (adjective clause) • Anyone interested in cinema should see this film. (adjective phrase)
    • 19. 5. To shorten an adjective clause with a be verb, reduce the clause to an adjective phrase by deleting the relative pronoun and the verb. For example: • Slumdog Millionaire, which was directed by Danny Boyle, won many awards. • Slumdog Millionaire, directed by Danny Boyle, won many awards.
    • 20. 5. BE CAREFUL! Adjective clauses with be verbs can be reduced only when who, which or that is the subject pronoun of the clause. Don’t reduce an adjective clause with whose. For example: • George Clooney, (who is) an excellent actor, is also considered very handsome. • I met George Clooney, whose latest film is a hit. ** I met George Clooney, latest film is a hit.
    • 21. 5. If an adjective clause needs commas, the corresponding adjective phrase also needs commas. For example: • Penelope Cruz starred in Vicky Cristina Barcelona, which was released in 2008. • Penelope Cruz starred in Vicky Cristina Barcelona, released in 2008.
    • 22. 6. If there is no to be verb in the adjective clause, it is often possible to change the clause to an adjective phrase. Do this by deleting the relative pronoun and changing the verb to its –ing form. You can do this only when who, which, or that is the subject pronoun of the clause.
    • 23. 6. For example: • Avatar, which stars Sam Worthington, is the top- earning film. = Avatar, starring Sam Worthington, is the top-earning film. • I like any movie that features Helen Mirren. = I like any movie featuring Helen Mirren.

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