Questions about Adverb
Clauses
Notes from class on
Wednesday, October 16
FANBOYS, SUBORDIN
ATORS
LOGICAL
CONNECTORS
FANBOYS
are different from
adverbial expressions =
subordinating conjunctions
= subordinators
Two different grammatical
categories of words.
They have different
grammar rules and
punctuation.
Conjunctions = FANBOYS
1) Combine two complete
sentences
2) Comma before the
conjunction
I’ve studied this, but I still
don’t understand it very
well.
BART keeps threatening to
go on strike, but they
haven’t yet...
It was noisy outside, so we
closed the door.
Are you going to grade this
draft of our paper, or can we
do another draft?
Two sentences combined
with a FANBOYS is a
compound sentence.
There are only seven
FANBOYS, but there are
many, many
subordinators =
subordinating conjunctions=
adverbial expressions
Here are some examples:
because, even
though, if, since, although, u
nless, whereas, only
if, when …
We use a subordinator to
begin an adverb clause.
Some teachers call this a
subordinate clause.
Two sentences combined
with a subordinator is called
a complex sentence.
Examples:
I studied hard because I wanted to
get an “A.”
You should always go to bed when
you are tired.
I can’t sleep alt...
BUT you can move the adverb clause:
Because I wanted to get an “A,”
I studied hard.
When you are tired, you should always
...
UNTIL can be a subordinator OR a
preposition:
All the quizzes in Moodle will be open
until we take the the midterm exam.
(...
SINCE can be a subordinator OR a
preposition:
I have known how to read since
elementary school. (preposition)
I have known...
Notice that subordinator since has two
different meanings:
I have known how to read since I was
four. (Time beginning in t...
Unless is tricky:
Unless the tickets cost too much, we’ll go
to the game next Saturday.
A sentence with unless can also be...
Unless is tricky:

Unless I have no money, I will go to
China next year. =
If I have no money, I won’t go to China
next ye...
More examples with unless:
It is a subordinator that combines two
complete sentences to make a complex
sentence.

I will n...
There is a THIRD category of connecting
words called LOGICAL CONNECTORS
or SENTENCE CONNECTORS.

There are, many, many of ...
EXAMPLES:

therefore, however, nevertheless, on the
other hand, nonetheless, as a
result, also, in addition, for this reas...
LOGICAL CONNECTORS begin a
sentence, and show a logical connection
with the sentence that came before it.

The BART negoti...
You can replace a period with a semicolon.

The BART negotiations are very difficult;
therefore, they are dragging out for...
BE CAREFUL!

OK
The BART negotiations are very difficult;
therefore, they are dragging out for days.
The BART negotiations...
BE CAREFUL!

NOT OK
**The BART negotiations are very
difficult, therefore, they are dragging out
for days.
**The BART nego...
BE CAREFUL!
Notice that in many cases, you use the
present tense in an adverb clause, even
though you are talking about so...
FOR EXAMPLE:

When I save enough money, I will get a
new car.
I will meet you for coffee after I finish
my homework.
I wil...
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Problems with adverb clauses

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Problems with adverb clauses

  1. 1. Questions about Adverb Clauses Notes from class on Wednesday, October 16
  2. 2. FANBOYS, SUBORDIN ATORS LOGICAL CONNECTORS
  3. 3. FANBOYS are different from adverbial expressions = subordinating conjunctions = subordinators
  4. 4. Two different grammatical categories of words. They have different grammar rules and punctuation.
  5. 5. Conjunctions = FANBOYS 1) Combine two complete sentences 2) Comma before the conjunction
  6. 6. I’ve studied this, but I still don’t understand it very well. BART keeps threatening to go on strike, but they haven’t yet.
  7. 7. It was noisy outside, so we closed the door. Are you going to grade this draft of our paper, or can we do another draft?
  8. 8. Two sentences combined with a FANBOYS is a compound sentence.
  9. 9. There are only seven FANBOYS, but there are many, many subordinators = subordinating conjunctions= adverbial expressions
  10. 10. Here are some examples: because, even though, if, since, although, u nless, whereas, only if, when …
  11. 11. We use a subordinator to begin an adverb clause. Some teachers call this a subordinate clause.
  12. 12. Two sentences combined with a subordinator is called a complex sentence.
  13. 13. Examples: I studied hard because I wanted to get an “A.” You should always go to bed when you are tired. I can’t sleep although I am tired. Notice that there are no commas.
  14. 14. BUT you can move the adverb clause: Because I wanted to get an “A,” I studied hard. When you are tired, you should always go to bed. Although I am tired, I can’t sleep. Notice that there are COMMAS when the adverb clause is first.
  15. 15. UNTIL can be a subordinator OR a preposition: All the quizzes in Moodle will be open until we take the the midterm exam. (subordinator combines two sentences to make complex sentence.) All the quizzes in Moodle will be open until the midterm exam. (Now, “until” is a preposition followed by a noun.)
  16. 16. SINCE can be a subordinator OR a preposition: I have known how to read since elementary school. (preposition) I have known how to read since I was four. (subordinator)
  17. 17. Notice that subordinator since has two different meanings: I have known how to read since I was four. (Time beginning in the past and continuing in the presents) I stayed up late since I wanted to find out if BART would be on strike today. (because)
  18. 18. Unless is tricky: Unless the tickets cost too much, we’ll go to the game next Saturday. A sentence with unless can also be said with if by changing the main clause affirmative  negative If the tickets cost too much, we won’t go to the game next Saturday.
  19. 19. Unless is tricky: Unless I have no money, I will go to China next year. = If I have no money, I won’t go to China next year. = I have money, I will go to China next year.
  20. 20. More examples with unless: It is a subordinator that combines two complete sentences to make a complex sentence. I will not pass the quiz unless I study hard. = Unless I study hard, I won’t pass the quiz. I will not miss a class unless I have a good reason.
  21. 21. There is a THIRD category of connecting words called LOGICAL CONNECTORS or SENTENCE CONNECTORS. There are, many, many of them. Most of them are used more in formal writing than in conversation.
  22. 22. EXAMPLES: therefore, however, nevertheless, on the other hand, nonetheless, as a result, also, in addition, for this reason, in fact, on the bright side, on the negative side, meanwhile THIS HAVE A DIFFERENT PUNCTUATION RULE:
  23. 23. LOGICAL CONNECTORS begin a sentence, and show a logical connection with the sentence that came before it. The BART negotiations are very difficult. Therefore, they are dragging out for days.
  24. 24. You can replace a period with a semicolon. The BART negotiations are very difficult; therefore, they are dragging out for days.
  25. 25. BE CAREFUL! OK The BART negotiations are very difficult; therefore, they are dragging out for days. The BART negotiations are very difficult. Therefore, they are dragging out for days.
  26. 26. BE CAREFUL! NOT OK **The BART negotiations are very difficult, therefore, they are dragging out for days. **The BART negotiations are very difficult therefore they are dragging out for days.
  27. 27. BE CAREFUL! Notice that in many cases, you use the present tense in an adverb clause, even though you are talking about something in the future.
  28. 28. FOR EXAMPLE: When I save enough money, I will get a new car. I will meet you for coffee after I finish my homework. I will wait for the boss until he comes.

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