Differences Between Direct and
Reported Speech
Simple Present  Simple Past:
He said, “I know you.”
He said (that) he knew me.
Notice that the pronoun also
changes (you  me).
He said, “I know you.”
He said (that) he knew me.
Present Continuous  Past
Continuous
He said, “I am studying.”
He said (that) he was studying.
Past Continuous  Past Perfect
Continuous
He said, “She was helping me.”
He said (that) she had been helping
him.
Notice that the pronoun also
changes (me  him).
He said, “She was helping me.”
He said (that) she had been helping
him.
Present Perfect  Past Perfect
He said, “I have taken the test.”
He said (that) he had taken the test.
Past Perfect  Past Perfect (no
change):
He said, “I had never done that.”
He said (that) he had never done
that.
New problems with modals 
Can, May, Must and Will
Change in Reported Speech:
Can  Could
He said, “I can help you tomorrow.”
He said (that) he could help me the
next day.
Notice the pronoun change
(you  me):
He said, “I can help you tomorrow.”
He said (that) he could help me the
next day.
Also notice the change in time
expressions (tomorrow  the next
day):
He said, “I can help you tomorrow.”
He said (that) h...
“May” has two meanings,
possibility and permission.
The change for reported speech is
different for these two meanings!
May  Might when the meaning
is possibility:
He said, “She may leave early.”
He said (that) she might leave early.
May  Could when the meaning
is permission:
He said, “You may go.”
He said (that) I could go.
Notice the pronoun change (you
 I):
He said, “You may go.”
He said (that) I could go.
Must  had to
He said, “I must go.”
He said (that) he had to go.
Will  would
He said, “I will go.”
He said (that) he would go.
Some modals do not change in
reported speech:
Should, should have and must have:
Should  should
He said, “You should leave.”
He said (that) I should leave.
Notice the pronoun change
(you  I):
He said, “You should leave.”
He said (that) I should leave.
Should have  should have
(reporting a mistake in the past):
He said, “You should have told me.”
He said (that) I should h...
Notice the pronoun changes:
you  I
me  him:
He said, “You should have told me.”
He said (that) I should have told him.
Must  must have (meaning
that something probably
happened in the past):
He said, “You must have known.”
He said (that) I ...
Notice the pronoun change
(you  I):
He said, “You must have known.”
He said (that) I must have known.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Differencesbetweendirectandreportedspeech 120501154221-phpapp01

597 views
540 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
597
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Differencesbetweendirectandreportedspeech 120501154221-phpapp01

  1. 1. Differences Between Direct and Reported Speech
  2. 2. Simple Present  Simple Past: He said, “I know you.” He said (that) he knew me.
  3. 3. Notice that the pronoun also changes (you  me). He said, “I know you.” He said (that) he knew me.
  4. 4. Present Continuous  Past Continuous He said, “I am studying.” He said (that) he was studying.
  5. 5. Past Continuous  Past Perfect Continuous He said, “She was helping me.” He said (that) she had been helping him.
  6. 6. Notice that the pronoun also changes (me  him). He said, “She was helping me.” He said (that) she had been helping him.
  7. 7. Present Perfect  Past Perfect He said, “I have taken the test.” He said (that) he had taken the test.
  8. 8. Past Perfect  Past Perfect (no change): He said, “I had never done that.” He said (that) he had never done that.
  9. 9. New problems with modals  Can, May, Must and Will Change in Reported Speech:
  10. 10. Can  Could He said, “I can help you tomorrow.” He said (that) he could help me the next day.
  11. 11. Notice the pronoun change (you  me): He said, “I can help you tomorrow.” He said (that) he could help me the next day.
  12. 12. Also notice the change in time expressions (tomorrow  the next day): He said, “I can help you tomorrow.” He said (that) he could help me the next day.
  13. 13. “May” has two meanings, possibility and permission. The change for reported speech is different for these two meanings!
  14. 14. May  Might when the meaning is possibility: He said, “She may leave early.” He said (that) she might leave early.
  15. 15. May  Could when the meaning is permission: He said, “You may go.” He said (that) I could go.
  16. 16. Notice the pronoun change (you  I): He said, “You may go.” He said (that) I could go.
  17. 17. Must  had to He said, “I must go.” He said (that) he had to go.
  18. 18. Will  would He said, “I will go.” He said (that) he would go.
  19. 19. Some modals do not change in reported speech: Should, should have and must have:
  20. 20. Should  should He said, “You should leave.” He said (that) I should leave.
  21. 21. Notice the pronoun change (you  I): He said, “You should leave.” He said (that) I should leave.
  22. 22. Should have  should have (reporting a mistake in the past): He said, “You should have told me.” He said (that) I should have told him.
  23. 23. Notice the pronoun changes: you  I me  him: He said, “You should have told me.” He said (that) I should have told him.
  24. 24. Must  must have (meaning that something probably happened in the past): He said, “You must have known.” He said (that) I must have known.
  25. 25. Notice the pronoun change (you  I): He said, “You must have known.” He said (that) I must have known.

×