Chapter two grammar notes


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter two grammar notes

  2. 2. Use the simple past to express an action, event or state occurring at a specific time in the past. 1.
  3. 3. Examples: Runze wanted to get married. (general) She filled out an application form several days before the wedding. (specific) 1.
  4. 4. Use the past progressive (past continuous) to express an action that was in progress (not finished) at a time in the past. 2.
  5. 5. Example: Runze was studying pharmacy at the University when she decided to get married. 2.
  6. 6. Use the present perfect without “for” or “since” to express an action, state or event occurring at an indefinite time in the past. 3.
  7. 7. Example: How many Americans have ever considered an arranged marriage? 3.
  8. 8. BE CAREFUL!! The present perfect does not express past time, finished in the past, if used with a time expression that gives a specific time in the past: 3.
  9. 9. Incorrect: **Weinlick has gotten married a few years ago. Correct: Weinlick got married a few years go. 3.
  10. 10. Incorrect: **I have come to the U.S. in 2008. Correct: I came to the U.S. in 2008. 3.
  11. 11. They have already met. (Present perfect for an indefinite time in the past.) The two met on June 8, 1998. (Simple past for a definite time in the past.) 3.
  12. 12. Remember that with for or since, the present perfect connects the past and the present: 3.
  13. 13. For example: I have attended many weddings since then. I have known my best friend for more than fifty years. 3.
  14. 14. Use used to + base form to show a habitual action, event or state that was true in the past but is no longer true. 4.
  15. 15. For example: Kayoto used to play tennis a lot (but doesn’t play tennis any more). 4.
  16. 16. You can also use would + base form to express actions or events that occurred regularly during a period in the past. 4.
  17. 17. For example: When we were children, we would spend every summer in Maine. 4.
  18. 18. BE CAREFUL!! Used to and would are similar in meaning when they express repeated past actions. 4.
  19. 19. For example: When we were children, we would spend every summer in Maine. OR When we were children, we used to spend every summer in Maine. 4.
  20. 20. But don’t use “would” for a situation or condition that continued for a period in the past: I used to live in Chicago. (location) Incorrect: **I would live in Chicago. 4.
  21. 21. Mia used to be a nurse. (occupation) Incorrect: **Mia would be a nurse. 4.
  22. 22. We used to have a summer home. (possession) Incorrect: **We would have a summer home. 4.
  23. 23. Use the past perfect to show an action, event or state of being that happened before a certain time in the past. 5.
  24. 24. For example: By June 13, the family had interviewed dozens of candidates. 5.
  25. 25. Use the past perfect with the simple past to show which of two past actions, events or states happened first. 5.
  26. 26. For example: Weinlick and Runze had known each other for five days when they got married. 5.
  27. 27. The past perfect is usually used when we begin a sentence by talking about the later event: 5.
  28. 28. For example: By the time the wedding day arrived, Weinlick had prepared everything. 5.
  29. 29. The past perfect is not often used in sentences with before or after. The simple past is generally used to describe both events. 5.
  30. 30. For example: Weinlick started advertising for a bride after he graduated from college. (= He graduated from college before he started advertising for a bride.) 5.
  31. 31. Use the past perfect progressive (= past perfect continuous) to express an action that was in progress before another past event, and continued up until that time. 6.
  32. 32. For example: She had been working (for five years) when she got married. 6.
  33. 33. Use was/were going to or would + base form for an action that was planned or expected in the past. 7.
  34. 34. For example: Weinlick knew that he was going to get married on June 13, 1998. He knew where the wedding would be. Note: You can also think of these as examples of indirect speech. 7.