Adv grammar 10 7

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Adv grammar 10 7

  1. 1. Adjective Clauses DIFFICULT PROBLEMS
  2. 2. When can we use whom, who, and whose in an adjective clause?
  3. 3. Who as a relative pronoun: You can use who to begin adjective clause that follows and modifies a person or people.
  4. 4. For example: The teacher who teaches this class has been at Laney for almost 20 years. I didn’t like the person who spoke to me on the phone.
  5. 5. The difference between who and whom as relative pronouns:
  6. 6. We use whom in formal English when the adjective clause modifies an object of a verb or preposition:
  7. 7. For example: I didn’t like the man whom I saw near to door to my house. (I saw the man—the man is the object)
  8. 8. For example: There are 27 students in this class, a few of whom don’t come regularly. Informal: There are 27 students, but a few of them don’t come regularly.
  9. 9. For example: He is the man from whom I bought the car. Informal: He is the man I bought the car from.
  10. 10. Whom is formal, and you don’t hear it much in conversation.
  11. 11. Whose is used when the embedded sentence has a possessive.
  12. 12. What is a possessive? This is my computer. Our class starts at 8:30. Laney’s ESL department used be be larger. The population of Oakland (= Oakland’s population) is is smaller than the population of San Francisco.
  13. 13. Examples of relative pronoun whose: She is a teacher whose classes are always difficult. Main sentence: She is a teacher Embedded sentence: Her classes are always difficult.
  14. 14. Who, whom and whose can all be simple question words: Who is that? Whom were you talking to? (formal—in conversation, Who were you talking to? Whose computer is that?
  15. 15. Examples of relative pronoun whose: (Whose as a relative pronoun) can refer to a thing as well as person. Oakland is a city whose population is growing. Main sentence: Oakland is a city. Embedded sentence: Oakland’s population is growing.
  16. 16. WHO as a relative pronoun: Student examples Sam is a student who is learning English at Laney College. The girl who is wearing a red coat is May. My friend, who likes to dance, is young. Jun, who is a hard worker, lived in a small town.
  17. 17. WHO as a relative pronoun: Student examples The man who is standing at the corner is a movie star. The woman who is wearing a blue jacket is from China. Mary and Gary, who have been married for two years, are very happy together.
  18. 18. WHOM as a relative pronoun: Student examples She is the kind of person whom others consider shy. My brother, with whom I spend a lot of time, is an introvert. Whom was my sister talking with?
  19. 19. WHOSE as a relative pronoun: Student examples He is a student whose father is a teacher. Yesterday I met Tom, whose wife is from my hometown. He is a shallow thinker whose opinions aren’t worth much.
  20. 20. WHOSE as a relative pronoun: Student examples An introvert is a person whose energies are activated by being alone. My favorite brother, whose hair is the same color as mine, studies at the same college I do.
  21. 21. WHOM as a relative pronoun: Student examples The lady whom I spoke with is the company manager. She is my writing classmate to whom I was talking.
  22. 22. When can we use who or that in an adjective clause? Who and that are usually interchangeable in adjective clauses (= it often doesn’t matter which one you use.)
  23. 23. For example: The man who/that is standing at the corner is a movie star. The woman who/that is wearing a blue jacket is from China.
  24. 24. What’s the difference between an identifying and non-identifying adjective clause?
  25. 25. A non-identifying adjective clause has commas. An identifying adjective clause has no commas.
  26. 26. Why do we use adjective clauses? There are two possible reasons.
  27. 27. Sometimes the adjective clause gives extra information about the noun it modifies. Is is a non- identifying adjective clause, and it has commas.
  28. 28. For example: My mother, who has never worked in a restaurant, does not give very good tips. My youngest sister, who was a waitress when she was in college, is a generous tipper.
  29. 29. Sometimes we use and adjective clause to identify what or whom we are talking about. This is an identifying clause, and it has no commas.
  30. 30. For example: The students who were absent last week need to talk to me. Community colleges that are located in large urban areas usually have ESL departments.
  31. 31. Sometimes an adjective clause can modify a whole situation:
  32. 32. I have three sisters and two brothers, which made things pretty crowded when we were growing up.
  33. 33. He was late and forgot to bring any money, which made me a little bit annoyed.
  34. 34. When an adjective clause modifies a whole situation in this way, it is always a non- identifying clause with “which,”
  35. 35. Do we need commas? Tim-Berners Lee is the person who created the World Wide Web.
  36. 36. Do we need commas? Tim-Berners Lee, whose parents were computer scientists, was born in England.
  37. 37. Do we need commas? Many of the people who made important inventions in the computer industry are now very rich.
  38. 38. Do we need commas? However, Berners-Lee, who works at MIT in Boston, chose not to sell the World Wide Web.
  39. 39. Do we need commas? He believes in the power of his invention, which can reach everybody if it is not expensive.
  40. 40. Some special things about non-identifying clauses:
  41. 41. In an identifying clause, you can use which or that: Computer programs that are hard to use often lose money. Computer programs which are hard to use often lose money.
  42. 42. In a non-identifying clause, you can use which but not that. Laney College, which is in Oakland, has many students. **Laney College, that is in Oakland, has many students.
  43. 43. The same thing happens with who and that: In an identifying clause, The students who were absent last week need to talk to me. OR The students that were absent last week need to talk to me.
  44. 44. In a non-identifying clause, you can only use who: My youngest sister, who was a waitress in college, is always a generous tipper. **My youngest sister, that was a waitress in college, is always a generous tipper.
  45. 45. Easy general rules: Never use that as the relative pronoun in a non-identifying adjective clause. An adjective clause after the name of a person or place or any capitalized noun will always be non-identifying.
  46. 46. What is the difference between a noun clause and an adjective clause?
  47. 47. When can we omit the relative pronoun, and when do we have to use it?
  48. 48. Embed = bury An adjective clause is a way to embed one sentence inside another.
  49. 49. You can leave out the relative pronoun if it stands for the object of the embedded sentence.
  50. 50. The car that I bought was very expensive.
  51. 51. The car that I bought was very expensive. “Car” is the object of the embedded sentence “I bought the car.”
  52. 52. Therefore, I can leave out the relative pronoun: The car I bought was very expensive.
  53. 53. Main sentence: The car was very expensive. Embedded sentence: I bought the car.

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