Wi I Reality Tour3


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  • VF has two workers center chapters: Racine and Milwaukee. Statewide membership. Youth chapter in Racine called “Students United for Immigrant Rights” (SUFRIR)Part of the Wisconsin Legalization Coalition representing 54 organizations including unions, religious organizations, community based organizations, student groups and small businesses. VF and Wisconsin Legalization Coalition are part of the Fair Immigration Reform Movement (FIRM) a national network of immigrant rights network that promotes community organizing. At the international level, VF is part of the Coalition for Justice in the Maquiladoras, a coalition that supports workers of transnational companies.
  • Citizenship classes are offered in Racine and Milwaukee.Labor Rights Workshops will be offered on a monthly basis starting in 2007. Topics include topics such as wage and hour, workers’ compensation, discrimination, sexual harassment.Legal clinic: Free consultation with volunteer attorneys in the areas of: workers’ compensation, labor law, immigration, family, criminal and traffic violations law.Leadership development through community organizing campaigns: legalization, access to higher education, workers’ rights, advocacy on SS no match letters, workers’ rights.OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) representative comes in once a month and provides consultation.If comfortable, tell a little about yourself.
  • Trade agreements are forcing small farmers, workers, and small business owners out of their country and there is a job market in the US.Globalization is the movement of companies, capital, services, goods and people across borders. This has led to the emergence of transnational corporations and regional free-trade markets such as the European Union, Mercosur (southern common market) includes Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) which includes Canada, US and Mexico and CAFTA (Central American Free Trade Agreement) which includes the Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and the United States (signed 2003). Efforts to pass the FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas) a continent –wide free trade region from Alaska to Chile) have encountered fierce resistance.While most trade agreements include the free movement of companies, capital, goods and labor, treaties with the United States do no allow the free movement of labor.Despite the promise, NAFTA resulted in a net loss of jobs in Mexico and decline in wages. The near elimination of import restrictions on corn and other commodities resulted in dumped US corn flooding the Mexican market, forcing . Mexico now imports corn as opposed to exporting it. Agriculture was a big part of the Mexican economy.
  • Many US agribusiness multinationals also used NAFTA investment rules to buy corn-processing and tortilla making factories in Mexico. The cost of tortillas rose by more than 50% as prices paid to Mexican farmers for corn plummeted, “Rise in Tortilla Prices, NPR”, Jan 20, 2000Cost of basic food basket increased 257% 1994-2004
  • Though tremendously unreported, there is an impressive level of organizing in Mexico in response to these desperate circumstances.The quote on the left is by the EZLN (Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional), an armed peasant uprising in Chiapas, Mexico on the day that NAFTA was signed.There is a significant level of civic participation to achieve democratic elections in Mexico despite government corruption and US interference. For example, Council of Communication which includes multinational companies like Halliburton, Walmart, and Kraft were revealed to have funded illegal advertisement ads opposing the popular candidate Lopez Obredor as a “danger to Mexico” since he was opposed to further privatization efforts (such as the state owned oil company PEMEX) and renegotiating the terms of NAFTA. Organizing unions is very difficult. Most “unions” are run by the government or employers. In the 1990s, UNT was formed Mexican Workers Union (UNT), an independent national federation composed of unions that split from the traditional government controlled unions.
  • United States: NAFTA has also contributed to growing income inequality and decrease in wages for workers without a college degree who made up 72.1% of the workforce in 2001. Many of the new jobs are in the service sector which has seen job growth but is largely non-union. Threats of outsourcing and weak labor laws have led to a weakening at the bargaining table after NAFTA. In a Wall Street Journal survey in 1992 it was reported that ¼ of all corporate executives admitted that they were “very or somewhat likely” to use that threat. In a study of organizing drives from 1993-1995 more than 50% of all employers made that threat during organizing drives in mobile industries (such as apparel and textile, electronics components, metal fabrication). This number increased in the aftermath of NAFTA.Canada: Bruce Campbell of the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives reports, Canada's increased market integration with the United States began in 1989 with the bilateral Free Trade Agreement, the precursor to NAFTA. While trade and investment flows increased dramatically, per capita income actually declined for the first seven years after the agreement. Moreover, as in Mexico and the United States, Canadians saw an upward redistribution of income to the richest 20% of Canadians, a decline in stable full-time employment, and the tearing of Canada's social safety net. Source for job loss in US: Economic Policy Institute, “Rethinking NAFTA”, Sept. 2006:
  • In fact, there is a labor market for new immigrants, especially in future projections as the baby boomer generation retires.Unemployment: First half of ’06 was lowest unemployment rate in 6 years. Though, the impact of trade loss jobs, with higher wages and benefits, has had a disproportionate impact on minority communities. But this is not the fault of immigrant workers. Jobs: No net impact on unemployment rates. Their consumerism creates jobs in other areas such as automotive sales, electronic sales, hair cuts, restaurants, etc. They open small businesses that create jobs. In states with highest concentration of undocumented they have lower unemployment rates. Whose taking our best jobs? American companies that now are moving operations to China or other countries where they can get cheaper labor.
  • Maybe ask crowd to share some of the things they have heard about immigration/immigrants. If you ask that question, try to remember & record after the meeting any myths people have that are not covered in the presentation.SS suspense file: Since 1986, when the Immigration Reform and Control Act set penalties for employers who knowingly hire illegal immigrants, most such workers have been forced to buy fake ID's to get a job.
  • Don’t pay taxes: They pay income, property & sales taxes, Use ITIN (individual tax identification number) to pay taxes, Pay between $90-$140 billion a year in federal, state, and local taxes, In next 20 years will contribute $500 billion toward Social Security (which they will get none of back) avg. contribution of 7 billion a year. Welfare: Pay about $90-$140 billion a year in taxes Use around $5 billion in public benefits. This is primarily in the area of public education (K-12) and emergency medical care. When American’s retire they have Social Security. When undocumented immigrants are unable to work, they will have nothing.
  • This is not the solution because we are not addressing the root causes. People don’t come here willingly, risking robbery, rape, and death. The history of migration to US has largely been circular, the militarization of the border has forced people to settle in the US rather than risk the dangers of crossing again. The militarization of the border has resulted in a greater tax expense for American public and forced immigrants to take more dangerous routes. The root problem being, “WHY do they risk their lives and leave their family to come here?” and “How do we hold our own government accountable to foreign trade policies that contribute to massive poverty in Mexico and poverty in the US. Mexican government petitioned U.S. to renegotiate agriculture clause of NAFTA. U.S. refused. Forced to cross in Arizona-Sonora DesertHypothermia at night during the Fall/WinterHeat stroke/dehydration during Spring/SummerRobbery, rape, and kidnappingLies & desertion by smugglersAbuse, death from border patrol
  • Many of the vigilantes are ranchers from the area. (Click for first photo.) (Click for second photo.) They use dogs to find immigrants and “heard them up” much like sheep dogs do to sheep. The dogs have been known to bite. They have arms.SPLC has documented cases of murder and torture of immigrants by these vigilantes. Local law enforcement broke arrested Alabama militia at the end of April 2007 who were planning to murder Mexicans in a town north of Birmingham, AL They had the largest arms and bombs arsenal in Southern history (Democracy Now 2007). They were not sentenced as “domestic terrorists” but a much lesser sentence of a maximum of six months in jail if convicted.
  • Sensenbrenner who is the author of HR4437 has criticized companies that profit from exploitative working conditions who “make it cheaper to hire an illegal alien than a citizen or a legal alien”holds $86,500 in stocks of Halliburton. It was revealed in senate hearings that Halliburton used sub-contractors with perhaps thousands of undocumented workers as part of a no-bid federal contract in the post-Katrina devastated region. Halliburton was also awarded a $385 million contract from the Department of Homeland Security to build gigantic immigrant detention centers near the US –Mexico border. He also owns more than $563,536 in GE stocks. GE’s security unit is providing viedo surveillance and other electronic security systems on the border and contributed to Sensenbrenner through its employee PAC. Boeing, which recently secured a $2.5 billion contract order to install sensors, radar and cameras along the US is among the top contributors to Sensenbrenner’s PAC. Corrections and Geo are already running 8 out of 16 federal detention facilities. By Fall of 2007, Bush Adm expects that 27,500 immigrants will be in detention each night, an increase of 6,700 over the current number in custody. Private companies stand to profit the most. Wall Street has taken notice of potential growth, sock of Corrections Corp. Climbed to $53.77 from $42.50 (27% increase) since February when Bush, proposed adding spending to immigrant detention. Geo’s stock rose about 68% in the same period to $39.24 from $23.36.Pew: need from more prison space not a result of increased migration as the number of unauthorized immigrants is down by 50,000 a year from the 1990s. Increase in detention spending is due to plans to detain more immigrants in the US, expected increase of detention on the border, and detaining more immigrants from outside of Mexico.
  • There are no legal channels. In the 1800s all you had to do to become a US citizen was to come to the shores of the United States. For most of the history of the USA, migration has been a simple process. Over time restrictions have been placed on different groups for example, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and restrictions on Japanese migration were clearly racist in nature. Other affected groups include: the Irish Catholics (No Irish need apply signs), Southern and Eastern Europeans, and Jews. Recent groups include Haitians who were denied political refugee status by the US government in the 1980s. Quotas were established restricting numbers from Latin America over time:1965: 20,000 for each country in Europe, Africa, Asia, Pacific & Middle East1968: 120,000 for Canada and countries in Latin America, and the Caribbean 1976: 20,000 for every country. This led to legal immigration from Mexico to fall by 40%. 1990: 480,000 reduced family immigration visas1996: Raised income threshold for family based sponsorship Backlog/Wait time for immigrant visas5-20 yearsUnrealistically low number of visas (for family & employment) for certain countries for low-wage workers in the US economy. More than 50% of the agricultural workforce is undocumented and key sectors depend on immigrant labor: hotels and restaurants, construction, meatpacking, landscaping, dairy, and temporary agencies that are sub-contracted to a host of companies. Jobs:140,000 minimum/yearUnskilled workers eligible for 37,380 In 2005, individuals from Mexico received 437Worldwide only 975 issued in 2005Wait is 7+ yearsFamily sponsorship: IN 1996 Congress changed laws (took away 245i) so that family members who were waiting for their paperwork to be processed had to leave the country. Given the years it takes to be processed, families cannot economically or financially afford to be separated and are now living in fear as their lived ones after 1996 are now “illegal” and are threatened with deportation.
  • Increased quotas from key countries which we have economic integration with. A legalization process that includes- a certain level of English competency, knowledge of civics (US history and government), background check, and processing fees. Restores family unity (245i). Has a path to eventual citizenship after achieving lawful permanent status.
  • Membership: $5/yr. Take a serious role in organization’s activities and committees. Gives right to vote on projects & membership’s representatives’ elections. Monthly optional/informational meeting
  • Additional sources:Fact: 96% percent of foreign born Hispanics believe it is very important to learn EnglishPew Hispanic Center, Hispanic Attitude Toward Learning English, June 7, 2006 http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/20.pdf
  • Wi I Reality Tour3

    1. 1. No Human Being is Illegal Voces de la Frontera 1027 S. 5th St. Milwaukee, WI 53204 414-643-1620 info@vocesdelafrontera.net www.vocesdelafrontera.net
    2. 2. About Voces de la Frontera • Mission – Community based organization – Organize to protect and improve the lives of low wage and immigrant workers
    3. 3. More about Voces… • Services – Citizenship classes – English classes – Legal clinic – Labor Rights Workshops – Leadership development – Referrals to community resources and agencies – Health & Safety counseling with OSHA
    4. 4. Why do Immigrants Come Here? The way our global economy is structured − First year of NAFTA in Mexico: 80,000 manufacturing jobs created and one million agricultural jobs lost − Since then, 2 million small farmers forced out of work due to subsidized US agribusiness exports − Around 28,000 small and medium-sized businesses have been eliminated due to Mega-retailers (such as Wal-Mart) moving into Mexican market(3) NAFTA passed in 1994
    5. 5. Devastating Effects of NAFTA on Mexico •Currently, 2,826 maquiladoras, US owns 79%. 300,000 manufacturing jobs at US multinational companies in Mexico moved to China (2003). (4) •No enforcement labor, safety regulations or environmental standards for U.S manufacturing factories. (5) •19 million more Mexicans living in poverty today than in 1994 (6) •Forced migration: 2.5 million Mexican undocumented in 1995; as of 2006, an additional 8 million crossed the border. (7)
    6. 6. Myths Cont… “Today we say • No motivation in Mexico to enough! …we call on all our brothers and sisters to join change the country us on the only path that will allow us to escape starvation • EZLN caused by the insatiable ambition of a seventy-year- old dictatorship… • Civic campaigns for ready to sell out our country.” democratic elections (8) New Year’s Day 1994— • UNT –national independent Declaration of the Lacandonal Jungle by union federation (9) Subcomandante Marcos of the EZLN on the day of the signing of NAFTA
    7. 7. Impact of NAFTA on US and Canada – Since NAFTA, 2.5 million manufacturing jobs were lost nationwide in the US. (10) – Wisconsin was one of the 10 worst hit states as a total share of jobs losing 25,403 jobs and counting. (11) – According to DOL, two years after losing their jobs: 1/3 held new jobs that paid as well, 1/3 earned 15- 20% less, 1/3 dropped out of labor force (12)
    8. 8. Impact of NAFTA on US and Canada – More than 38,000 US small farms have gone out of business as a result of NAFTA and overall US farm income has declined (13) – In Canada, a decade of competition with the United States is eroding social investment in public spending on education, unemployment compensation, and other public services. (13)
    9. 9. Whose benefiting? • Average CEO in US earned 262 times the wages of the average worker. (14) • 1965- 24X • 1975 28X • 1985 52X • 1995 100X • 2005 262X
    10. 10. Myths cont. • Immigrants take jobs from The great enemy of American workers the truth is very often • 4.5% unemployment in US(15) not the lie -- deliberate, • States with higher contrived and concentration of dishonest -- but the undocumented have lower myth -- persistent, unemployment (16) persuasive and • Create jobs (17) unrealistic. –John F. Kennedy
    11. 11. Myths • Immigrants don’t pay taxes quot;Our assumption is that about three- • Contribution to Social Security: quarters of other- than-legal immigrants pay $189 billion worth of wages payroll taxes,quot; said Stephen C. recorded in the suspense file Goss, Social Security's chief actuary, using the over the 1990's, two and a half agency's term for illegal immigration.  times the amount of the 1980's. (18)  • $7 billion in annual Social Security tax revenue and about $1.5 billion in Medicare taxes. (19)
    12. 12. Immigrants & Taxes (19) 140 120 100 80 Billions annually 60 40 20 0 Contribute Receive
    13. 13. Myths Cont… • Increased border patrol is the solution – From ’86-’98, border patrol’s budget increased six-fold & number of agents stationed at border doubled to 8,500 while undocumented immigration population doubled at same time. During 80s apprehension rate was 33%, in 2002 it was 5% “We must learn to live – Since 1995, the number of dead on the together as brothers [and border has doubled from 254 in 1998 to sisters] or perish 472 in 2005 together as fools.” –Martin Luther King, Jr.
    14. 14. Life on the Border • Armed Vigilantes – Bodies found with gunshot wounds or bludgeoned “ If our government doesn’ t help us boot ‘ em, I guess we’ ll just have to up and shoot ‘ em!”
    15. 15. Who profits? • Companies such as Halliburton, GE, “we’re asking you to come Lockheed, Boeing back and tell us how to do • For profit prisons: Corrections our business… Corporation of America, the Geo We’re inviting you to tell us Group, and Texas based Cornell how to run our organization.” • Politicians with shares in companies that benefit from the Deputy Director of DHS, Michael criminalization and detention of Jackson speaking to more than 400 defense the undocumented. contractors and industrialists, Jan. 25, 2006
    16. 16. The System is Broken • We have a discriminatory quota system from certain countries • Work visas primarily for well educated immigrants • Prior legal channels of migration have been taken away by Congress quot;We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights; that among these, are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” –Declaration of Independence
    17. 17. Visa Bulletin VISA BULLETIN FOR SEPTEMBER 2007 • Worldwide Family-Sponsored Worldwide Employment-Based preference limit: 226,000 preference limit: 147,148 FAMILY-SPONSORED PREFERENCES Fam-ily All CHINA- INDIA MEXICO PHILIPP- Charge- mainland INES First: Unmarried Sons ability born and Daughters of Areas Citizens Except Second: Spouses and Those Children, and Listed Unmarried Sons and Daughters of 1st 01OCT01 01OCT01 01OCT01 01JAN91 15MAY92 Permanent Residents: 2A 08OCT02 08OCT02 08OCT02 01APR02 08OCT02 Third: Married Sons and Daughters of Citizens: 2B 01JUL98 01JUL98 01JUL98 08MAR92 15NOV96 Fourth: Brothers and 3rd 01JAN00 01JAN00 01JAN00 08FEB88 15FEB91 Sisters of Adult Citizens: 4th 01MAR97 22JUL96 15APR96 01SEP90 01JUN85
    18. 18. Nothing new…
    19. 19. US Citizenship: Who else has been excluded? All treaties were broken
    20. 20. Chinese Exclusion Act In a Thomas Nast cartoon from 1879, an Indian warns a Chinese immigrant Yellow Peril (or about the white solutions to quot;the Chinese problem.quot; Oregon Yellow Terror) was convention delegates prohibited Chinese from voting and outlawed a racist color Chinese new to the state from owning property or mining claims. metaphpr fpr (Image courtesy assumption.edu) Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the late nineteenth to mid-20th century. It was believed that the mass immigration of Asians threatened white wages and standards of living.
    21. 21. Slavery in America This 1774 broadside, typical of the advertisement s used in the North as well as the South before the Civil War, advertises the sale of slaves and land, the availability of employment for an overseer, a recall of debts, and a reward for anyone who captured two runaway slaves.
    22. 22. Southern and Eastern Europeans This 1891 cartoon expresses the views of those opposed to immigration into the USA. The politician is telling Uncle Sam that quot;If immigration was properly restricted you would no longer be troubled with anarchy, socialism, the Mafia, and such kindred evils!'quot; Captions on immigrants in the picture label them :Polish vagabond, Italian brigand, English convict, Russian anarchist, Irish pauper.
    23. 23. Irish Go Home This cartoon, published in the 1880s, reinforces the stereotype of the Irishman as a combative troublemaker. Uncle Sam reprimands him, quot;Look here, you, everybody else is quiet and peaceable, and you're all the time a-kicking up a row!quot;  The editorial that accompanied the cartoon asserted: quot;the raw Irishman in America is a nuisance, his son a curse. They never assimilate; the second generation simply shows an intensification of all the bad qualities of the first. . . .They are a burden and a misery to this country.quot; 
    24. 24. Impact of Raids on children A new report Injustice Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America's Children released by the National Council of La Raza (NCLR) and the Urban Institute found that for anywhere is every two people detained in immigration enforcement operations, one child is a threat to left behind. Two-thirds of these children are U.S. citizens and a similar share is under age ten. justice everywhere. Mental health experts noted that children's and parents' fears and the events surrounding the raids led to depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, separation anxiety, and suicidal thoughts in children. Martin Luther King
    25. 25. Impact of raids on workers • The Bay Guardian on June 13, 2007 revealed that Samuel Hardage – owner of the Woodfin Suites hotel chain – used his political influence to have Congressman Brian Bilbray persuade the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Agency to investigate his very own hotel and workers during a workplace organizing campaign, despite ICE’s written policy not to intervene in labor disputes. • UFCW union organizing drive in meatpacking plants targeted for ICE raid this year. • ICE official quoted as referring to Know Your Rights Training as “harboring” illegals. • ICE conducted raid in 2006 pretending to be OSHA at a workpace training.
    26. 26. The Rise of Nativism today Nativism: 1 : a policy of favoring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants 2 : the revival or perpetuation of an indigenous culture especially in opposition to acculturation. Xenophobia: fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign is a fear of negative attitude toward immigrants, an This is often catalyzed by other things happening in the society at the time (economic insecurity, demographic changes, political) The Southern Poverty Law Center has documented a 40 percent increase in the number of hate groups since 2000, an increase that SPLC analysts attribute to the anti-immigrant fervor sweeping the country. The FBI recently released statistics showing a 35 percent rise in hate crimes against Latinos since 2003.
    27. 27. Honoring our past The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus (1849-1887) Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. • quot;Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!quot; cries she with silent lips. quot;Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!quot;
    28. 28. Solutions • Legal channels for migration to address the current population & future flows • Fix the broken immigration system in a way that is family centered and realistic • Enforceable environmental & labor protections for trade agreements (NAFTA & CAFTA) • Strong labor protections regardless of immigration status
    29. 29. What you can do • Become an active member of VF • Attend town halls • Refer VF for speaking engagements • Contact community leaders & legislators • Vote • Participate in rallies and marches • Write editorials to the paper • Make a donation “Our lives • Host a movie and discussion begin to end the day we • Participate in a border tour become silent • Become active in your labor union about things that matter.” • Encourage your church join the New Sanctuary movement -Martin Luther King, Jr.
    30. 30. Sources • (2) Randall Pinkston, “Is NAFTA good for Mexico’s farmers?,” CBS Evening News, July 1, 2006 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/07/01/eveningnews/main1773839.shtml • (3) Jose Maria Imaz, “NAFTA Damages Small Businesses,” El Barzon (Mexico City), Jan. 1997 • (4) Ellen Lenny-Pessagno, “ Mexican Manufacturing Devours U.S. Goods ,” U.S. Commercial Service, Mexico , http://www.buyusa.gov/pittsburgh/mexmanufacturing.html David Bacon, “Anti-China Campaign Hides Maquiladora Wage Cuts”, February 03, 2003 http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=2949 (5) Human Rights Watch, “TRADING AWAY RIGHTS: The Unfulfilled Promise of NAFTA's Labor Side Agreement,” April 2001 http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/nafta/index.htm#TopOfPage Garrett Brown, Speak Out: Portrait of a Failure, NAFTA and Workplace Health and Safety , The Synergist – Monthly magazine of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, August 2004 http://mhssn.igc.org/brown_synergist.htm Sierra Club, “NAFTA's Investor Rights: a Threat to the Environment and our Democracy” http://www.sierraclub.org/trade/nafta/backgrounder.asp (6) Mary Jordan and Kevin Sullivan, “Trade Brings Riches, but Not to Mexico’s Poor,” Washington Post, March 22, 2003 http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/ffd/2003/0322mexico.htm (7) Roger Bybee Carolyn Winter, “Immigration Flood Unleashed by NAFTA’s Disastrous Impact on Mexican Economy, Common Dreams News Center, April 5, 2006 http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0425-30.htm Jacob Hill, “Free Trade Immigration: Cause and Effect”, Council on Hemispheric Affairs, July 18, 2007 http://www.coha.org/2007/07/18/free-trade-and-immigration-cause-and-effect (8) Democracy Now interview, Mexico Court Declares Calderon Winner of Disputed Election, Lopez Obrador Vows to Form Parallel Gov't, September 6th, 2006 http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=06/09/06/1359233 (9) Dan La Botz, “THE FOUNDING OF THE UNT: A PROGRESSIVE STEP FOR MEXICAN LABOR,” Mexican Labor News and Analysis, December 5, 1997, Vol. II, No. 22 http://www.ueinternational.org/vol2no22.html (10) Timi Gerson, Raul Islas, Fiona Wright, and Adalila Zelada, LCLAA and Public Citizen’s Global Trade Watch, “Another Americas is Possible: The Impact of NAFTA on the US Latino Community and Lessons for Future Agreements,” August 2004
    31. 31. Sources cont. (11) Robert E. Scott, Carlos Salas, Bruce Campbell, Revisiting NAFTA: Still Not Working for North America’s Workers, Economic Policy Institute, September 28, 2006, Briefing Paper #173 http://www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/173/bp173.pdf (12) USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, “Farms and Lands in Farms 2002,” Feb. 2003, p. 191. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics http://www.bls.gov (13) Robert E. Scott,“The high price of 'free' trade: NAFTA's failure has cost the United States jobs across the nation,” Economic Policy Institute, November 17, 2003 http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/briefingpapers_bp147 (14) Lawrence Michel, “CEO-to-worker pay imbalance grows,”Economic Policy Institute, June 21, 2006 http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/webfeatures_snapshots_20060621 (15) U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 2007 http://www.bls.gov (16) & (17) Robert McNatt and Frank Benassi , Econ 101 on Illegal Immigrants, April 7, 2006. http://www.businessweek.com/investor/content/apr2006/pi20060407_072803.htm The White House, Council of Economic Advisors, “Immigration’s Economic Impact”, June 20, 2007 http://www.whitehouse.gov/cea/cea_immigration_062007.html Congress of the United States, Congressional Budget Office, “The Role of Immigrants in the US Labor Market”, November 2005 http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/68xx/doc6853/11-10-Immigration.pdf (18) By Eduardo Porter, “Illegal Immigrants Are Bolstering Social Security with Billions”, The New York Times, April 5, 2005 http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/05/business/05immigration.html?ex=1270353600&en=78c87ac4641dc383&ei=5090 (19) Reference from Justice for Immigrants, Catholic Campaign for Immigration Reform, http:// www.justiceforimmigrants.org/myths.html original source from National Immigration Forum see: http://www.immigrationforum.org/about/articles/tax_study.html Randy Capps and Michael Fix, “Undocumented Immigrants: Myth and Reality,” Urban Policy Institute and Migration Policy Institute, October 25, 2005 http://www.urbaninstitute.org/UploadedPDF/900898_undocumented_immigrants.pdf
    32. 32. Sources cont. Jenifer and Peter Wipf, “Top 10 Reasons to File Individual U.S. Tax Returns if you are an Undocumented Immigrant ,” http://immigration.about.com/od/uslegaltroubles/tp/UndocsFileTaxes.htm Lipman, Francine J. , quot;Taxing Undocumented Immigrants: Separate, Unequal and Without Representationquot; . Tax Lawyer, Spring 2006 Available at SSRN: http:// ssrn.com/abstract=881584 (21) Douglas S. Massey, Jorge Durand, and Nolan J Malone, Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration,”Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 2002 • (22) Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Project • http://www.splcenter.org/index.jsp (23) Roberto Lovato, “Sensenbrenner Portfolio—Does Congressman Profit from Undocumented Labor”, October 24, 2006, New America Media Quote of Michael Jackson- CorpWatch: Border for Sale Immigration Enforcement Benefits Prison Firms by Meredith Kolodner, July 19, 2006 (24) Douglas S. Massey, Jorge Durand, and Nolan J Malone, Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration,”Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 2002