Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Weaving  Hand, Spinning, Dyeing, Hand Loomed Blue Wool And White Linen Coverlet, Worked In Overshot Weave In Plain Geometric Variant Of A Checkerboard Pattern
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Weaving Hand, Spinning, Dyeing, Hand Loomed Blue Wool And White Linen Coverlet, Worked In Overshot Weave In Plain Geometric Variant Of A Checkerboard Pattern


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. IMLS NLG Collection Registry & Item-Level Metadata Repository at the University of Illinois Timothy W. Cole ( Mathematics Librarian & Professor of Library Administration University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA) Open Archives Forum Workshop University of Bath 4 September 2003
  • 2. IMLS NLG Program
    • Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)
      • U.S. Federal grant-making agency, est. 1996
      • Goal to foster leadership, innovation, lifetime learning
      • $244 million annual budget
    • IMLS National Leadership Grant Program
      • Currently about $20 million per year
      • Library, Museum, & Library-Museum Collaborations
      • Funds research & demonstration, digitization, preservation, model programs, new technology
  • 3. IMLS Digital Collections Framework
    • “ IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections” published November 2001
    • Product of 8-member IMLS Digital Library Forum, with participation from National Science Digital Library (NSF)
    • Differentiates digital collections & digital libraries
    • Articulates principles & frames discussion of best practices
    • Links to resources, models, & exemplary projects
    • Will be sustained by National Information Standards Org.
  • 4. Recommendations from the IMLS Forum
    • Four General Recommendations to IMLS:
      • Digital collections built with support of public funds can and should be held to standards that support interoperability, reusability, and persistence.
      • IMLS should maintain its own registry of funded digital collections.
      • Because so much of the IMLS constituency consists of small and medium-sized organizations without sophisticated in-house technical support, the IMLS should also consider projects to develop infrastructure services that lower barriers to NSDL contribution by smaller organizations.
      • IMLS should encourage the integration of an archiving component into every project plan by requiring a description of how data will be preserved.
  • 5.
    • Collection description and registry for National Leadership grant projects with digital content
      • Enhance discoverability; all registry fields searchable
    • Item level metadata repository via OAI-PMH
      • Demonstrate potential of metadata for interoperability
      • Facilitate reuse of information resources
    • Research question: How can resource developers best represent collections and items to meet the needs of service providers and end users?
    • Project Website:
  • 6. Project Scope
    • 95 NLG projects with associated digital collections
      • 51 of these are/were collaborative projects
      • All together 237 institutions involved
  • 7. A Diverse Community
    • Wide variation in technical skills and technology infrastructure & policy
    • Mix of library, museum, and archive traditions
      • Diverse perspectives on IP policy, use and presentation of metadata and primary resources
      • Diverse embedded knowledge structures
    • Wide range of vocabularies and descriptive practices
      • Metadata created for diverse purposes
      • Local vocabularies for type, subject, coverage, audience
      • Wide range of granularity
  • 8. Prior Work – Mellon OAI Grants
    • July 2001, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation awarded 7 grants for OAI-related research ($1.5 mil. total)
      • Primary focus: demonstrate utility of OAI metadata harvesting in context of scholarly inquiry
      • Research Library Group (RLG) University of Michigan University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Emory University / Southeastern Library Network Woodrow Wilson International Center University of Virginia
    • See:
  • 9. University of Illinois Mellon OAI Project
    • July 2001 – May 2003
    • Primary Objectives:
      • Create & demonstrate OAI tools
      • Build portal to aggregated metadata describing cultural heritage resources
        • Initially – For OAI testing & research
        • Long-term – As a sustained resource
      • Investigate using EAD metadata in OAI context
      • Research utility of aggregated metadata
  • 10. University of Illinois Cultural Heritage Portal
    • Harvests 25 OAI Providers
      • Academic libraries & archives
      • Digital library projects
      • Historical societies
    • Aggregates 479,000 metadata items
      • 55% text / sheet music
      • 40% image / multimedia
      • 5% archival / museum
  • 11. Current Projects Addressing Similar Issues
    • NSDL
    • Digital library of resource collections and services, organized in support of science education at all levels.
    • NOF-Digitize / EnrichUK
    • Description and aggregation of digitized collections funded by the New Opportunities Fund
    • Minerva Project
    • Creating an agreed European common platform, recommendations and guidelines about digitization, metadata, long-term accessibility and preservation
  • 12. Technical Challenges
    • NLG Awardees have diverse technical resources
      • Limited knowledge of / tools for working with XML
      • Limited knowledge of community metadata schemas
      • Limited knowledge of / access to CGI capabilities
    • Early NLG projects have no resources earmarked for sharing metadata
      • Technical implementations not always built with reuse and interoperability in mind
  • 13. OAI Readiness Among NLG Projects
  • 14. OAI for Static Repositories
    • Lower barrier option for exposing relatively static and small collections of metadata
      • Designed to scale well to about 5,000 metadata records
      • Provider serves static XML file (no CGI required)
      • 3 rd party gateway generates valid OAI responses
    • Supports only a subset of OAI options
      • No sets, deleted records, resumptionTokens
      • DateStamp granularity limited to YYYY-MM-DD
    • Preliminary alpha version of OAI-SR guidelines available:
  • 15.  
  • 16. OAI Static Repository Gateways
    • SR Gateways support CGI extended path
    • SR Gateways typically cache static repository XML files
    • SR Gateway lists all SRs available through gateway in <friends> element (dynamic discovery of SRs)
    • SR Gateways assumed to support automated self-registration of SRs
    • SRs should make themselves available through a single SR Gateway
    • SR Gateway applications available on 1 2
  • 17. Example of a Static Repository XML File
  • 18. Identify OAI_DC Record MARC21 XML Record
  • 19. Working with Turnkey Solutions
    • OAI provider service now built into many popular digital library applications
      • ContentDM, Encompass, DLXS, DSpace,
      • Facilitates participation in OAI-PMH metadata sharing
    • Some implementations may be limited
      • Many support oai_dc metadata schema only
      • May have limited feature set (e.g, no resumptionToken)
      • Metadata mappings may not be configurable
    • Community needs to advocate requirements strongly
  • 20. Metadata Issues
    • Wide range of metadata schemas in use
    • Variations in Descriptive practices & traditions
      • Use of Dublin Core fields
      • Granularity
      • What is being described
    • Different approaches to IP rights issues
  • 21. Metadata Schemas Used By NLG Projects
    • MARC and Dublin Core most common schemas
      • Includes qualified DC & DC with extra fields
    • 24 projects - multiple schemas
      • 14 of these using Dublin Core in combination with another schema
  • 22. DC element usage (from Mellon)
      • Records containing subject & description element
      • Many different controlled and local vocabularies in use
      • Granularity: a record may describe a collection of coins — or one coin
    13% 15% Academic libraries (7 total, 235,294 records) 93% 93% Museums, hist. societies, etc. (6 total, 255,800 records) 36% 78% Digital libraries (10 total, 122,719 records) DESCRIPTION SUBJECT
  • 23. Describe the digital object? Excerpt of record describing a cotton coverlet
    • Description: Digital image of a single-sized cotton coverlet for a bed with embroidered butterfly design. Handmade by Anna F. Ginsberg Hayutin.
    • Source: Materials: cotton and embroidery floss. Dimensions: 71 in. x 86 in. Markings: top right hand corner has 1 1/2 in. x 1/2 in. label cut outs at upper left and right hand side for head board; fabric is woven in a variation of a rib weave; color each of yellow and gray; hand-embroidered cotton butterflies and flowers from two shades of each color of embroidery floss - blue, pink, green and purple and single top 20 in. bordered with blue and black cotton embroidery thread; stitches used for embroidery: running stitch, chain stitch, French knot and back stitches; selvage edges left unfinished; lower edges turned under and finished with large gray running stitches made with embroidery floss.
    • Format: Epson Expression 836 XL Scanner with Adobe Photoshop version 5.5; 300 dpi; 21-53K bytes. Available via the World Wide Web.
    • Coverage: —
    • Date Created: 2001-09-19 09:45:18; Updated: 20011107162451; Created: 2001-04-05; Created: 1912-1920?
    • Type: Image
  • 24. Or describe the analog object? Excerpt of record describing Am. woven coverlet
    • Description: Materials: Textile--Multi, Pigment—Dye; Manufacturing Process: Weaving--Hand, Spinning, Dyeing, Hand-loomed blue wool and white linen coverlet, worked in overshot weave in plain geometric variant of a checkerboard pattern.Coverlet is constructed from finely spun, indigo-dyed wool and undyed linen, woven with considerable skill. Although the pattern is simpler, the overall craftsmanship is higher than 1934.01.0094A. - D. Schrishuhn, 11/19/99 This coverlet is an example of early &quot;overshot&quot; weaving construction, probably dating to the 1820's and is not attributable to any particular weaver. -- Georgette Meredith, 10/9/1973
    • Source: —
    • Format: 228 x 169 x 1.2 cm (1,629 g)
    • Coverage: Euro-American; America, North; United States; Indiana? Illinois?
    • Date: Early 19th c. CE
    • Type: cultural; physical object; original
  • 25. Various Concerns About IP Rights
    • Overcoming reluctance to share metadata because of IP rights issues
      • Concern that sharing metadata is giving away most valuable asset
      • Uncertain whether license limits metadata sharing
      • Uncertain whether to share metadata describing licensed information resources
    • Machine readable IP rights attributes Needed to facilitate reuse
  • 26. Portal Design Issues
    • How best to organize aggregated metadata for browse
      • Need scalable ways to build / implement classifications
      • Need better methods for clustering and grouping
      • Utilize relationships & ties to collection descriptions
    • How best to implement basic & advanced searching
      • Precise searching hard due to metadata usage variations
      • Limited normalization possible; more work needed
      • Robust search & ranking across large aggregations hard
    • Need more audience-specific designs
      • Need more dynamic & interactive designs
      • Need better support of educational & instructional uses
  • 27. Portal Design – Mellon Project Experience
    • Limited focus group testing
      • 23 student teachers in honors-level C & I class
      • Assignment to students: Use the site in preparing a lesson plan for high school social studies class
    • Process
      • Introduced site & “aggregated metadata” concept
      • Focus group interviews conducted
      • Students’ papers examined
      • Transaction logs analyzed
  • 28. A Few Observations from Test
    • 1. Users expected all links to point to digital objects
      • Some records pointed to finding aids
      • Some records pointed to collection’s web site
      • Some records pointed to Library books on the shelf
    • 2. Users unable to make use of search results
      • Simple searches produced 1000s of unranked results
      • Advanced search (with limits) rarely used
    • 3. Distinction between portal and data providers unimportant to users
  • 29. Rethinking what “online access” means
    • To librarian & curator
    • To student teacher
  • 30. Closing Thought – Considering OAI in Context
    • Descriptive, item-level metadata alone insufficient
      • Must be used in combination with collection descriptions, user annotations, machine generated clustering, …
    • Distinction between collection & item blurs in DLs
      • Complex objects – TEI, EAD, METS
      • Granularity – should museum describe every arrowhead in end-user search & discovery system
      • Relationships between items provide context
      • Need to tie collection registry to item-level repository
    • OAI-PMH not limited to item-level descriptive metadata