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Weaving Hand, Spinning, Dyeing, Hand Loomed Blue Wool And White Linen Coverlet, Worked In Overshot Weave In Plain Geometric Variant Of A Checkerboard Pattern

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  • 1. IMLS NLG Collection Registry & Item-Level Metadata Repository at the University of Illinois Timothy W. Cole (t-cole3@uiuc.edu) Mathematics Librarian & Professor of Library Administration University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA) Open Archives Forum Workshop University of Bath 4 September 2003 http://dli.grainger.uiuc.edu/Publications/TWCole/OAForumWkshpBath/
  • 2. IMLS NLG Program
    • Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)
      • U.S. Federal grant-making agency, est. 1996
      • Goal to foster leadership, innovation, lifetime learning
      • $244 million annual budget
    • IMLS National Leadership Grant Program
      • Currently about $20 million per year
      • Library, Museum, & Library-Museum Collaborations
      • Funds research & demonstration, digitization, preservation, model programs, new technology
  • 3. IMLS Digital Collections Framework
    • “ IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections” published November 2001
      • http://www.imls.gov/pubs/forumframework.htm
    • Product of 8-member IMLS Digital Library Forum, with participation from National Science Digital Library (NSF)
    • Differentiates digital collections & digital libraries
    • Articulates principles & frames discussion of best practices
    • Links to resources, models, & exemplary projects
    • Will be sustained by National Information Standards Org.
  • 4. Recommendations from the IMLS Forum
    • Four General Recommendations to IMLS:
      • Digital collections built with support of public funds can and should be held to standards that support interoperability, reusability, and persistence.
      • IMLS should maintain its own registry of funded digital collections.
      • Because so much of the IMLS constituency consists of small and medium-sized organizations without sophisticated in-house technical support, the IMLS should also consider projects to develop infrastructure services that lower barriers to NSDL contribution by smaller organizations.
      • IMLS should encourage the integration of an archiving component into every project plan by requiring a description of how data will be preserved.
  • 5.
    • Collection description and registry for National Leadership grant projects with digital content
      • Enhance discoverability; all registry fields searchable
    • Item level metadata repository via OAI-PMH
      • Demonstrate potential of metadata for interoperability
      • Facilitate reuse of information resources
    • Research question: How can resource developers best represent collections and items to meet the needs of service providers and end users?
    • Project Website: http://imlsdcc.grainger.uiuc.edu/
  • 6. Project Scope
    • 95 NLG projects with associated digital collections
      • 51 of these are/were collaborative projects
      • All together 237 institutions involved
  • 7. A Diverse Community
    • Wide variation in technical skills and technology infrastructure & policy
    • Mix of library, museum, and archive traditions
      • Diverse perspectives on IP policy, use and presentation of metadata and primary resources
      • Diverse embedded knowledge structures
    • Wide range of vocabularies and descriptive practices
      • Metadata created for diverse purposes
      • Local vocabularies for type, subject, coverage, audience
      • Wide range of granularity
  • 8. Prior Work – Mellon OAI Grants
    • July 2001, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation awarded 7 grants for OAI-related research ($1.5 mil. total)
      • Primary focus: demonstrate utility of OAI metadata harvesting in context of scholarly inquiry
      • Research Library Group (RLG) University of Michigan University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Emory University / Southeastern Library Network Woodrow Wilson International Center University of Virginia
    • See: http://www.arl.org/newsltr/217/waters.html
  • 9. University of Illinois Mellon OAI Project
    • July 2001 – May 2003
    • Primary Objectives:
      • Create & demonstrate OAI tools
      • Build portal to aggregated metadata describing cultural heritage resources
        • Initially – For OAI testing & research
        • Long-term – As a sustained resource
      • Investigate using EAD metadata in OAI context
      • Research utility of aggregated metadata
  • 10. University of Illinois Cultural Heritage Portal
    • Harvests 25 OAI Providers
      • Academic libraries & archives
      • Digital library projects
      • Historical societies
    • Aggregates 479,000 metadata items
      • 55% text / sheet music
      • 40% image / multimedia
      • 5% archival / museum
    • http://oai.grainger.uiuc.edu
  • 11. Current Projects Addressing Similar Issues
    • NSDL
    • Digital library of resource collections and services, organized in support of science education at all levels.
    • NOF-Digitize / EnrichUK
    • Description and aggregation of digitized collections funded by the New Opportunities Fund
    • Minerva Project
    • Creating an agreed European common platform, recommendations and guidelines about digitization, metadata, long-term accessibility and preservation
  • 12. Technical Challenges
    • NLG Awardees have diverse technical resources
      • Limited knowledge of / tools for working with XML
      • Limited knowledge of community metadata schemas
      • Limited knowledge of / access to CGI capabilities
    • Early NLG projects have no resources earmarked for sharing metadata
      • Technical implementations not always built with reuse and interoperability in mind
  • 13. OAI Readiness Among NLG Projects
  • 14. OAI for Static Repositories
    • Lower barrier option for exposing relatively static and small collections of metadata
      • Designed to scale well to about 5,000 metadata records
      • Provider serves static XML file (no CGI required)
      • 3 rd party gateway generates valid OAI responses
    • Supports only a subset of OAI options
      • No sets, deleted records, resumptionTokens
      • DateStamp granularity limited to YYYY-MM-DD
    • Preliminary alpha version of OAI-SR guidelines available:
    • http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/guidelines-static-repository.htm
  • 15.  
  • 16. OAI Static Repository Gateways
    • SR Gateways support CGI extended path
    • SR Gateways typically cache static repository XML files
    • SR Gateway lists all SRs available through gateway in <friends> element (dynamic discovery of SRs)
    • SR Gateways assumed to support automated self-registration of SRs
    • SRs should make themselves available through a single SR Gateway
    • SR Gateway applications available on SourceForge.net 1 2
  • 17. Example of a Static Repository XML File
  • 18. Identify OAI_DC Record MARC21 XML Record
  • 19. Working with Turnkey Solutions
    • OAI provider service now built into many popular digital library applications
      • ContentDM, Encompass, DLXS, DSpace, EPrints.org
      • Facilitates participation in OAI-PMH metadata sharing
    • Some implementations may be limited
      • Many support oai_dc metadata schema only
      • May have limited feature set (e.g, no resumptionToken)
      • Metadata mappings may not be configurable
    • Community needs to advocate requirements strongly
  • 20. Metadata Issues
    • Wide range of metadata schemas in use
    • Variations in Descriptive practices & traditions
      • Use of Dublin Core fields
      • Granularity
      • What is being described
    • Different approaches to IP rights issues
  • 21. Metadata Schemas Used By NLG Projects
    • MARC and Dublin Core most common schemas
      • Includes qualified DC & DC with extra fields
    • 24 projects - multiple schemas
      • 14 of these using Dublin Core in combination with another schema
  • 22. DC element usage (from Mellon)
      • Records containing subject & description element
      • Many different controlled and local vocabularies in use
      • Granularity: a record may describe a collection of coins — or one coin
    13% 15% Academic libraries (7 total, 235,294 records) 93% 93% Museums, hist. societies, etc. (6 total, 255,800 records) 36% 78% Digital libraries (10 total, 122,719 records) DESCRIPTION SUBJECT
  • 23. Describe the digital object? Excerpt of record describing a cotton coverlet
    • Description: Digital image of a single-sized cotton coverlet for a bed with embroidered butterfly design. Handmade by Anna F. Ginsberg Hayutin.
    • Source: Materials: cotton and embroidery floss. Dimensions: 71 in. x 86 in. Markings: top right hand corner has 1 1/2 in. x 1/2 in. label cut outs at upper left and right hand side for head board; fabric is woven in a variation of a rib weave; color each of yellow and gray; hand-embroidered cotton butterflies and flowers from two shades of each color of embroidery floss - blue, pink, green and purple and single top 20 in. bordered with blue and black cotton embroidery thread; stitches used for embroidery: running stitch, chain stitch, French knot and back stitches; selvage edges left unfinished; lower edges turned under and finished with large gray running stitches made with embroidery floss.
    • Format: Epson Expression 836 XL Scanner with Adobe Photoshop version 5.5; 300 dpi; 21-53K bytes. Available via the World Wide Web.
    • Coverage: —
    • Date Created: 2001-09-19 09:45:18; Updated: 20011107162451; Created: 2001-04-05; Created: 1912-1920?
    • Type: Image
  • 24. Or describe the analog object? Excerpt of record describing Am. woven coverlet
    • Description: Materials: Textile--Multi, Pigment—Dye; Manufacturing Process: Weaving--Hand, Spinning, Dyeing, Hand-loomed blue wool and white linen coverlet, worked in overshot weave in plain geometric variant of a checkerboard pattern.Coverlet is constructed from finely spun, indigo-dyed wool and undyed linen, woven with considerable skill. Although the pattern is simpler, the overall craftsmanship is higher than 1934.01.0094A. - D. Schrishuhn, 11/19/99 This coverlet is an example of early &quot;overshot&quot; weaving construction, probably dating to the 1820's and is not attributable to any particular weaver. -- Georgette Meredith, 10/9/1973
    • Source: —
    • Format: 228 x 169 x 1.2 cm (1,629 g)
    • Coverage: Euro-American; America, North; United States; Indiana? Illinois?
    • Date: Early 19th c. CE
    • Type: cultural; physical object; original
  • 25. Various Concerns About IP Rights
    • Overcoming reluctance to share metadata because of IP rights issues
      • Concern that sharing metadata is giving away most valuable asset
      • Uncertain whether license limits metadata sharing
      • Uncertain whether to share metadata describing licensed information resources
    • Machine readable IP rights attributes Needed to facilitate reuse
  • 26. Portal Design Issues
    • How best to organize aggregated metadata for browse
      • Need scalable ways to build / implement classifications
      • Need better methods for clustering and grouping
      • Utilize relationships & ties to collection descriptions
    • How best to implement basic & advanced searching
      • Precise searching hard due to metadata usage variations
      • Limited normalization possible; more work needed
      • Robust search & ranking across large aggregations hard
    • Need more audience-specific designs
      • Need more dynamic & interactive designs
      • Need better support of educational & instructional uses
  • 27. Portal Design – Mellon Project Experience
    • Limited focus group testing
      • 23 student teachers in honors-level C & I class
      • Assignment to students: Use the site in preparing a lesson plan for high school social studies class
    • Process
      • Introduced site & “aggregated metadata” concept
      • Focus group interviews conducted
      • Students’ papers examined
      • Transaction logs analyzed
  • 28. A Few Observations from Test
    • 1. Users expected all links to point to digital objects
      • Some records pointed to finding aids
      • Some records pointed to collection’s web site
      • Some records pointed to Library books on the shelf
    • 2. Users unable to make use of search results
      • Simple searches produced 1000s of unranked results
      • Advanced search (with limits) rarely used
    • 3. Distinction between portal and data providers unimportant to users
  • 29. Rethinking what “online access” means
    • To librarian & curator
    • To student teacher
  • 30. Closing Thought – Considering OAI in Context
    • Descriptive, item-level metadata alone insufficient
      • Must be used in combination with collection descriptions, user annotations, machine generated clustering, …
    • Distinction between collection & item blurs in DLs
      • Complex objects – TEI, EAD, METS
      • Granularity – should museum describe every arrowhead in end-user search & discovery system
      • Relationships between items provide context
      • Need to tie collection registry to item-level repository
    • OAI-PMH not limited to item-level descriptive metadata