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Ways And Means To Increase India’S Manufactured Exports
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Ways And Means To Increase India’S Manufactured Exports



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  • Good afternoon everybody. A great deal has been written about the advantages of export-led growth, and the possible connections between exports and growth. There is strong evidence that manufactured exports growth accelerate economic growth and technological progress by fostering closer connections with international firms that are using leading-edge technologies, encouraging economic specialization, promoting high rates of investment into profitable economic activities, and providing foreign exchange to finance imports of capital goods. In this presentation, I would like to touch upon the changing global manufacturing scenario, the emergence of global production networks – global value chain model, the opportunities for India and what are the imperatives to join this mode.


  • 1. Ways and Means to Increase India’s Manufactured Exports S. Sridhar Executive Director Exim Bank, Mumbai
  • 2. Changing Global Scenario
    • Growth in manufacturing activity was faster than the world economic growth in the last two decades.
  • 3. Changing Global Scenario
    • Trade in manufacturing has increased even more rapidly
  • 4. Changing Global Scenario
    • US $ 4708 billion worth global trade in manufacturing
    • Accounts for 3/4 th of world merchandise trade.
    • Certain functions which were earlier linked to the manufacturing chain like R&D, design development, marketing and customer support are being outsourced.
    • Growing trade volumes have made it economical to break-up these functions and outsource.
    • These manufacturing activities are now being considered as services activity associated with manufacturing.
  • 5. Why this Change is Happening?
    • Internationalisation of the production process across the countries.
    • Movement towards low efficient and low cost locations
    • Opportunity to developing countries, including India, to join in this model
    • Increase in inter-dependency of countries
    • Many firms in the NIEs used this approach
    • India can learn lessons from their experiences
    Emergence of Global Value Chain (GVC) Model
  • 6. Features of GVC Model
    • Geography and national boundaries are no longer considered as constraints in this model.
    • MNCs through FDI investment have spread this model across the globe.
    • To join this model, countries like India should gradually move up in the value chain.
    • If India is not an active player in this network, we will lose several growth opportunities.
  • 7. Paths of GVC
    • Process Innovation – improving the efficiency of transforming inputs into outputs
    • Product innovation – improving quality and differentiated products and upgradation of models
    • Functional innovation – new ideas like contract manufacturing, outsourcing of marketing networks and production logistics
    • Interchain innovation – moving to new and more profitable product segments
  • 8. Benefits of GVC
    • Begin production with existing level of capabilities
    • Upgrade capabilities of manufacturing
    • Learn process and product innovation skills
    • Access technological knowledge
      • Knowledge transfers involved were multifaceted
    • Access to large export markets
    • Exploit economies of scale
    • Eventually catch up with the advanced firms
  • 9. Case Study: Knowledge Transfer
    • Mexico’s experience with the Maquiladroa initiative and the automobile industry.
    • Border industrialization programme designed to attract foreign manufacturing facilities along the US Mexico border.
    • Most Maquiladoras began as subsidiaries of US firms
    • USA Shifted labor-intensive assembly operations to Mexico because of low wages in Mexico.
    • However, the Maquiladoras now employ sophisticated production techniques, many of them transferred from the USA.
  • 10. Developing Countries
    • Ultimate Beneficiary – Developing countries
    • Resource usage in competitive activities
    • Can be witnessed in rapid growth in exports of parts and components
    • The share of parts and components in total manufactured exports also increased
    • Increasing intra-firm trade by multinationals
    • Dampen the effect of adverse shocks
  • 11. Pattern of Concentration
    • Highly concentrated in countries with strong policy regimes, skilled workforces and adequate infrastructure.
    • Asia – China, Mexico, Korea. Rep, Malaysia and Thailand) accounted for 78% of developing countries’ exports of parts and components.
    • The next largest five countries accounted for 14%.
  • 12. Pattern of Concentration
    • Developing countries outside the top 10 made only about 8%.
    • South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and North Africa together account for only 2% of developing countries’ parts and components exports.
    • 2/3 of that amount is from South Africa and India.
  • 13. Recent News
    • Huyndai small car to be outsourced from India
    • Ford motor company – ‘India Sourcing Programme’
    • Matsushita of Japan sourcing programme in India
    • GE, under its Global Development Center (GDC) program for outsourcing, signed up long term contracts with four strategic suppliers in India.
    • Other major MNCs have plans to use India as a sourcing base for their requirements
  • 14. Recent News
    • Major MNCs like Volvo, GM, GE, Chrysler, Ford, Toyota, Unilever, Clariant, Cummins and Delphi are sourcing components and hardware from India
    • Bharat Forge world’s largest forging facility
    • Essel Propack world’s largest manufacturers of laminated tubes
    • Hero Honda world’s largest manufacturer of motorbikes
    • Indica being exported to Europe as Rovercity
  • 15. Why India being considered?
    • Outsourcing - not quality-driven.
    • Driven by cost effective operations – studies estimate saving potential of 70% of cost of operations, if outsourced to India
    • Basic infrastructure has improved
    • Fluency in English.
    • Enabling conditions – political stability, sound macro-economic management, enforceable legal and regulatory framework protecting IPR, transparency in policy making, well-functioning institutions and low-cost business environment.
  • 16. Creation of Indian MNCs
    • Developed strong technological and industrial capabilities in several sectors;
    • Sustained and continuous efforts over the years have been initiated for promoting exports of technologies, services and project exports
    • Also liberalized policies are being evolved to encourage technology related investments abroad.
  • 17. Few Imperatives – for joining this model
    • Infrastructure and other services must meet international quality, cost and delivery.
    • Efficient markets of labour, capital and information
    • Competitive strategies for achieving efficiency and dynamism at sectoral level
    • By offering Tax Incentives for foreign companies and encouraging outsourcing and related services, India can become major outsourcing destination on the global map.
  • 18. Entry Strategies for GVC Model
    • FDI
    • Joint ventures
    • Foreign and local buyers
    • Licensing
    • Sub-contracting
    • Informal means (eg. training, hiring and returnees)
    • OEM
    • Own Design and Manufacture (ODM)
    • Strategic partnership for technology
    • Overseas acquisition equity
  • 19. Business Practices of Select Manufacturing Sectors
    • Exim Bank conducted a study on 6 sectors to understand the Business Practices of Successful Indian Exporters.
    • The study covered the following manufacturing sectors
      • Apparel, Pharmaceuticals, Auto components and Agro-chemicals
  • 20. Critical Success Factors in Apparel Manufacturing
    • Professionalism
    • Entrepreneurial Zeal
    • Quota mastering – post 2005 it will be market penetration strategy
    • Effective Logistics Management
    • Market Diversity
    • Focus on specialised areas of operation
  • 21. Critical Success Factors for Pharmaceuticals Sector
    • Market focus
    • Global perspective and knowledge
    • Moving up in the value chain
    • World class manufacturing
    • R & D investment
    • Establishing direct relationship with buyers
    • Global networking
    • Scale in bulk drug manufacturing
  • 22. Critical Success Factors for Agro-Chemicals
    • To have international network for marketing and distribution
    • Moving up in value chain with branded formulations
    • High level of backward integration – to reduce raw material costs
    • Broader product portfolio and registrations abroad – to reduce business risks
  • 23. Critical Success Factors for Auto-Components Sector
    • Achieving international quality
    • Strong domestic market base
    • Access to best production technology
    • In-house expertise to developing and absorbing the technology
    • R & D
    • Capacity to meet global demand
    • OEM centric export strategy
  • 24. Inter industry – Generic Success Factors
    • Global market intelligence
    • Strong global networking
    • Direct relationship with buyers
    • Clear product-market strategy for exports
    • Strong R & D skills
    • Technology access
    • Competitive raw material sourcing skills
    • World class manufacturing and quality standards
    • Timely execution of orders
    • Moving up in the global value chain
    • Clear export thrust
    • Entrepreneurial Zeal
  • 25. Need for Transfer of Success
    • Only few firms are successful and others are unaware of the success factors and business practices adopted by them
    • There is a need for initiating the transfer process of success in order to tap the business opportunities in the global arena
  • 26. Process of Transferring the Success
    • Undertake awareness programme – through industry associations, export promotion councils and cluster association
    • Setting up of National Export Information Repository – to provide information in enhancing the success factors
    • Joint programmes – with common objective of implementing the critical success factors at firm levels
    • Inter-industry learning – to understand the export dynamics and transferability.
  • 27. Formulating Firm Level Strategies
    • Identify main comparators –
      • Neighbours with similar advantages
      • Immediate competitors in similar activities
      • Potential competitors that may emerge as challengers
      • Role models, those who are pioneers in technology
    • Benchmark at the level of industry, technology or clusters
    • Benchmark the drivers of industrial performance and analyse the strengths and weaknesses.
  • 28. Outlook
    • Mode of change will be the biggest force in operation.
    • Level of change will be dissimilar for various segments and various players within a segment
    • Players and segments which can assimilate this change will survive and prosper.
    • In some segments India can prosper and in others India could lose out to countries like China, Korea and Taiwan.
    • Firms should make a realistic assessment of what their strengths are, how much they can influence in the international markets and how to influence.
  • 29. Partnership for Success
    • Government, Institutions and firms join together for success of GVC model.
    • Responsibilities of Government
    • General Specific
    • Establish a basic legal
    • framework
    • Competition law
    • Restrictive trade practices
    • and monopoly regulations
    • Quick entry / exit of firms
    • Stable macro economic
    • policies
    • Correction of market imper-
    • -fections
    • Pro-active FDI policies
    • Creation of EPZs
    • Promotion of industrial
    • clusters
  • 30. Role of Pvt. sector
    • Technology Generation
      • Conceptualise state of art technology suitable for India
      • Evolve indigenous technology with international standards
      • Earmarking a percentage of turnover for R&D
      • Diversify R&D efforts to focus on services, systems, products and markets
    • Manufacturing world class products
      • Develop products that are suited for Indian conditions; test before entering international markets
      • Concentrate neighbouring (developing countries) markets
  • 31. Importance of Trade Facilitation
    • Efficiency at all levels
    • Supply Chain Management
    • Implementation of EDI
      • Inter-enterprise logistics management
      • Electronic commerce
      • Bar coding
      • Electronic catalogues
  • 32. Importance of Trade Facilitation
    • Need for Efficient Export infrastructure
    • Special Economic Zones – an export platform
    • Lowering of Transaction time/cost
  • 33. Exim Bank’s efforts in thriving the manufacturing performance
    • Technological efforts – Finance for import of technology, Product development and R & D finance
    • FDI for technology transfer and global manufacturing - Advisory services for location of joint venture partners and structuring and facilitation of JV
    • Quality accreditation and global marketing – Provides and information and necessary support, export marketing finance, marketing services
    • World class production infrastructure – Term finance for EOU projects, working capital loans, overseas investment finance
  • 34. Thank You