Visual Management


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Visual Management

  1. 1. Visual Management: What’s Effective? <ul><li>Most effective: </li></ul><ul><li>Kanban (visual-flow management) – big thing </li></ul><ul><li>5S – Visual management of thousands of small things that add up to big things </li></ul><ul><li>Visual recording of every glitch; organizing same via Pareto, fishbone, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective: In workplace, visual plots of process trends; displays of employee cross-skilling </li></ul><ul><li>Less effective: Management metrics on display (highly aggregated, tend to trigger “tampering” with in-control processes) </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates (Slide added—not in evening presentation)
  2. 2. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover – Paccar Up 2.1% per year for 38 years
  3. 3. Schonberger & Associates Terex Days of Inventory Bought Genie 10/02
  4. 4. The Confused State of Lean: Comparing Regions, Industries, Companies PDM, Puget Sound APICS Wednesday, Dec. 12, 2007 Presenter Richard J. Schonberger 177 107th Ave., N.E., #2101 Bellevue, WA 98004 USA – Tel/Fax +425-467-1143 Schonberger & Associates
  5. 5. This presentation includes research and topical materials incorporated into a forthcoming Richard Schonberger book (John Wiley & Sons): Best Practices in Lean Six Sigma Process Improvement: A Deeper Look . . . with Telling Evidence from the Leanness Studies Schonberger & Associates
  6. 6. <ul><li>Topics and Tendencies </li></ul><ul><li>Birthplace of lean has grown fat </li></ul><ul><li>U.S., hotbed of lean sliding; Europe doing better </li></ul><ul><li>Lean bureaucratized: Fat on administration </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term lean: Good in A-D OEM’s, not suppliers; good in automotive suppliers, not OEM customers </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term lean: Cash & customer allegiance at compound interest </li></ul><ul><li>Lean can do worthy service even if firm going bankrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Several ways to get lean, not just the “lean core” </li></ul><ul><li>Internal lean getting the attention; external lean promises much more </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to keep lean going, hold lean gains. Why? </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  7. 7. Sustainable Lean – Best to Worst, by Region # <ul><li> Sample Recent </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors Score Size Trend </li></ul><ul><li>1 Nordic countries .79 66 </li></ul><ul><li>2 United Kingdom .67 80 </li></ul><ul><li>3 Southern Europe .66 72 </li></ul><ul><li>4 Brazil/Canada/Mexico/Israel .66 92 </li></ul><ul><li>5 United States .59 566 </li></ul><ul><li>6 Asiana/South Africa .58 106 </li></ul><ul><li> Global Average .58 1,269 </li></ul><ul><li>7 Germany/Austria .55 62 </li></ul><ul><li>8 Benelux/Ireland .49 34 </li></ul><ul><li>9 Japan .37 191 </li></ul>As of 9/18/07 # Positive 10-to-50 year trend, 2 points; same but lapse last 5-7 years, 1 point; negative 10-or-more-year trend, minus ½; 5-or-more-year reversal of long negative trend, plus ½ *Includes companies acquired/merged/dissolved/privatized in last 5 years
  8. 8. Schonberger & Associates <ul><li>The “Leanness Studies”: 1260+ global companies rated on long-term (at least 10 years) inventory turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Points & Grades : </li></ul><ul><li>2 points (10 or more years up) = A </li></ul><ul><li>1 point (Same but flat or down past 5-7 years) = B </li></ul><ul><li>Zero points (No pattern, 10 or more years) = C </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 point (Down 10 or more years) = D or F </li></ul><ul><li>+ 1/2 point (Good up recovery, 5 or more years = B+, </li></ul><ul><li>C+, D+, F+ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lean/Six Sigma: Bureaucratized <ul><li>Elevated to management programs , lots of . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organization (e.g., Widget University, Deere Production System) </li></ul><ul><li>Projects run by professional staff </li></ul><ul><li>Name-dropping, jargon, puffery, foreign terms </li></ul><ul><li>Management (high-level) goals & metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the leader the fads </li></ul><ul><li>All lead to high cost administration (SG&A) </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  10. 10. Lean/Six Sigma: Bureaucratized (continued) <ul><li>Less . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Work-force involvement & process ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Work-force knowledge & commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous process data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Quick, low-level, low-cost implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Global best-practice benchmark ing (beyond your industry, country) </li></ul><ul><li>External (supply/customer pipelines) activity </li></ul><ul><li>Results? </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  11. 11. Schonberger & Associates Long-term Lean : Compound Effects
  12. 12. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Up 2.0% per year for 32 years A B A Up 2.7% per year for 26 years
  13. 13. “ Lean” and Close Surrogate, Inventory <ul><li>Lean’s main benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce response time—in all things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find problems before they fester, before trail of causes grows cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halt dependence on age-deteriorating item forecasts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inventory (catch basin for multitude of ills) Each inventory unit . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthens discovery time, fouls causal trail (lean/quick beats lot traceback) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds lead time (& carrying costs), loses touch with customer & real demand </li></ul></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  14. 14. Improving the Inventory Trends <ul><li>Inventory is an echo </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory reduction as managed goal fails: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is easily manipulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be seen as result of process improvements in every corner of the greater enterprise </li></ul></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  15. 15. Schonberger & Associates Besides Dana . . . other major vehicular suppliers in or emergent from bankruptcy: Collins & Aikman, Delphi, Dura Automotive, Eagle-Picher, Federal Mogul, Modine, Tower Automotive Collins & Aikman, Eagle-Picher, Federal Mogul, Modine much better off because of many-year compounded lean benefits (insufficient data for Delphi, Dura, Tower)
  16. 16. Aerospace-Defense OEM’s Schonberger & Associates
  17. 17. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Turns C+ A C Up 5.7% per year 14 years
  18. 18. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Game-Changer Modular deliveries from modular, 1 st tier suppliers. Unloads millions of parts, reshuffles core competencies for mutual gain C C C
  19. 19. Aerospace-Defense Suppliers Schonberger & Associates
  20. 20. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Turns D+ C D
  21. 21. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Turns D C C
  22. 22. Car OEM’s Schonberger & Associates
  23. 23. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover C D D Down 3.4% per year, 18 years Down 2.7% per year, 16 years Chrysler acquired by Daimler in ’98, sold in ‘07
  24. 24. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover *Overstated – Based on sales, not cost of sales C C C
  25. 25. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Up 2.1% per year, 27 years D A C Down 4.0% per year, 13 years
  26. 26. Toyota: Engineering Power but Faded as Paragon of Lean/Continuous Improvement <ul><li>Experience: Lacking in global operations, even as it grows globally at rapid pace </li></ul><ul><li>Plants: Rejects smaller with modular suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness: While still manufacturing powerhouse, many-year stretch of lead times means lessening response to any/all problems </li></ul><ul><li>Its 30-year-old lean/JIT model: Potent but not sufficient; today’s lean comes in multiple models </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s ultimate lean: Continuous replenishment , a la, Wal-Mart, Zara, Harley . . . </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  27. 27. Vehicular Components Producers (91 in Leanness Database*) Grades : 29 A’s 5 B’s 39 C’s 13 D’s 5 F’s *52 in Mergent list of 1000 largest global corporations Schonberger & Associates Car Assemblers (25 in Leanness Database) Grades : 4 A’s 2 B’s 12 C’s 5 D’s 2 F’s
  28. 28. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Up 3.0% per year for 24 years Up 3.1% per year for 26 years *Overstated: Based on sales, not cost of sales Up 2.7% per year for 27 years A A A
  29. 29. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Up 1.6% per year for 34 years A C B
  30. 30. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Up 2.1% per year for 30 years Up 2.7% per year for 26 years B A A
  31. 31. 54 Motor-Vehicle Companies Rated on Long-Term Leanness Schonberger & Associates Harley-Davidson Paccar-Kenworth Honda Tennant Magna Int’l. Thor Industries General Motors Hindustan Motors JLG Industries Ford Motor Hitachi Zosen Terex Tata Motors Kawasaki Heavy Kubota Iveco Nissan Fiat Renault Porsche Peugeot-Citroen Alvis Isuzu DaimlerChrysler AGCO Volvo Claas KgaA Nacco Industries Mitsubishi Motors Navistar Yamaha Motors Scania Winnebago Trinity Industries Toro Millat Tractors Polaris Komatsu Caterpillar Deere Audi BMW Manitowoc Fleetwood Enterpr. Suzuki Motors Nissan Diesel Daihatsu Motors* Fuji Heavy-Subaru Hino Motors* Volkswagen Toyota Motors Oshkosh Truck Champion Enterpr. Toyota Industries* As of 5-3-07 *Toyota subsidiaries
  32. 32. Autos, Crucible of Lean – Best to Worst Trends Schonberger & Associates 1 Harley Up 3.9%, 20 years 3 Honda Up 2.1%, 27 years 10 Ford Up 1.9%, 32 years (down sharply last 4 yrs.) 13 Tata Up 5.5%, 13 years (slump ’98-’03) 17 Nissan Up 2.8%, 11 years (after 20 years down) 23 Isuzu Flat erratically 28 years (up last few years) 26 Volvo Flat 12 years (after 10 bad yrs.; better last 6) 32 Scania Flat 11 years (after 6 good years) 36 Millat Tr. Flat very erratically, 17 years 40 Deere Down 2.8%, 13 years (up last few years) 42 BMW Down 3.4%, 18 years (less decline last 14) 51 VW Down 3.8%, 10 years (after good 16 years) 52 Toyota Down 4.0%, 13 years (after 6 flat years) As of 5-3-07
  33. 33. Unsung Stars of Lean – A Few Examples Schonberger & Associates American Greetings (greeting cards, etc.) Up 3.2% per yr. for 20 yrs. Andrew Corp. (satellite telecom equipment) Up 2.6%, 24 yrs. Applera (life-science instruments, consumables) Up 4.0%, 18 yrs. CCL Industries, Canada (aerosol containers, labels) Up 2.4%, 20 yrs. Cleveland: Brush Engineered Products (2.9, 20); Eaton (2.1, 30); Nordson (3.8, 17); Parker Hannifin (3.4, 17) Gunnebo, Sweden (cash/personal security equipt.) Up 3.1%, 24 yrs. Hitachi Cable, Japan (wire & cable) Up 1.8%, 26 yrs. Illinois Tool Works (diverse industrial products) Up 3.2%, 20 yrs. Kulicke & Soffa (wafer saws, die bonders, etc.) Up 4.4%, 20 yrs. L.S. Starrett (coordinate measuring machines, tools) Up 1.7%, 35 yrs. Messer Griesheim, Germany (metalworking, other) Up 1.9%, 32 yrs. Rolm & Haas (chemicals) Up 1.8%, 20 yrs. SKF, Sweden (bearings) Up 2.5%, 29 yrs. Thomas & Betts (electric connectors, steel towers) Up 2.5%, 30 yrs. Woolworths, Australia (supermarkets, other retail) Up 2.3%, 20 yrs. Xerox (copiers) Up 2.0%, 40 yrs. As of 10-25-07
  34. 34. The “lean core” (basic Toyota system) and other potent ways to get lean Schonberger & Associates
  35. 35. The Lean Core (Partial List) <ul><li>Physical resources: Plants-in-a-plant/ cells, kanban/pull system, quick setup, small lots/containers, point-of-use tools/materials/equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources: Few job classifications, cross-training/job rotation, operator-based quality and maintenance (TPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier partnership: Supplier reduction/ certification, external kanban, dock-to-line deliveries </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  36. 36. More Pathways to Leanness <ul><li>Collaboration in pipelines: 2X to 10X greater lean opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of production: To most capable entities (e.g., contract electronic services) </li></ul><ul><li>De-proliferation: Ripple effects of DFMA; reduced numbers of product models, customers, suppliers (via intensive 80-20 analysis at ITW) </li></ul><ul><li>Process data: Superior to conventional high-level goals & metrics </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  37. 37. Still More Lean Avenues <ul><li>Pipeline Synchronization/Collaboration: Specialty of Dell, Wal-Mart, Zara (Spain), H&M (Sweden), 7-Eleven </li></ul><ul><li>Mining Outside Knowledge/Talent/ Experience: Terex acquisition of Genie </li></ul><ul><li>3D Product Design/Planning: In manufacturing, even more in construction </li></ul><ul><li>“ Big Idea” Business Models: Such as Dell-direct </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  38. 38. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover Acquired by Danaher Fluke: Up 3.2% per year, 18 years Danaher: Faded lean star?
  39. 39. Schonberger & Associates Pipelines/Collaboration : Greatest Lean Opportunities
  40. 40. Lean Inside vs. Lean in the Pipelines <ul><li>Inside: “Lean core” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfected mostly at Toyota in 1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets 90% of companies’ effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy stuff: You own it, see it, measure it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pipelines: Tight supply/customer chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical manufacturer: 2X to 10X more opportunity to improve than inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much supply-chain talk, little progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard stuff; “hot potato,” no one responsible; phony metrics </li></ul></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  41. 41. Lean Supply-Chain Accounting (Re Inter-Company Inventory/Lead-Time) <ul><li>Problem. In numbers-driven companies </li></ul><ul><li>inventory accounting often main obstacle to </li></ul><ul><li>lean supply chains. What to do . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Gamesmanship. Recognize accounting-based game—getting inventory on other party’s books—just hides the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts. Reveal high cost & non-cost impacts of that hiding </li></ul><ul><li>Metric. Employ joint inventory to halt the gamesmanship </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  42. 42. Inter-Company Lean Building on a “lean core” foundation <ul><li>Lean efforts in logistics pipelines benefit greatly when piggy-backed upon strong lean achievements inside. </li></ul><ul><li>That is, lean inside provides an anchor of demand predictability and stability for pursuit of lean outside. </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  43. 43. Lean Inside  Lean Supply Chain Example: Graco, Minneapolis (sprayers, compressors) <ul><li>Phase 1. Became among world’s best in “lean core” </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2. Closed many branch warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits (expected): large inventory reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Greater benefits (unexpected): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relying on Graco’s quick response (same-day ship for orders in by noon), distributors slashed their inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent orders smoothed/leaned out Graco’s production, purchasing, administration, etc. </li></ul></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  44. 44. Schonberger & Associates Why Does Lean Fade? Are There Antidotes?
  45. 45. Lean’s Soft Underbelly <ul><li>Many smallish practices; no “Big Idea”: Hard to keep all up-and-running; easy to cherry-pick </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on wastes: Doesn’t resonate with sales/marketing, finance, senior execs, owners/investors, the public, customers </li></ul><ul><li>Needs rivers of process data: Gets trickling streams </li></ul><ul><li>Easily bogged down: In analysis (and popular analysis tools) with over-reliance on projects </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  46. 46. Popular Lean/6-Sigma Tools <ul><li>Operational Tools (Lean Core) </li></ul><ul><li>Cells/product-focused units </li></ul><ul><li>Quick changeover </li></ul><ul><li>Kanban (queue limitation) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-training/job rotation </li></ul><ul><li>5S/visual workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Takt-time scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>One-piece flow </li></ul><ul><li>Fail-safing </li></ul><ul><li>Total productive maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis Tools </li></ul><ul><li>6 sigma (statistical analysis) projects </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen events </li></ul><ul><li>Value-stream mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Spaghetti charts </li></ul><ul><li>Value-add/non-value-add analysis </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  47. 47. Lean’s Native and Potential Strengths <ul><li>Native: Simple, common-sense, quick-acting, low cost, all-stakeholder beneficiaries </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  48. 48. Tapping Lean’s Full Potential <ul><li>Re-focus: On universal customer wants/ deliverables: ever better quality, quicker response, greater flexibility, higher value </li></ul><ul><li>Data recording: Of every process glitch or hiccup—job of all employees </li></ul><ul><li>Workteam-based continuous improvement: In parity with dis -continuous project-team improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Look outside your industry: E.g., leading-edge retailers, and 3P distributors </li></ul><ul><li>Highest-potential gains: External pipelines </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  49. 49. “ Big-Idea” Business Models Highly Favorable to Lean <ul><li>Dell-Direct: Spawned many innovations for synchronization of suppliers, customers, Dell </li></ul><ul><li>Every-day low prices (EDLP): In its cause, Wal-Mart became global innovator in logistics, IT </li></ul><ul><li>80-20 in all things: ITW cuts to good customers, suppliers, products, parts, plants, machines . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Unique business models (easy to understand, hard to deny, flywheel-like momentum, all-stakeholder beneficiaries): They crown Dell, Wal-Mart, ITW as new, global kings of lean </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  50. 50. Schonberger & Associates Inventory Turnover – Dell Inc. 79 5.8%, 17 years
  51. 51. Schonberger & Associates Wal-Mart: Up 2.8% per year for 16 years Turns Inventory Turnover Illinois Tool: Up 3.2% per year for 20 years A A
  52. 52. Long-Term Lean Trends – Evidenced by Positive Inventory Turnover Patterns Without Recent Lapses – Best to Worst, by Sector # <ul><li> Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors Size </li></ul><ul><li>1 Telecom 35 </li></ul><ul><li>2 Distribution/wholesaling 54 </li></ul><ul><li>3 Petroleum 46 </li></ul><ul><li>4 Semiconductors 40 </li></ul><ul><li>5 Paper 28 </li></ul><ul><li>6 Electronics 23 </li></ul><ul><li>7 Paper-converted products 55 </li></ul><ul><li>8 Metalworking/machining 264 </li></ul><ul><li>10 Machinery 115 </li></ul><ul><li>Pump/hydraulic/pressure 63 </li></ul><ul><li>Electric 82 </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet metal 68 </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments/test equipment 43 </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic/rubber/glass/ceramic 224 </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicular components 103 </li></ul><ul><li>Forest products 49 </li></ul><ul><li> Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors Size </li></ul><ul><li>Apparel/sewn products 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles (light) 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Food/beverage/tobacco 137 </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Personal-care products 33 </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid/gas/powder/grains 327 </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace/defense 57 </li></ul><ul><li>Retail 139 </li></ul><ul><li>Motors & engines 66 </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy industrial vehicles 53 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic metal processing 63 </li></ul><ul><li>Medical devices 47 </li></ul><ul><li>Wire & cable 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals 108 </li></ul><ul><li>Textile 41 </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals 67 </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates As of 9/16/07 # Positive 10-to-50 year trend, 2 points; same but lapse last 5-7 years, 1 point; negative 10-or-more-year trend, minus ½; 5-or-more-year reversal of negative trend, plus ½ *Includes companies acquired/merged/dissolved/privatized in last 5 years
  53. 53. Related Articles by Schonberger <ul><li>“ Faltering Lean,” Industrial Engineer , Nov. 2007, p. 22. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doing Off-Shore Assembly Right, Industrial Engineer , Aug. 2007, p. 26. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Japanese Production Management: An Evolution—With Mixed Success,” Journal of Operations Management , 25, Issue 2, March 2007, pp. 403-419. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Supply Chains: Tightening the Links,” Manufacturing Engineering , Sept. 2006, pp. 77-92. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lean Extended: It’s Much More (and Less) than You Think,” Industrial Engr. , Dec. 2005, pp.26-31. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lean så in i Norden,” (“The Nordic Countries: Lean Leaders”) Verkstäderna (Sweden), No. 5, May 2005, pp. 46-50 (co-author). </li></ul><ul><li>“ U.K.: Less Keen on Lean?” The Manufacturer (U.K.), Special Issue, 2005 Lean Manufacturing Report, April, 2005, pp. 5-9. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quadrant Homes Applies Lean Concepts in Project Environment, Interfaces , Nov.-Dec. ‘04, 442-450. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make Work Cells Work for You,” Quality Progress , April 2004, pp. 58-63. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mandate to Grow,” Cost Management , March-April 2004, pp. 43-44. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is South African Manufacturing Lean ?” Management Today (S. Af.), Feb., 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Right Stuff, Revisited,” Manufacturing Systems , Sept. 2003, pp. 26-30. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Canada Needs to Go on a Lean Diet,” Advanced Manufacturing, July-Aug 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>“ How Lean/TQ Helps Deter Cooking the Books,” Cost Mgmt. , lead article, May-June 2003, pp. 5-14. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Your Lean Team: Use It or Lose It,” Target , cover-story article, 1 st qtr., 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Kanban at the Nexus,” lead article, Production & Inventory Mgmt. Journal , 3 rd -4 th qtrs., ‘02, pp. 1-12. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jack Spratt Diet: Schonberger Talks Lean with the Likes of Toyota,” cover story article, The Manufacturer (U.K. edition), Nov. 2002, pp. 34-37. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lean and Fat Factories,” cover article, The Manufacturer (U.S. ed.), Nov. 2002, pp. 16-19. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leaning the Wrong Way,” Decision Line , Sept.-Oct. 2002, pp. 15-17. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Lean League,” in White Paper: “The Road to World Class Manufacturing 2000,” The Manufacturer (U.K.), 2002, pp. 26-31. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lean Is as Lean Does,” Manufacturing Engineering , June 2002, p. 104. </li></ul>Schonberger & Associates
  54. 54. Books by Richard Schonberger