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Prof. Jonathan Colton Zeigler Outstanding Educator Award Lecture February 26, 2008 The Case for Liberal Engineering
Jack M. Zeigler (ME 1948) <ul><li>Thanks for supporting this award and lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Jack M. Zeigler rece...
Previous winners <ul><li>William Black </li></ul><ul><li>Said Abdel-Khalik </li></ul><ul><li>Farrokh Mistree </li></ul><ul...
Acknowledgments <ul><li>My students </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Vito – Georgia Tech </li></ul><ul><li>James Duderstadt – U. Mich...
Bully Pulpit <ul><li>Current UG engineering education is increasingly outmoded and irrelevant. </li></ul><ul><li>We need a...
Liberal Engineering <ul><li>Prepares students for lives that go beyond short-term, practical problem solving.  </li></ul><...
The World is Flat <ul><li>Perception – jobs going to India and China due to lower costs </li></ul>
Engineering Degree Production in Selected Countries NSF China Thousands Japan USA S Korea UK Germany
Disturbing Trends  <ul><li>Commoditized engineering jobs are being lost overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced production of U...
The World is Spiky - Patents The Atlantic Monthly, October 2005
Scientific Citations The Atlantic Monthly, October 2005
Science, Vol 314, 8 December 2006, 1547 Where is the New Science in Corporate R&D?
Characteristics of Non-fungible,  On-shored Jobs <ul><li>Very high value-added contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Idea genera...
U.S. Goals for Graduates Educating the Engineer of 2020 <ul><li>Technically Proficient </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly Educated ...
GT Strategic Plan <ul><li>Georgia Tech will define the technological research  university  of the 21 st  century and  educ...
So, what are we doing to educate these leaders?
<ul><li>1 year of a combination of college level mathematics and basic sciences </li></ul><ul><li>1½ years of engineering ...
ME Requirements <ul><li>Chemistry, Calculus, Differential Equations, Linear Algebra, Physics, English, Humanities, Social ...
ME Requirements <ul><li>Engineering Graphics, Computing, Dynamics, Design, Mechanics, DefBods, Fluids, Thermodynamics, Hea...
Educational Experience <ul><li>Over-loaded with (technical) courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average time to graduate 4.5+ ye...
Five Minute University Father Guido Sarducci http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =kO8x8eoU3L4
ME Five Minute University <ul><li>Mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-body diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluids </li></u...
Technological leaders are produced in spite of what we do Students somehow find the time
Today’s Engineering Education <ul><li>21 st  century students </li></ul><ul><li>20 th  century curriculum </li></ul><ul><l...
What Should We Do?
Nothing, things are fine <ul><li>Engineers are valuable because they know how to think. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up probl...
Things  aren’t  fine <ul><li>We can’t continue to create  commoditized, plug-and-play graduates who are easily replaced by...
New Paradigm Needed Liberal Engineering
Charles William Eliot Professor at Harvard & MIT President of Harvard <ul><li>“ The student in a polytechnic school has a ...
J.S. Coon Professor of Mechanical Engineering <ul><li>“ It will be conceded that  it is not sufficient for a course in eng...
Charles Vest President of MIT <ul><li>“ Making universities and engineering schools exciting, creative, adventurous, rigor...
What is Liberal Engineering? <ul><li>A liberal education prepares students for lives that go beyond short-term, practical ...
Why do we need it? <ul><li>To keep engineering relevant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to em...
What have others done? <ul><li>Dartmouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.B. (engineering science) – not accredited  </li></ul></ul...
Open Engineering Degrees <ul><li>Cornell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not accredited...
COE Strategic Plan <ul><li>Explore  creating a new, innovative, rigorous and flexible bachelor’s degree that will serve as...
Proposed Mission Shift <ul><li>Produce leaders of a technologically driven world by producing a liberally educated and tec...
Desired Characteristics of GT Graduates  <ul><li>Broad range of understanding and knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal ...
Desired Characteristics of GT Graduates  <ul><li>Operates in global environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands engineer...
Operate at Extremes <ul><li>Nano, Femto </li></ul><ul><li>National, global </li></ul>
Operate at Frontiers Charles Vest Bio Info Nano Macro Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistic...
Technologically Literate Population <ul><li>Informed decisions on technical matters – balanced views </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Educational Philosophy <ul><li>Attract larger numbers of diverse students </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate education </li><...
Undergraduate Education <ul><li>Mass customization, rather than mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible degrees </li></...
Flexible Curriculum <ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional majors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for student ...
Increase Technological Literacy <ul><li>GT attracts very smart students </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing numbers are not engin...
<ul><li>Take in smart students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the necessity for technological literacy for every career </li><...
New Undergraduate Trivium <ul><li>Basic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal knowle...
Basic Knowledge <ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Written and oral communication </li></ul><...
Engineering Knowledge <ul><li>Common COE Core Courses  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems mod...
Liberal  Knowledge <ul><li>Management  </li></ul><ul><li>Public Policy  </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Languages </li></ul><ul><...
Implementation <ul><li>Four-hour classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper level of un...
Departmental Era <ul><li>Dichotomy in the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipli...
Post-Departmental Era <ul><li>“Unity” in the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans...
Quo Vadis  Engineering Education? <ul><li>Recognition of need to change  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time for evolutionary chang...
Quo Vadis  Undergraduate Engineering Education? Liberal Engineering
Thank you for your attention Questions?
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  1. 1. Prof. Jonathan Colton Zeigler Outstanding Educator Award Lecture February 26, 2008 The Case for Liberal Engineering
  2. 2. Jack M. Zeigler (ME 1948) <ul><li>Thanks for supporting this award and lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Jack M. Zeigler received his bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering after interrupting his education with 3 ½ years of service in the U.S. Army. While at Georgia Tech, he was a co-op student at two companies, where he worked primarily as a draftsman. In one company he earned $1.25 an hour; this was a raise from $0.55 per hour at the other company. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Zeigler is the retired President and Owner of Fabrication Engineering Service Company, Inc. (FESCO). FESCO specializes in the made-to-order fabrication business using high quality alloy steels to produce tanks for the chemicals industry and pressure vessels for textile manufacturers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Previous winners <ul><li>William Black </li></ul><ul><li>Said Abdel-Khalik </li></ul><ul><li>Farrokh Mistree </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Fulton </li></ul><ul><li>James Hartley </li></ul><ul><li>David McDowell </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Nerem </li></ul>
  4. 4. Acknowledgments <ul><li>My students </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Vito – Georgia Tech </li></ul><ul><li>James Duderstadt – U. Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Vest – MIT </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bully Pulpit <ul><li>Current UG engineering education is increasingly outmoded and irrelevant. </li></ul><ul><li>We need a new paradigm in engineering education to produce future technological leaders. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Liberal Engineering <ul><li>Prepares students for lives that go beyond short-term, practical problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides students with critical skills and interests in the larger problems of living in society. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The World is Flat <ul><li>Perception – jobs going to India and China due to lower costs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Engineering Degree Production in Selected Countries NSF China Thousands Japan USA S Korea UK Germany
  9. 9. Disturbing Trends <ul><li>Commoditized engineering jobs are being lost overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced production of US engineers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>due to lack of interest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>due to lack of careers opportunities? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The World is Spiky - Patents The Atlantic Monthly, October 2005
  11. 11. Scientific Citations The Atlantic Monthly, October 2005
  12. 12. Science, Vol 314, 8 December 2006, 1547 Where is the New Science in Corporate R&D?
  13. 13. Characteristics of Non-fungible, On-shored Jobs <ul><li>Very high value-added contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Idea generators </li></ul><ul><li>Define problems within the context of the local society </li></ul>
  14. 14. U.S. Goals for Graduates Educating the Engineer of 2020 <ul><li>Technically Proficient </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly Educated </li></ul><ul><li>Think of Themselves as Global Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Leaders in Business and Public Service </li></ul><ul><li>Ethically Grounded </li></ul>
  15. 15. GT Strategic Plan <ul><li>Georgia Tech will define the technological research university of the 21 st century and educate the leaders of a technologically driven world. </li></ul>
  16. 16. So, what are we doing to educate these leaders?
  17. 17. <ul><li>1 year of a combination of college level mathematics and basic sciences </li></ul><ul><li>1½ years of engineering topics, consisting of engineering sciences and engineering design </li></ul><ul><li>A general education component </li></ul><ul><li>A curriculum culminating in a major design experience </li></ul>
  18. 18. ME Requirements <ul><li>Chemistry, Calculus, Differential Equations, Linear Algebra, Physics, English, Humanities, Social Science, Electrical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Ethics, Statistics, Economics, Engineering Economics, Computing, History, Wellness </li></ul>
  19. 19. ME Requirements <ul><li>Engineering Graphics, Computing, Dynamics, Design, Mechanics, DefBods, Fluids, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Controls, Machine Design, Thermal Design, Experimental Methods Lab, Systems Lab, Manufacturing, Capstone Design… </li></ul>
  20. 20. Educational Experience <ul><li>Over-loaded with (technical) courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average time to graduate 4.5+ years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold-over from quarter-system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No time to explore without delaying graduation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interests (sleep) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double majors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junior year abroad </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Five Minute University Father Guido Sarducci http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =kO8x8eoU3L4
  22. 22. ME Five Minute University <ul><li>Mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-body diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bernoulli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermodynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation about a fixed axis </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Technological leaders are produced in spite of what we do Students somehow find the time
  24. 24. Today’s Engineering Education <ul><li>21 st century students </li></ul><ul><li>20 th century curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>19 th century institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Changes one grave at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Hasn’t changed much in 100 years </li></ul>
  25. 25. What Should We Do?
  26. 26. Nothing, things are fine <ul><li>Engineers are valuable because they know how to think. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We teach students how to think. </li></ul><ul><li>It works: 25% of S&P 500 CEOs have an UG degree in engineering. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But, what are their advanced degrees in? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Things aren’t fine <ul><li>We can’t continue to create commoditized, plug-and-play graduates who are easily replaced by lower-wage, overseas engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>We can teach thinking in better ways. </li></ul>
  28. 28. New Paradigm Needed Liberal Engineering
  29. 29. Charles William Eliot Professor at Harvard & MIT President of Harvard <ul><li>“ The student in a polytechnic school has a practical end constantly in view…. This practical end should never be lost sight of by student or teacher in a polytechnic school, and should seldom be thought of or alluded to in a college .” (1869) </li></ul>
  30. 30. J.S. Coon Professor of Mechanical Engineering <ul><li>“ It will be conceded that it is not sufficient for a course in engineering to turn out technical experts , if it can hope to do even this. But it must do much more; it must turn out men . While the schedule of subjects in this course does not indicate it, it is the prime object to send out young men to engage in the commercial work of the world with high ideals, and a keen sense of moral responsibility. Good character is of more importance to the young engineer than engineering ability .” </li></ul>GST Catalog 1906-07
  31. 31. Charles Vest President of MIT <ul><li>“ Making universities and engineering schools exciting, creative, adventurous, rigorous, demanding, and empowering milieus is more important than specifying curricular details.” (2007) </li></ul>
  32. 32. What is Liberal Engineering? <ul><li>A liberal education prepares students for lives that go beyond short-term, practical problem solving. It leaves them with critical skills and interests in the larger problems of living in society. </li></ul>Source: a Harvard undergraduate
  33. 33. Why do we need it? <ul><li>To keep engineering relevant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to employers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responds to societal needs </li></ul>
  34. 34. What have others done? <ul><li>Dartmouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.B. (engineering science) – not accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.E. (engineering science) – one more year, accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.B. (engineering science) – not accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S.B. (engineering science) – accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WPI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B.A. (liberal and engineering studies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not accredited </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Open Engineering Degrees <ul><li>Cornell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MIT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Course 2A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABET accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S.B. in Engineering </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. COE Strategic Plan <ul><li>Explore creating a new, innovative, rigorous and flexible bachelor’s degree that will serve as a foundation for advanced study in professions other than, and including, engineering. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Proposed Mission Shift <ul><li>Produce leaders of a technologically driven world by producing a liberally educated and technologically literate population. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Desired Characteristics of GT Graduates <ul><li>Broad range of understanding and knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical arts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem identification and solving skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define problems within societal contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop multiple solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision making skills </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership skills </li></ul>
  39. 39. Desired Characteristics of GT Graduates <ul><li>Operates in global environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands engineering in a global context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knows foreign languages and cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepared for career changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-learner (life-long learner) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College is just the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol manipulator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent thinker </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative, Entrepreneurial, Commercially savvy </li></ul>
  40. 40. Operate at Extremes <ul><li>Nano, Femto </li></ul><ul><li>National, global </li></ul>
  41. 41. Operate at Frontiers Charles Vest Bio Info Nano Macro Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics Bio-based Materials Biomemetics Personalized, Predictive Medicine Synthetic Biology Biofuels
  42. 42. Technologically Literate Population <ul><li>Informed decisions on technical matters – balanced views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frankenfoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul></ul>or
  43. 43. Educational Philosophy <ul><li>Attract larger numbers of diverse students </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth technical understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-long process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required for future success </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Undergraduate Education <ul><li>Mass customization, rather than mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible degrees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-accredited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create your own </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple paths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple entry points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple graduation points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-paced and self-directed </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Flexible Curriculum <ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional majors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for student interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore various “majors” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create your own “majors” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to change “majors” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time available to explore other pursuits </li></ul><ul><li>International experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semester or year overseas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign language competency </li></ul>
  46. 46. Increase Technological Literacy <ul><li>GT attracts very smart students </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing numbers are not engineering majors </li></ul><ul><li>Many don’t have the mathematics and science background needed to enter engineering immediately </li></ul><ul><li>We need to attract greater numbers of students to technology </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Take in smart students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the necessity for technological literacy for every career </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach them the material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary material (pre-calc, basic science) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minors, such as Eng & Mgt, don’t address this issue </li></ul>Teaching Technological Literacy
  48. 48. New Undergraduate Trivium <ul><li>Basic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal knowledge </li></ul>
  49. 49. Basic Knowledge <ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Written and oral communication </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Social Science </li></ul><ul><li>Wellness ☺ </li></ul>
  50. 50. Engineering Knowledge <ul><li>Common COE Core Courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems modeling and dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanics and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermodynamics and fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taken early enough, ABET requirements can still be met </li></ul>
  51. 51. Liberal Knowledge <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Public Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Languages </li></ul><ul><li>International Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Science, Technology and Society </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Implementation <ul><li>Four-hour classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper level of understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team taught - integrated courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified, rather than specialized, fragmented, seemingly unrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering is observation-based and hands-on </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Departmental Era <ul><li>Dichotomy in the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-disciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Post-Departmental Era <ul><li>“Unity” in the Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-disciplinary, experiential learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graduate education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-disciplinary, experiential learning </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Quo Vadis Engineering Education? <ul><li>Recognition of need to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time for evolutionary changes has passed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will my children do for jobs? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary change needed </li></ul>
  56. 56. Quo Vadis Undergraduate Engineering Education? Liberal Engineering
  57. 57. Thank you for your attention Questions?
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