Values Issues Textiles

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  • 1. Values Issues A2 Textiles
  • 2. What are values issues?
    • Values issues have an impact on our lives and on the products that we use.
    • Values issues can be the driving force behind product development.
    • For example – legislation has been introduced about environmental issues – the need to follow this legislation has meant new products have been developed.
  • 3. Introduction
    • We will look at:
    • Global market place
    • Cultural, economic, environmental, ethical, moral, political and social issues.
    • The impact of values issues on design and manufacture.
    • Responsibilities of developed countries.
  • 4. Global Market Place
    • What is meant by the global market place?
    • Multinational companies who sell their products worldwide.
    • Name some products that are sold on the global market place?
    • Clothing, petrol, cars, electronics, finance, food, hotels.
    • What has enabled products to be sold worldwide?
    • Information and communication technology (ICT)
  • 5. The Impact of Electronic Communications on Global Manufacturing
    • The high speed information revolution has enabled global marketing. What does this mean?
    • Fast electronic communication eg by internet, video conferencing.
    • How can companies bring the price of their products down and become competitive?
    • Reduce labour and materials costs.
    • How can they do this?
    • Outsource their manufacture to countries where labour costs are lower.
    • Name some countries?
    • North Africa and Asian countries.
    • How does electronic communication aid this process?
    • Products can be designed in one country then sent by email to the manufacturing country.
  • 6. Economic, Environmental, Moral, Political and Social Issues Related to Global Manufacturing
    • Free trade and global marketing have a major impact on quality of life, employment and the environment.
    • Head offices of multinationals are located in MEDC’s (W Europe and N America).
    • Some multinationals are also based in NIC’s (Singapore, Korea, Taiwan).
    • LEDC’s are being used for manufacture.
  • 7. Drawbacks of Globalisation
    • What do you think the negative side of the global marketplace is?
    • Environmental damage.
    • Low level skill jobs.
    • Top jobs are for executives from MEDC.
    • Company profits go back to MEDC.
    • Multinationals cut corners on health and safety.
    • Political pressure.
    • Raw materials are imported.
    • Goods are exported.
  • 8. Pros of Globalisation
    • What are the good things about the global market place?
    • Employment and higher living standard.
    • Improved expertise of local workforce.
    • Foreign currency comes into the country.
    • Widens country’s economic base.
    • Transfer of new technology.
  • 9. Cultural, Economic, Environmental, Ethical, Moral, Political and Social Issues
    • Designers need to consider the values of their target market.
    • For example what is fashionable this year won’t be next year.
    • Designers have to keep up with current and future trends relating to artistic, cultural and social influences.
    • They also have to understand how economic, political, ethical, moral and environmental issues impact on consumers.
  • 10. Cultural and Social Trends and Lifestyle Issues
    • Fashion designers have to find out what cultural values, social values and lifestyles their target market have.
    • For example – Eastern culture may be in fashion.
    • Socially people may want environmentally friendly garments.
    • People may have active lifestyles and need appropriate garments.
  • 11. Moral and Ethical Issues
    • Fashion products that are morally and ethically acceptable in one country may be unacceptable in another.
    • Can you think of examples?
    • Fur products
    • Use of sweat shops
    • Garments that are short or have short sleeves (in muslim countries)
    • Minimum wages.
  • 12. Offence
    • Designers have to ensure products do not offend religions or cultural groups.
    • Is it morally acceptable to advertise glamorous clothing in countries where people are living in poverty?
    • IS it morally acceptable to create a demand for products that offend a religion?
  • 13. How to make value judgements
    • A good way to judge the value is to ask questions.
    • This can be split into six areas:
    • Your response to the product
    • The need for the product
    • Design of the product
    • The product manufacture
    • Promotion and marketing
    • Use and disposal
  • 14. Your response to the product
    • Do you want to touch or use it?
    • Who is it intended for?
    • Why would they buy it?
    • Would you like to own it?
    • What would this say about you?
  • 15. The need for the product
    • Is the product needed?
    • Whose needs were identified to produce it?
    • Who benefits from the manufacture of the product?
    • How will they benefit?
  • 16. Design of the product
    • Who made decisions about the design?
    • Is there a choice of designs?
    • How was the design developed?
    • What influences had an impact on the design?
  • 17. The product manufacture
    • What materials and components are used and why?
    • Where do the materials come from?
    • Will they run out?
    • What other resources are used to manufacture the product?
    • What impact could using these resources have on people or the environment?
    • What happens to any waste produced during manufacture?
    • What skills are needed?
    • What are the working conditions in the place of manufacture like?
  • 18. Use and disposal
    • How is the product used?
    • Will it have an impact on people’s lives or the environment?
    • How long will it last?
    • How will it be disposed of?
    • What factors may limit or lengthen the product life?
    • How easily can it be recycled?
    • Who would pay the cost of recycling?
  • 19. The impact of values issues on design and manufacture
    • Every human need is related to values.
    • For manufacturers needs are connected to wants – the market needs products.
    • Manufacturers fulfil these wants and needs to make a profit.
    • Manufacturers need to take account of values issues whilst making a profit.
  • 20. Environmental issues
    • Legislation requires companies to dispose of waste environmentally.
    • Designers need to start designing for recycling.
    • New products should be made from environmentally friendly processes.
  • 21. New materials
    • New and smart materials enable textiles to enhance performance, protect the wearer, allow people to wear electronics.
    • Do these new materials enhance lives?
    • At what cost?
    • Is fashion necessary?
  • 22. Genetic engineering
    • Why are some people unhappy about genetic engineering?
    • What are the long term effects of genetic engineering?
    • Do the benefits outweigh the disadvantages?
  • 23. Responsibilities of Developed Countries
    • We have already discussed global manufacturing.
    • There is pressure on companies to manufacture where costs are lower.
    • There are however impacts on people and the environment.
    • What are these issues?
  • 24. Issues
    • Setting up costs are big. Big companies get bigger, smaller ones fold. How can this be remedied? – Niche markets?
    • Offshore labour costs are lower but working conditions may be worse. Should manufacturers take on responsibility for health and safety?
    • Environmental issues can be created offshore. Rapid industrialisation may be adding to global warming. But, how can developed countries deny LEDC’s progess?
    • Who should pay the cost of clean technology?