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Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
Values Issues   Textiles
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Values Issues Textiles

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  • 1. Values Issues A2 Textiles
  • 2. What are values issues? <ul><li>Values issues have an impact on our lives and on the products that we use. </li></ul><ul><li>Values issues can be the driving force behind product development. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – legislation has been introduced about environmental issues – the need to follow this legislation has meant new products have been developed. </li></ul>
  • 3. Introduction <ul><li>We will look at: </li></ul><ul><li>Global market place </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, economic, environmental, ethical, moral, political and social issues. </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of values issues on design and manufacture. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities of developed countries. </li></ul>
  • 4. Global Market Place <ul><li>What is meant by the global market place? </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational companies who sell their products worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Name some products that are sold on the global market place? </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing, petrol, cars, electronics, finance, food, hotels. </li></ul><ul><li>What has enabled products to be sold worldwide? </li></ul><ul><li>Information and communication technology (ICT) </li></ul>
  • 5. The Impact of Electronic Communications on Global Manufacturing <ul><li>The high speed information revolution has enabled global marketing. What does this mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Fast electronic communication eg by internet, video conferencing. </li></ul><ul><li>How can companies bring the price of their products down and become competitive? </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce labour and materials costs. </li></ul><ul><li>How can they do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Outsource their manufacture to countries where labour costs are lower. </li></ul><ul><li>Name some countries? </li></ul><ul><li>North Africa and Asian countries. </li></ul><ul><li>How does electronic communication aid this process? </li></ul><ul><li>Products can be designed in one country then sent by email to the manufacturing country. </li></ul>
  • 6. Economic, Environmental, Moral, Political and Social Issues Related to Global Manufacturing <ul><li>Free trade and global marketing have a major impact on quality of life, employment and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Head offices of multinationals are located in MEDC’s (W Europe and N America). </li></ul><ul><li>Some multinationals are also based in NIC’s (Singapore, Korea, Taiwan). </li></ul><ul><li>LEDC’s are being used for manufacture. </li></ul>
  • 7. Drawbacks of Globalisation <ul><li>What do you think the negative side of the global marketplace is? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Low level skill jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Top jobs are for executives from MEDC. </li></ul><ul><li>Company profits go back to MEDC. </li></ul><ul><li>Multinationals cut corners on health and safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Political pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials are imported. </li></ul><ul><li>Goods are exported. </li></ul>
  • 8. Pros of Globalisation <ul><li>What are the good things about the global market place? </li></ul><ul><li>Employment and higher living standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved expertise of local workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign currency comes into the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Widens country’s economic base. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of new technology. </li></ul>
  • 9. Cultural, Economic, Environmental, Ethical, Moral, Political and Social Issues <ul><li>Designers need to consider the values of their target market. </li></ul><ul><li>For example what is fashionable this year won’t be next year. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers have to keep up with current and future trends relating to artistic, cultural and social influences. </li></ul><ul><li>They also have to understand how economic, political, ethical, moral and environmental issues impact on consumers. </li></ul>
  • 10. Cultural and Social Trends and Lifestyle Issues <ul><li>Fashion designers have to find out what cultural values, social values and lifestyles their target market have. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – Eastern culture may be in fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Socially people may want environmentally friendly garments. </li></ul><ul><li>People may have active lifestyles and need appropriate garments. </li></ul>
  • 11. Moral and Ethical Issues <ul><li>Fashion products that are morally and ethically acceptable in one country may be unacceptable in another. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of examples? </li></ul><ul><li>Fur products </li></ul><ul><li>Use of sweat shops </li></ul><ul><li>Garments that are short or have short sleeves (in muslim countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum wages. </li></ul>
  • 12. Offence <ul><li>Designers have to ensure products do not offend religions or cultural groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Is it morally acceptable to advertise glamorous clothing in countries where people are living in poverty? </li></ul><ul><li>IS it morally acceptable to create a demand for products that offend a religion? </li></ul>
  • 13. How to make value judgements <ul><li>A good way to judge the value is to ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be split into six areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Your response to the product </li></ul><ul><li>The need for the product </li></ul><ul><li>Design of the product </li></ul><ul><li>The product manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion and marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Use and disposal </li></ul>
  • 14. Your response to the product <ul><li>Do you want to touch or use it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is it intended for? </li></ul><ul><li>Why would they buy it? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like to own it? </li></ul><ul><li>What would this say about you? </li></ul>
  • 15. The need for the product <ul><li>Is the product needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose needs were identified to produce it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who benefits from the manufacture of the product? </li></ul><ul><li>How will they benefit? </li></ul>
  • 16. Design of the product <ul><li>Who made decisions about the design? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a choice of designs? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the design developed? </li></ul><ul><li>What influences had an impact on the design? </li></ul>
  • 17. The product manufacture <ul><li>What materials and components are used and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do the materials come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Will they run out? </li></ul><ul><li>What other resources are used to manufacture the product? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact could using these resources have on people or the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to any waste produced during manufacture? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills are needed? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the working conditions in the place of manufacture like? </li></ul>
  • 18. Use and disposal <ul><li>How is the product used? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it have an impact on people’s lives or the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>How long will it last? </li></ul><ul><li>How will it be disposed of? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors may limit or lengthen the product life? </li></ul><ul><li>How easily can it be recycled? </li></ul><ul><li>Who would pay the cost of recycling? </li></ul>
  • 19. The impact of values issues on design and manufacture <ul><li>Every human need is related to values. </li></ul><ul><li>For manufacturers needs are connected to wants – the market needs products. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers fulfil these wants and needs to make a profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers need to take account of values issues whilst making a profit. </li></ul>
  • 20. Environmental issues <ul><li>Legislation requires companies to dispose of waste environmentally. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers need to start designing for recycling. </li></ul><ul><li>New products should be made from environmentally friendly processes. </li></ul>
  • 21. New materials <ul><li>New and smart materials enable textiles to enhance performance, protect the wearer, allow people to wear electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>Do these new materials enhance lives? </li></ul><ul><li>At what cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Is fashion necessary? </li></ul>
  • 22. Genetic engineering <ul><li>Why are some people unhappy about genetic engineering? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the long term effects of genetic engineering? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the benefits outweigh the disadvantages? </li></ul>
  • 23. Responsibilities of Developed Countries <ul><li>We have already discussed global manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>There is pressure on companies to manufacture where costs are lower. </li></ul><ul><li>There are however impacts on people and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>What are these issues? </li></ul>
  • 24. Issues <ul><li>Setting up costs are big. Big companies get bigger, smaller ones fold. How can this be remedied? – Niche markets? </li></ul><ul><li>Offshore labour costs are lower but working conditions may be worse. Should manufacturers take on responsibility for health and safety? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues can be created offshore. Rapid industrialisation may be adding to global warming. But, how can developed countries deny LEDC’s progess? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should pay the cost of clean technology? </li></ul>

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