Value Chain Analysis WS 2004/2005 Ing. Carlos Torres
Termine <ul><li>12. Januar: Mapping Value Chains. Das Beispiel der Lachs-Industrie in Chile </li></ul><ul><li>19. Januar: ...
Index 17. Januar <ul><li>Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compu...
Governance <ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial </li></ul></ul>
Governance Source: Kaplinsky, 2000.
Upgrading <ul><ul><li>Product  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul...
Computer VC <ul><ul><li>’ 80  – 2 000: US$ 47 billion business Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster SMEs </li></ul></...
Computer VC Source: Kishimoto, 2003
Automobile VC <ul><ul><li>Internationalisierung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globale Zulieferer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Automobile VC OEM 1st tier Supplier 2nd tier Supplier 3th tier Supplier Technology Information
Automobile VC Source: Stephan, 1999. Consequence of changes in value-added strategies for the sourcing behaviour of OEMs
Apparel VC <ul><ul><li>Buyer-driven VC (Relational rents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retailers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul...
Apparel VC Source: Gereffi, 1999. Buyer-driven commodity chains
Apparel VC <ul><ul><li>Trends: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIEs exports to USA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inte...
Coffee VC <ul><li>Ende des Internationalen Kaffeeabkommens 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preisverfall (Lagerbestände, Eintrit...
Coffee VC Source: Schierenberg (2004), nach Talbot (1997).  Distribution of rents 1971-1995
Coffee VC <ul><li>Wachstumsrate der Produktion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Konsumwachstum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neue Konsum...
Coffee VC
Fresh Vegetables VC <ul><ul><li>Strategic sector for retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FFV are income elastic produ...
Fresh Vegetables VC <ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative: retailers (Regulatory authorities) ...
Source: Kaplinsky2000
Fresh Vegetables / Automobile components Source: Kaplinsky, 2000.
Fresh Vegetables / Automobile components Source: Kaplinsky, 2000
Mapping Value Chains <ul><ul><li>Literature Homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Hanbook for Value Chain Research </l...
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Value Chain Analysis

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  • Figures: Porter diamond Systemic competitiveness or figure nadvi/schmitz 1994 s.62 Primary, secondary value chain Salmon value chain Forest value Chain
  • Value Chain Analysis

    1. 1. Value Chain Analysis WS 2004/2005 Ing. Carlos Torres
    2. 2. Termine <ul><li>12. Januar: Mapping Value Chains. Das Beispiel der Lachs-Industrie in Chile </li></ul><ul><li>19. Januar: Verwendung von Konzepten zur Fallstudien </li></ul><ul><li>26. Januar: Gruppen Präsentationen </li></ul><ul><li>02. Februar: Wertschöpfungskette-Analyse als analytische Instrument </li></ul>
    3. 3. Index 17. Januar <ul><li>Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Industry Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automobile Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparel Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh Vegetables (Africa-UK) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparisons </li></ul>
    4. 4. Governance <ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Governance Source: Kaplinsky, 2000.
    6. 6. Upgrading <ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Computer VC <ul><ul><li>’ 80 – 2 000: US$ 47 billion business Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster SMEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>upgrading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore (higher share of output) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The initial stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The OEM stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ODM stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ODM / Global logistic stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producers of pc systems (FDI, OEM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontractors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buyer and traders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government agencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Computer VC Source: Kishimoto, 2003
    9. 9. Automobile VC <ul><ul><li>Internationalisierung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globale Zulieferer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendenz zur Konzentration (Hersteller) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernkompetenz und Outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gemeinsamen Plattformen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lean production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertikal Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernaktivitäten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design, Markenidentität </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motorenbau, Fahrzeugsicherheit </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Automobile VC OEM 1st tier Supplier 2nd tier Supplier 3th tier Supplier Technology Information
    11. 11. Automobile VC Source: Stephan, 1999. Consequence of changes in value-added strategies for the sourcing behaviour of OEMs
    12. 12. Apparel VC <ul><ul><li>Buyer-driven VC (Relational rents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retailers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branded marketers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branded apparel manufacturers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De-verticalization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-verticalization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangle Manufacturing (Asia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OEM -> ODM -> OBM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taiwan, South Korea, Hong-Kong (Mauritius) </li></ul></ul></ul>OEM model Assembly model
    13. 13. Apparel VC Source: Gereffi, 1999. Buyer-driven commodity chains
    14. 14. Apparel VC <ul><ul><li>Trends: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIEs exports to USA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-Asia trade (non-quota markets) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration (country) suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading possibilities for Mexico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power of Suppliers Networks </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Coffee VC <ul><li>Ende des Internationalen Kaffeeabkommens 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preisverfall (Lagerbestände, Eintritt Vietnams) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Überproduktion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>zunehmender Qualitätsverlust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ungleichverteilung von Gewinnen zu Gunsten der Konsumentenländer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starke Preisschwankung durch Spekulation </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Coffee VC Source: Schierenberg (2004), nach Talbot (1997). Distribution of rents 1971-1995
    17. 17. Coffee VC <ul><li>Wachstumsrate der Produktion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Konsumwachstum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neue Konsumgewohnheiten </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barrier to entry: Werbekosten </li></ul><ul><li>Machtkonzentration: Röster und Importeure/Händler </li></ul><ul><li>Marginalisierung der Zulieferern </li></ul><ul><li>Vertikale Integration internationaler Händler ohne Profitsteigerung </li></ul>
    18. 18. Coffee VC
    19. 19. Fresh Vegetables VC <ul><ul><li>Strategic sector for retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FFV are income elastic products (consumers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unbranded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographically bounded (climate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unskilled labour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before: arms-length relationships (price) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retailing Concentration (new success factors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wholesalers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Export agents or large producers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of new products </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Fresh Vegetables VC <ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative: retailers (Regulatory authorities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial: export agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive: exporters and category-mangers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Margins: 25% retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers to entry => commodity ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production ! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading Possibilities LDC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of new products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate production and logistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting local producers (income distribution) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Source: Kaplinsky2000
    22. 22. Fresh Vegetables / Automobile components Source: Kaplinsky, 2000.
    23. 23. Fresh Vegetables / Automobile components Source: Kaplinsky, 2000
    24. 24. Mapping Value Chains <ul><ul><li>Literature Homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Hanbook for Value Chain Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Kaplinsky, Raphael; Morris, Mike. 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How we define value chains and production networks? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Sturgeon, Timothy. WP MIT, 10, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Country Firms in the World Economy: Governance and Upgrading in Global Value Chains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Humphrey, John; Schmitz, Hubert. INEF, 61, 2002) </li></ul></ul></ul>
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