Understanding the governance of fashion production in the footwear industry  From a firm centred approach to the analysis ...
Technological Development and Research New Materials Machinery  and Equipment Industries Footwear components Labour  Marke...
ECCO Group - Industrial Organisation HQ -  Denmark Industrial strategy based upon Brand/ Product concept <ul><li>Multi-pla...
New Materials Labour  Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends...
AEROSOLES PORTUGAL Group - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Industrial strategy based upon Brand (license) /...
New Materials Labour  Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends...
Very small in-house department Dependent  and imitative strategies of creativity Fashion sources CAMPOR - Industrial Organ...
New Materials Labour  Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends...
1) Very small  in-house department; 2) Link to an Italian  Design Office (contract); 3) Partnership with a  Portuguese Des...
New Materials Labour  Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends...
Italian Stylist  Fashion sources J. SAMPAIO & IRMÃOS - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Industrial strategy ...
New Materials Labour  Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and design Fashion Trends...
Strong capacity of innovation  and creativity Fashion sources CALZEUS - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Ind...
New Materials Labour  Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends...
Knowledge   Governance in the footwear industry The fashion case Footwear  manufacturing Partnership  associations (strong...
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Understanding The Governance Of Fashion Production In The Footwear Industry

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Understanding The Governance Of Fashion Production In The Footwear Industry

  1. 1. Understanding the governance of fashion production in the footwear industry From a firm centred approach to the analysis of the innovation system of the footwear production
  2. 2. Technological Development and Research New Materials Machinery and Equipment Industries Footwear components Labour Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends Offices Designers/ Stylists Fashion Media Fashion Subsystem Manufacturing Subsystem Distribution networks and logistics Consumption Markets - Retailing networks Consumption Subsystem Social and cultural context Footwear Fashion Fairs Gatekeepers Footwear-Fashion Innovation System: Three main Subsystems and dominant connections: (What influences what in terms of fashion production?) Footwear Manufacturing
  3. 3. ECCO Group - Industrial Organisation HQ - Denmark Industrial strategy based upon Brand/ Product concept <ul><li>Multi-plant corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Part-process spatial structure of production </li></ul>ECCO’s Design Centre FUTURA (Denmark) Local and European fashion Atmosphere Fashion sources Components : ECCO Leather Research Development Centre (The Netherlands) Independent suppliers (Co-operation Agreements) Machinery Equipment: ECCO’s R&D activities Independent suppliers Strong Associations Other Subcontracting Indonesia ECCO’s factory (Tasks) Footwear production Thailand ECCO’s factory Portugal ECCO’s factory Slovakia ECCO’s factory <ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>ECCO retailing network </li></ul><ul><li>Big Retailers </li></ul><ul><li>Small Retailers </li></ul>
  4. 4. New Materials Labour Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends Offices Designers/ Stylists Fashion Media Fashion Subsystem Manufacturing Subsystem Consumption Markets - Retailing networks Social and cultural context Footwear Fashion Fairs Technological Development and Research Footwear components Distribution networks and logistics Machinery and Equipment Industries Own resources - very strong control Own resources - strong control Partnership Consumption Subsystem ECCO Group: Position within the footwear fashion innovation system (In which axes does the firm exercise any sort of control?) Machinery-Equipment Fairs Footwear Manufacturing Vertical Integration ( part process spatial structure )
  5. 5. AEROSOLES PORTUGAL Group - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Industrial strategy based upon Brand (license) / Product concept Ukraine (Subcontracting) Footwear production Poland (Subcontracting) Portugal ( AEROSOLES Grp. factories ) Portugal (Subcontracting) <ul><li>Multi-plant corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Strong national and international </li></ul><ul><li>subcontracting links </li></ul>Vietnam (Subcontracting) AEROSOLES Design Centre (Italy - Florence) Italian fashion Atmosphere Fashion sources Components : Joint Venture with an Italian company (soles) Independent suppliers Machinery Equipment: AEROSOLES R&D activities Independent suppliers <ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>AEROSOLES retailing network </li></ul><ul><li>Big Retailers - exclusive contracts </li></ul><ul><li>(UK, Germany) </li></ul>
  6. 6. New Materials Labour Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends Offices Designers/ Stylists Fashion Media Fashion Subsystem Manufacturing Subsystem Consumption Markets - Retailing networks Social and cultural context Footwear Fashion Fairs Technological Development and Research Footwear components Distribution networks and logistics Machinery and Equipment Industries Own resources - strong control Own resources - medium control Partnership Consumption Subsystem AEROSOLES PORTUGAL Group: Position within the footwear fashion innovation system (In which axes does the firm exercise any sort of control?) Machinery-Equipment Fairs Footwear Manufacturing Subcontracting (part process spatial structure
  7. 7. Very small in-house department Dependent and imitative strategies of creativity Fashion sources CAMPOR - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Industrial strategy based upon Brand (license) / Product concept Footwear production Portugal (Campor f actory ) Portugal (Subcontracting single tasks) <ul><li>single-plant enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>regional subcontracting links </li></ul>Components : Very dependent from independent suppliers Machinery Equipment: AEROSOLES R&D activities Independent suppliers <ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>national independent small and medium size retailers </li></ul><ul><li>European small and medium size retailers network </li></ul>
  8. 8. New Materials Labour Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends Offices Designers/ Stylists Fashion Media Fashion Subsystem Manufacturing Subsystem Consumption Markets - Retailing networks Consumption Subsystem Social and cultural context Footwear Fashion Fairs Technological Development and Research Footwear components Distribution networks and logistics Machinery and Equipment Industries CAMPOR: Position within the footwear fashion innovation system (In which axes does the firm exercise any sort of control?) Own resources - weak control Machinery-Equipment Fairs Footwear Manufacturing In-house production and subcontracting (single establishment)
  9. 9. 1) Very small in-house department; 2) Link to an Italian Design Office (contract); 3) Partnership with a Portuguese Designer Fashion sources EVEREST - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Industrial strategy based upon Quality of the product /comfort Footwear production Portugal (Everest f actory ) <ul><li>single-plant enterprise </li></ul>Very dependent from outside firm creativity Components : Very dependent from independent suppliers (mainly Italian suppliers) (Commercial contracts) Machinery Equipment: Dependent from Independent suppliers (Italy / England) (Commercial contracts) <ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>independent footwear shops (Portugal) </li></ul><ul><li>French medium size retailers network using private labels </li></ul>
  10. 10. New Materials Labour Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends Offices Designers/ Stylists Fashion Media Fashion Subsystem Manufacturing Subsystem Consumption Markets - Retailing networks Social and cultural context Footwear Fashion Fairs Technological Development and Research Footwear components Distribution networks and logistics Machinery and Equipment Industries EVEREST: Position within the footwear fashion innovation system (In which axes does the firm exercise any sort of control?) Own resources - weak control Consumption Subsystem Machinery-Equipment Fairs Footwear Manufacturing In-house production (no subcontracting) (single establishment)
  11. 11. Italian Stylist Fashion sources J. SAMPAIO & IRMÃOS - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Industrial strategy based upon Flexible system of production Footwear production Portugal (J. Sampaio f actory ) <ul><li>single-plant enterprise </li></ul>Portugal (Subcontracting - heavily dependent) Copy from others manufacturers (Imitative strategy ) + Components : Dependent from independent suppliers (Soles - Italian suppliers; Leather - Italian and Spanish suppliers) (Commercial contracts) Machinery Equipment: Dependent from Independent (Commercial contracts) <ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>(instability in the set k of clients) </li></ul><ul><li>own brands but also very dependent from producing to other brands (private labels of small and medium size retailers) </li></ul><ul><li>Big retailers </li></ul>
  12. 12. New Materials Labour Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and design Fashion Trends Offices Designers/ Stylists Fashion Media Fashion Subsystem Manufacturing Subsystem Consumption Markets - Retailing networks J. SAMPAIO & IRMÃOS: Position within the footwear fashion innovation system (In which axes does the firm exercise any sort of control?) Social and cultural context Footwear Fashion Fairs Technological Development and Research Footwear components Distribution networks and logistics Machinery and Equipment Industries Machinery-Equipment Fairs Consumption Subsystem Footwear Manufacturing In-house production and heavily dependent from subcontracting Own resources - weak control
  13. 13. Strong capacity of innovation and creativity Fashion sources CALZEUS - Industrial Organisation HQ - Northern Portugal Industrial strategy based upon design, branding, produt concept Footwear production (based on small batch production) Portugal (Calzeus f actory ) <ul><li>single-plant enterprise </li></ul>Portugal (Outsourced) Strong partnerships with independent Designers (Japan, England) Components : Dependent from independent suppliers (mainly Italian suppliers) (Commercial contracts) Machinery Equipment: Own R&D development Dependent from Independent (Commercial contracts) <ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>own retailing network (and franchisees), mostly in prime locations </li></ul><ul><li>multi-brand retailers </li></ul><ul><li>network of exclusive distributors </li></ul>
  14. 14. New Materials Labour Market Industrial Policies Colours and shape committees Schools of fashion and Design Fashion Trends Offices Designers/ Stylists Fashion Media Fashion Subsystem Manufacturing Subsystem Consumption Markets - Retailing networks Social and cultural context Footwear Fashion Fairs Technological Development and Research Footwear components Distribution networks and logistics Machinery and Equipment Industries Consumption Subsystem CALZEUS: Position within the footwear fashion innovation system (In which axes does the firm exercise any sort of control?) Machinery-Equipment Fairs Own resources - very strong control Own resources - strong control Own resources - medium control Footwear Manufacturing (Based on a very effective flexible system of production)
  15. 15. Knowledge Governance in the footwear industry The fashion case Footwear manufacturing Partnership associations (strong networking) Cost saving associations (weak networking) <ul><li>price, capacity to answer orders timely and </li></ul><ul><li>according to technological requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Local - very often </li></ul><ul><li>Low wage countries </li></ul><ul><li>Unskilled/ordinary tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric relations of power </li></ul><ul><li>(industrial, knowledge, technology) </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of innovate and development assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Non-local (inter-regional/national) </li></ul><ul><li>highly developed regions </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic phases/processes of production </li></ul><ul><li>(More) balanced relations of power </li></ul><ul><li>(industrial, knowledge, technology) </li></ul>In-house abilities ( competence, development, creativity ) <ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>networks </li></ul><ul><li>domination </li></ul><ul><li>Branding </li></ul>

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