Transitional Period Between Childhood

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Transitional Period Between Childhood

  1. 1. Chapter 11: Adolescence Dr. Arra PSY 232
  2. 2. Adolescence <ul><li>Adolescence: transitional period between childhood and adulthood (11-22) </li></ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (11-22) </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Infer </li></ul><ul><li>Deduce </li></ul><ul><li>Idealistic </li></ul>
  3. 3. Adolescence <ul><li>‘ Greenpeacers’ </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents tend to develop these skills in areas of knowledge depth, but not in all subject areas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Adolescence <ul><li>General Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Better able to attend then individuals in Middle Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Develop more strategies for solving problems in creative ways </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized knowledge increases </li></ul><ul><li>Development of metacognition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Adolescence <ul><li>Cognitive self-regulation improves </li></ul><ul><li>Processing speed increases </li></ul><ul><li>Processing capacity increases </li></ul>
  6. 6. Adolescence <ul><li>CONSEQUENCES OF ABSTRACT THOUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>Argumentativeness: can pool facts and ideas to build a case; not a pliable school-age child </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened self-consciousness and self-focusing (IA & PF) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adolescence <ul><li>David Elkind: Characteristics of Adolescent thought (IMMATURITY) </li></ul><ul><li>Idealistic, critical: find fault with the way adults are running world; believe they know a better way </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginary Audience: all eye’s on me </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Fable: their life is so special and unique </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive distortions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Adolescence <ul><li>Elkind </li></ul><ul><li>Indecisiveness: due to inexperience, adolescents lack strategies for choosing amongst alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent hypocrisy: adolescents have trouble between expressing ideals and living up to that ideal </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Meat is murder; wear leather shoes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Adolescence <ul><li>Planning and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Often feel overwhelmed by the possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to choose among alternatives is poor </li></ul><ul><li>May act on habit or impulse, or make no decision at all </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Because they have so many more opportunities then they did in Middle Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>As they gather more experience, they make choices with greater confidence </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adolescence <ul><li>Self-efficacy and Academic Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Self efficacy: students who think that they can master academic material and regulate their own learning are more likely to achieve academically then students who do not believe in their own abilities (Bandura) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Adolescence <ul><li>SELF EFFICACY AND ACADEMIC MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>Profile of a self-regulated learner </li></ul><ul><li>Set goals for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Implement strategies to achieve them </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Seek help when necessary </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adolescence <ul><li>Factors that strengthen children’s achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Parental beliefs/support </li></ul><ul><li>SES </li></ul><ul><li>Peer influence </li></ul><ul><li>Parent’s own perceived self efficacy </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adolescence <ul><li>USE OF TIME </li></ul><ul><li>How well adolescents use their time effects academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Extracurricular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Household chores </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Time spent with friends </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adolescence <ul><li>LEARNING IN SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>School transitions can create adjustment problems </li></ul><ul><li>Academic and behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>What have schools done to ease the transitions? </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents with strains such as family disruptions and parental unemployment are at the greatest risk for behavioral, emotional, and academic problems </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adolescence <ul><li>LEARNING IN SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>Consider effects of different parenting styles on learning/achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Parent/school partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time work, no more than 15 hrs./wk., can develop negative work ethics </li></ul>
  16. 16. Adolescence <ul><li>DROPPING OUT </li></ul><ul><li>Rate is 11% in U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Rate is particularly high among low SES youths </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Lower literacy rates </li></ul><ul><li>Lack skills valued by employers </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to low employment rates </li></ul><ul><li>End up in menial, low paying jobs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adolescence <ul><li>PREVENTION STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>(at-risk, marginal students) </li></ul><ul><li>High quality vocational training </li></ul><ul><li>Remedial instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in extracurricular activities – draws students into the community life of the school </li></ul>

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